Military Textiles Edited by Eugene Wilusz

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Military Textiles
Edited by Eugene Wilusz
Military Textiles

Contents
Contributor contact details xi
Woodhead Publishing in Textiles xv
Introduction xxi

Part I General requirements for military textiles 1
1 Future soldier requirements: Dealing with complexity 3
E. Sparks, Cranfi eld University, UK
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 The current and future challenges faced by the soldier 5
1.3 Dynamic complexity: The impact of the human 9
1.4 Provision of capability and how to make trade-off decisions 11
1.5 Summary 14
1.6 References 15
2 Non-woven fabrics for military applications 17
G. A. Thomas, Auburn University, USA
2.1 Introduction 17
2.2 Protective materials, devices and end-use requirements 23
2.3 Proper selection of fi bers 26
2.4 Variations of fi ber forms 29
2.5 Filament lay-up composites 39
2.6 Historical uses of non-woven ballistic-resistant fabrics 42
2.7 Methodologies for use of non-woven ballisticresistant fabrics 43
2.8 Future directions for non-woven fabric applications 47
2.9 References 48
3 Mechanical failure criteria for textiles and textile damage resistance 50
N. Pan, University of California, USA
3.1 Introduction: Material resistance, strength and failure 50
3.2 Material strengths 51
3.3 The peculiarities of textile mechanics 54
3.4 Failure criteria for fabrics 56
3.5 Other forms of failure for fabrics and garments 62
3.6 Fabric and garment failure reduction 65
3.7 References 67
4 The sensory properties and comfort of military fabrics and clothing 71
A. V. Cardello, US Army Natick Soldier Research,
Development and Engineering Center, USA
4.1 Introduction 71
4.2 The sensory and perceptual properties of
fabrics and clothing 74
4.3 The comfort properties of fabrics and clothing 76
4.4 Cognitive infl uences on fabrics and clothing 81
4.5 Handfeel and comfort evaluations of military fabrics 82
4.6 Cognitive infl uences on fabric and clothing perception 94
4.7 The role of clothing comfort on military performance 100
4.8 Conclusions 103
4.9 Acknowledgment 103
4.10 References 103
5 Testing and analyzing comfort properties of textile materials for the military 107
F. S. Kilinc-Balci and Y. Elmogahzy,
Auburn University, USA
5.1 Introduction 107
5.2 The multiplicity of characterization methodologies of comfort 108
5.3 The trade-off between protection and comfort 111
5.4 The comfort trilobite: Tactile, thermal, and psychological 111
5.5 Modeling the comfort phenomena:
The ultimate challenge 123
5.6 Comfort and protection in military clothing 130
5.7 Multiple-layer systems 133
5.8 Future trends 133
5.9 References 135
5.10 Bibliography 136
6 Sweat management for military applications 137
N. Pan, University of California, USA
6.1 Introduction: Body/clothing/environment – the microclimate 137
6.2 Heat, moisture and interactions within the microclimate 140
6.3 Heat and moisture interactions in the microclimate 146
6.4 Sweat management for military apparel applications 149
6.5 Conclusions 154
6.6 References 155
7 Cold-weather clothing 158
C. Thwaites, W. L. Gore and Associates UK Ltd, UK
7.1 Introduction 158
7.2 Cold weather 159
7.3 Physiological responses to cold 159
7.4 Clothing design principles 162
7.5 Estimation of the clothing insulation required 165
7.6 Evaluation system for textiles and garments 167
7.7 Selection of clothing for cold weather 169
7.8 Sources of further information and advice 178
7.9 References 179
8 Designing military uniforms with
high-tech materials 183
C. A. Gomes, Foster-Miller, Inc., USA
8.1 Introduction 183
8.2 Design process 184
8.3 Features of military uniforms 185
8.4 Physiological monitoring 185
8.5 Thermal management 186
8.6 Signature management 191
8.7 Chemical and biological defense management 194
8.8 Flame resistance 196
8.9 Environmental defense 196
8.10 Body armor 197
8.11 Future trends 198
8.12 Sources of further information and advice 201
8.13 References 202

Part II Protection 205
9 High-performance ballistic fi bers 207
T. Tam and A. Bhatnagar, Honeywell
International Inc., USA
9.1 Introduction 207
9.2 Classical high-performance fi bers 207
9.3 Rigid chain aromatic high-performance fi bers 208
9.4 High-temperature performance fi bers 209
9.5 High-performance thermoplastic fi bers 210
9.6 Physical properties comparison 211
9.7 Requirements for high-performance fi bers 211
9.8 Aramid fi bers 213
9.9 Gel spinning of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (HMPE) fi ber 219
9.10 Poly(p-phenylenebenzobisoxazole) (PBO) fi ber 224
9.11 Sources of further information and advice 227
9.12 References 227
10 Ballistics testing of textile materials 229
D. R. Dunn, H. P. White Laboratory, Inc., USA
10.1 Introduction 229
10.2 Military usage of textiles 229
10.3 Armor testing 231
10.4 Ballistic limit (V50) testing 235
10.5 Residual velocity testing 237
10.6 Ballistic resistance testing 237
10.7 Blunt trauma (back-face deformation) testing 238
Appendix 10.1: US military standards for armoring
materials and commodities 240
Appendix 10.2: Glossary 240
11 Chemical and biological protection 242
Q. Truong and E. Wilusz, US Army Natick Soldier
Research, Development and Engineering Center, USA
11.1 Introduction 242
11.2 Current chemical/biological (CB) protective
clothing and individual equipment standards 246
11.3 Different types of protective materials 249
11.4 Proper protective material designs 253
11.5 Clothing system designs 256
11.6 Testing and evaluation of chemical/biological (CB) protective materials and clothing systems 258
11.7 Future trends 267
11.8 Acknowledgments 268
11.9 References 268
Appendix 11.1: Chemical warfare agent characteristics 271
Appendix 11.2: Selected biological agent characteristics 274
Appendix 11.3: Protective gloves and shoes 277
Appendix 11.4: Overgarment and other chemical
protective clothing systems 278
Appendix 11.5: Improved toxicological agent
protective ensemble (ITAP), self-contained, toxic,
environment protective outfi t (STEPO) and other
selected civilian emergency response clothing systems 279
Appendix 11.6: Selected toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) 280
12 Self-decontaminating materials for chemical biological protective clothing 281
G. Sun, University of California, USA and
S. D. Worley and R. M. Broughton Jr, Auburn University, USA
12.1 Introduction 281
12.2 Self-decontaminating materials 282
12.3 Applications 284
12.4 Future trends 290
12.5 Summary 291
12.6 Acknowledgments 291
12.7 References 291
13 Camoufl age fabrics for military protective clothing 293
P. Sudhakar and N. Gobi, K. S. Rangasamy
College of Technology, India and M. Senthilkumar,
PSG Polytechnic College, India
13.1 Introduction 293
13.2 Methods for production of camoufl age textiles 295
13.3 Chromic materials 296
13.4 Identifi cation of chromophores 300
13.5 Synthesis of new polymers 301
13.6 Synthesis of monomeric and oligomeric chromophores 305
13.7 Conductive/conjugated polymers 305
13.8 Emissive polymers 312
13.9 Surface attachment of chromophores to conducting polymers 314
13.10 Processing of electrically conducting polymers 315
13.11 Assembling of gold nanoparticles 317
13.12 Conclusions 318
13.13 Acknowledgment 318
13.14 References 318
14 New developments in coatings and fi bers for military applications 319
P. Sudhakar, S. Krishnaramesh and
D. Brightlivingstone, K. S. Rangasamy
College of Technology, India
14.1 Introduction 319
14.2 Chemical agent resistant coatings 319
14.3 Infl uence of environmental regulations 321
14.4 Water-reducible, two-component polyurethane, chemical agent-resistant coating (CARC) topcoat 322
14.5 Contribution of binders and pigments 322
14.6 Functional garments for soldiers 323
14.7 New-generation fi bers for military applications 324
14.8 Acknowledgment 324
14.9 References 325
14.10 Bibliography 325
15 Military fabrics for fl ame protection 326
C. Winterhalter, US Army Natick Soldier Research,
Development and Engineering Center, USA
15.1 Introduction 326
15.2 Types of fabrics and their performance 327
15.3 Measuring fl ame and thermal performance 331
15.4 Clothing system confi gurations and their performance 332
15.5 Future trends 340
15.6 References 343
Index 346

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