Sizing in Clothing: Developing Effective Sizing Systems for Ready-to-Wear Clothing

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Sizing in Clothing: Developing Effective Sizing Systems for Ready-to-Wear Clothing
Edited by S.P. Ashdown
Sizing in Clothing

Contents
Contributor contact details xi
Preface xvii
1 History of sizing systems and ready-to-wear garments 1
W. Aldrich, Nottingham Trent University, UK
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 The emergence of sizing systems 2
1.3 The beginning of systematic pattern construction and sizing 6
1.4 The impact of fashion on the development of standard sizing for women’s ready-to-wear garments 21
1.5 Methods of sizing for the emerging mass production of clothing for men 33
1.6 Sizing for the mass production of clothing in the fi rst half of the twentieth century 38
1.7 Sizing for the mass production of clothing in the second half of the twentieth century 43
1.8 Reflection 48
1.9 Further reading 48
1.10 References 48
2 Creating sizing systems 57
A. Petrova, Cornell University, USA
2.1 Introduction 57
2.2 Basis of existing international sizing systems: state of sizing systems in the industry and unifi cation of sizing 60
2.3 Proposed methods for creating sizing systems 63
2.4 Changing and adjusting sizing systems 80
2.5 Future trends 83
2.6 Sources of further information and advice 84
2.7 References 84
3 Sizing standardization 88
K.L. LaBat, University of Minnesota, USA
3.1 Introduction 88
3.2 Standardization of sizes 91
3.3 Standardization of size designations 98
3.4 International sizing standards 100
3.5 Future trends 102
3.6 Sources of further information and advice 103
3.7 References 104
4 Sizing systems, fi t models and target markets 108
J. Bougourd, University of the Arts London, UK
4.1 Introduction 108
4.2 The apparel product development and production processes 108
4.3 Marketing 109
4.4 A priori segmentation 114
4.5 A posteriori segmentation 126
4.6 Target marketing 129
4.7 Fit models 130
4.8 Fitting futures 143
4.9 References 146
5 Pattern grading 152
N.A. Schofi eld, University of Wisconsin–Stout, USA
5.1 Introduction 152
5.2 Historical background 153
5.3 Grading process 157
5.4 Examination of the relationship between grade rules and associated body measurements 171
5.5 Grading assumptions that are the actual basis for grade rules 179
5.6 Comparison of standard graded bodice with regression findings 184
5.7 Goals of grading 189
5.8 Conclusions and implications 192
5.9 Future trends and possibilities 194
5.10 Sources of further information and advice 197
5.11 References 198
6 Function, fi t and sizing 202
H. Daanen and P. Reffeltrath, TNO Defence,
Security and Safety, The Netherlands
6.1 Introduction 202
6.2 Human performance in clothing systems 203
6.3 Fit 206
6.4 Thermal aspects of fi t 214
6.5 Conclusions 217
6.6 Sources of further information and advice 217
6.7 Acknowledgements 218
6.8 References 218
7 Communication of sizing and fi t 220
J. Chun, Yonsei University, South Korea
7.1 Introduction 220
7.2 Communications from manufacturer to consumer 221
7.3 Communications from consumer to manufacturer 233
7.4 Impact of new technologies 238
7.5 Future trends 239
7.6 Sources of further information and advice 240
7.7 References 243
8 Mass customization and sizing 246
S. Loker, Cornell University, USA
8.1 Introduction 246
8.2 Strategies and technologies for mass-customized sizing 249
8.3 Body measurement selection and application 256
8.4 Future trends 258
8.5 Sources of further information and advice 260
8.6 References 262
9 Materials and sizing 264
D. Branson and J. Nam, Oklahoma State University, USA
9.1 Introduction 264
9.2 Fit judgment framework 265
9.3 Non-stretch materials 267
9.4 Stretch materials 268
9.5 Effect of material properties on fi t and sizing 270
9.6 Fit assessment 272
9.7 Future trends 273
9.8 Sources of further information and advice 275
9.9 References 275
10 Sizing for the military 277
W. Todd, Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division, USA
10.1 Introduction 277
10.2 Fit and sizing for protection of the military wearer for the mission threat 278
10.3 Military sizing systems 289
10.4 Sizing for military populations 292
10.5 Getting the right size at the right time and right place 296
10.6 Future trends 301
10.7 Acknowledgements 303
10.8 Sources of further information and advice 303
10.9 References 305
11 Sizing and clothing aesthetics 309
Van Dyk Lewis, Cornell University, USA
11.1 Introduction 309
11.2 Fashion 309
11.3 Size and scale 310
11.4 Fit, size and re-forming the body 313
11.5 Size as a spectacle 314
11.6 Menswear and scale 316
11.7 The perfect body 319
11.8 Beauty, the individual and the fashion image 320
11.9 Conclusions 325
11.10 References 326
12 Sizing for the home sewing industry 328
S. Ashdown, L.M. Lyman-Clarke and P. Palmer,
Cornell University, USA
12.1 Introduction 328
12.2 The development of the home sewing pattern industry 329
12.3 The development of sizing for the home sewing pattern 332
12.4 Measurements and sizes of paper patterns 335
12.5 Altering patterns to fi t 342
12.6 Summary and future trends 343
12.7 Sources of further information and advice 345
12.8 References 346
13 Production systems, garment specification and sizing 348
S. Ashdown, L.M. Lyman-Clarke, J. Smith and S. Loker,
Cornell University, USA
13.1 Introduction 348
13.2 Quality control and specifi cations 349
13.3 Preproduction: design and pattern making 350
13.4 Preproduction: prototypes and development of size specifications 353
13.5 Preproduction: fabric testing and approval 354
13.6 Preproduction: marker making 356
13.7 Spreading 358
13.8 Cutting and bundling 360
13.9 Interfacings and sewing 362
13.10 Finishing and labeling 366
13.11 Prevention of errors 367
13.12 Distribution 368
13.13 Future developments 370
13.14 Sources of further information and advice 372
13.15 Acknowledgements 374
13.16 References 374
Index 377

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