Recycling in Textiles Edited by Youjiang Wang

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Recycling in Textiles
Edited by Youjiang Wang
Recycling in Textiles

Contents
Contributor contact details ix
1 Introduction 1
Y. WANG, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA

Part I General textile recycling issues and technology
2 Textile recycling: a system perspective 7
J. M. HAWLEY, University of Missouri, USA
2.1 Introduction 7
2.2 Systems theory 8
2.3 Understanding the textile and apparel recycling process 8
2.4 Textile recycling companies 10
2.5 The sorting process 12
2.6 The pyramid model 13
2.7 Textile recycling constituents 18
2.8 Discussion and future trends 22
2.9 References 23
3 Designing textile products that are easy to recycle 25
B. GULICH, Saxon Textile Research Institute, Germany
3.1 History 25
3.2 Product responsibility 26
3.3 Current situation in Germany 26
3.4 Basic methods 27
3.5 Examples 29
3.6 Conclusions 36
3.7 References 36
4 Carpet stewardship in the United States – 38 a commitment to sustainability
R. PEOPLES, The Carpet and Rug Institute and
Carpet America Recovery Effort, USA
4.1 Introduction 38
4.2 Carpet industry environmental stewardship 39
4.3 Carpet recycling – early efforts 40
4.4 The Carpet America Recovery Effort 41
4.5 Creating a new industry – material flows 42
4.6 The role of non-carpet products in carpet recycling 44
4.7 Conclusions 44
4.8 Future trends in the USA 45
5 Systems planning for carpet recycling 46
M. REALFF, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA
5.1 Introduction 46
5.2 The need for strategic systems planning 46
5.3 Previous system issues 47
5.4 The estimation of carpet recycling volumes 49
5.5 Initial collection schemes 50
5.6 The alternative structures for consolidating and 52 sorting of carpet
5.7 Case studies 55
5.8 Discussion 55
5.9 Conclusions and future trends 56
5.10 References 57
6 Carpet recycling technologies 58
Y. WANG, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA
6.1 Introduction 58
6.2 Fiber identification and sorting 60
6.3 Size reduction 61
6.4 Mechanical separation of carpet components 61
6.5 Solvent extraction of nylon from carpet 62
6.6 Depolymerization of nylon 63
6.7 Melt processing 64
6.8 Use of waste fibers as reinforcement in polymer composites 65
6.9 Waste to energy conversion 66
6.10 Conclusions 67
6.11 References 67
Part II Chemical aspects in textile recycling
7 Recycling waste water from textile production 73
R. SCHNEIDER, Institute for Textile Chemistry and Chemical Fibres, Germany
7.1 Introduction 73
7.2 System analysis 73
7.3 Optimization of processes for water recycling 77
7.4 Direct re-use of waste water 83
7.5 Waste water treatments and water recycling with 85 membrane technology
7.6 Re-use of reclaimed/recycled water 88
7.7 Future trends 90
7.8 Sources of further information 91
7.9 References 92
8 Recycling and re-use of textile chemicals 95
G. BUSCHLE-DILLER, Auburn University, USA
8.1 Introduction 95
8.2 Fabric preparation processes 97
8.3 Dyeing and printing processes 101
8.4 Recycling of finishing compounds 107
8.5 Waste minimization at source 108
8.6 Conclusions 110
8.7 References 110

Part III Recycled textile products
9 Development of products made of 117 reclaimed fibres
B. GULICH, Saxon Textile Research Institute, Germany
9.1 Reclaimed fibres as raw materials 117
9.2 Characteristics of reclaimed fibres 118
9.3 Products and markets 119
9.4 Examples developed by the STFI 125
9.5 Other examples 133
9.6 Future trends 135
9.7 References 136
10 Manufacturing nonwovens and other products 137 using recycled fibers containing spandex
K. D. LANGLEY and Y. K. KIM, University of Massachusetts
Dartmouth, USA
10.1 Introduction 137
10.2 Spandex 137
10.3 Review of recycling 141
10.4 Evaluation and characterization of the remnant material 142
10.5 Fiber separation trial at recycling plant 143
10.6 Laboratory-scale processing of the recycled material 143
10.7 Chemical treatment of the raw material 145
10.8 Mechanical processing of the chemically treated samples 146
10.9 Types of nonwovens 148
10.10 Markets for needle-punched fabrics 149
10.11 Experiments in production of nonwoven samples 152
10.12 Flocking study 154
10.13 Oil absorption with fibrous waste 160
10.14 Conclusions 161
10.15 Acknowledgments 162
10.16 References 162
11 Textile products produced from alternative fibers 165
B. R. GEORGE, A. BOCKARIE and H. MCBRIDE,
Philadelphia University, USA, A. EVAZYNAJAD, Gudebrod
Inc., USA, N. BIEAK, Auburn University, USA
11.1 Introduction 165
11.2 Experimental procedures 168
11.3 Results and discussion 172
11.4 Conclusions 178
11.5 References 178

Part IV Applications of recycled textiles
12 Recycling of textiles used in the operating theatre 183
M. J. ABREU and M. E. SILVA, University of Minho,
Portugal, L. SCHACHER and D. ADOLPHE, Ecole Nationale
Supérieure des Industries Textiles de Mulhouse, France
12.1 Introduction 183
12.2 Directives 184
12.3 Standards 184
12.4 Products 185
12.5 Materials 187
12.6 Properties required 189
12.7 Market 193
12.8 Environmental aspects 195
12.9 Waste management 197
12.10 Future trends 200
12.11 Conclusions 200
12.12 References 201
12.13 Further reading 202
13 Composite products from post-consumer carpet 203
J. MUZZY, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA
13.1 Introduction 203
13.2 Separating carpet 203
13.3 Composites from sorted carpet 204
13.4 Wood fiber reinforced composites 207
13.5 Products from reinforced post-consumer carpet 209
13.6 Conclusions 212
13.7 Acknowledgements 212
13.8 References 212
14 Utilization of recycled carpet waste fibers for 213 reinforcement of concrete and soil
Y. WANG, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA
14.1 Introduction 213
14.2 Fiber reinforced concrete 214
14.3 Recycled fiber reinforced concrete 214
14.4 Fiber reinforced soil 218
14.5 Recycled fiber reinforced soil 220
14.6 Conclusions 222
14.7 References 223
Index 225

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