Smart Textile Coatings and Laminates Edited by William C. Smith

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Smart Textile Coatings and Laminates
Edited by William C. Smith
Smart Textile Coatings and Laminates

Contents
Contributor contact details ix
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles xi

Part I Fundamentals of textile coatings and laminates 1
1 Overview of textile coating and lamination 3
W. C. Smith, Industrial Textile Associates, USA
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Industry basics 5
1.3 Applications 7
1.4 Conclusions 9
2 Coating and laminating processes and techniques for textiles 10
E. Shim, North Carolina State University, USA
2.1 Introduction: basic principles of coating and laminating processes 10
2.2 Preparation for coating and lamination 15
2.3 Coating methods 19
2.4 Lamination methods 33
2.5 Conclusions 37
2.6 References 38
3 Base fabrics and their interaction in coated fabrics 42
S. Farboodmanesh and J. Chen, University of
Massachusetts Lowell, USA, Z. Tao, Abiomed Inc., USA,
J. Mead, University of Massachusetts Lowell, USA,
H. Zhang, Delphi Corporation, USA
3.1 Introduction 42
3.2 Methods of characterization of base fabric and coated fabric properties 45
3.3 Materials and experimental setup for parametric studies 56
3.4 Effect of weave pattern 61
3.5 Effect of fi ll yarn size 67
3.6 Effect of coating thickness and penetration on shear behavior 74
3.7 Modeling of coated fabric behavior 82
3.8 Summary and sources of further information and advice 90
3.9 References 91
4 Testing heat and mass transfer through membranes and coatings for textiles 95
M. Weder, R. Rossi and D. Crespy, EMPA, Switzerland
4.1 Introduction: basic equations of heat and mass transfer 95
4.2 Testing heat transfer 100
4.3 Testing mass transfer 101
4.4 Coupled heat and mass transfer testing 112
4.5 Future trends 117
4.6 Conclusions 117
4.7 Standards 118
4.8 References 120

Part II Smart and intelligent coatings and laminates for textiles 123
5 Microencapsulation technology for coating and lamination of textiles 125
R. Meirowitz, RND Technical Solutions Inc., USA
5.1 Introduction 125
5.2 History of microencapsulation 126
5.3 General benefi ts of microencapsulation 126
5.4 Types of microcapsule 127
5.5 Techniques of microencapsulation 128
5.6 Release behavior 132
5.7 Main uses of microcapsules in coatings and laminates 136
5.8 Applications of microcapsules in textiles 143
5.9 Sources of further information and advice 149
5.10 References 150
6 Conductive coatings for textiles 155
L. Wang, RMIT University, Australia, and X. Wang and
T. Lin, Deakin University, Australia
6.1 Introduction 155
6.2 Methods for imparting conductivity on textiles 157
6.3 Main types of conductive coating 158
6.4 Principles and procedures of conducting polymer coating 161
6.5 Substrates for conductive coating 166
6.6 Testing of conductive coatings 167
6.7 Properties of conducting polymer coated textiles 171
6.8 Applications of conductive textiles 179
6.9 Conclusions 183
6.10 References 184
7 Intelligent breathable coatings and laminates for textile applications 189
M. Jassal and A. K. Agrawal, Indian Institute of
Technology, India
7.1 Introduction: breathable textiles 189
7.2 Methods of making breathable textiles 190
7.3 Hydrophilic breathable coatings 191
7.4 Smart temperature responsive breathable coatings for textile structures 204
7.5 References 219
8 Shape memory polymers in coatings and laminates for textiles 222
J. Hu and H. Zhuo, The Hong Kong Polytechnic
University, China
8.1 Introduction to shape memory polymers 222
8.2 Temperature-sensitive shape memory polymer coatings and laminates 227
8.3 Applications of shape memory polymer coatings and laminates 229
8.4 Future trends 232
8.5 References 233
9 Phase change materials and their application in coatings and laminates for textiles 236
B. Pause, Textile Testing and Innovation LLC, USA
9.1 Introduction 236
9.2 Phase change materials 237
9.3 Textile coatings and laminates with phase change material treatment 238
9.4 Thermal effects 240
9.5 Determination of the thermal effects 242
9.6 Applications of textile coatings and laminates with phase change materials 244
9.7 Sources of further information and advice 248
9.8 References 249
10 Nanotechnology-based advanced coatings and functional fi nishes for textiles 251
Y. K. Kim, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, USA
10.1 Introduction 251
10.2 Principles of nanotechnologies for nanocoating, surface fi nishing and laminates 252
10.3 Nanotechnology applications in textile structures and functional coatings and fi nishes 260
10.4 Sources of further information and advice 262
10.5 References 262
11 Smart flame retardant textile coatings and laminates 264
A. R. Horrocks, University of Bolton, UK
11.1 Introduction: general requirements and properties of fi re retardant coatings 264
11.2 Main types of fi re retardant/resistant coatings and laminates 265
11.3 Increasing fl ame retardant coating smartness 274
11.4 Truly smart fl ame retardant coatings and laminates and future trends 289
11.5 References 290
Index 295

Overview of textile coating and lamination
W. C. SMITH, Industrial Textile Associates, USA

Abstract: Coating and laminating (C/L) of fabrics and textiles in all forms are techniques and fi nishes used in virtually every segment of industry and our lives. Most C/L fabrics are passive, providing a specifi c function or aesthetic value. By applying some of the latest technology, materials have become ‘smart’ or ‘intelligent’, with fi nishes that also allow materials to react to outside stimuli to do such things as conduct electricity, change color, warm/cool, give off chemicals or medicines, or perform some other special function. Such materials promise a bright future for the global C/L industry.

Key words: coated fabrics, smart/intelligent textiles, C/L applications, C/L growth issues, C/L techniques, C/L defi nitions.

1.1 Introduction
This is a book of potential, a book of ‘what is to come’, a book to stimulate your thinking. The chapters in this book present some basics of what is involved in smart/intelligent coatings and laminates, but more often you will fi nd technical information on developments and research in coating/laminating and fabric technology, provided to stimulate ideas of what can be done. New ideas and new products are being developed rapidly; research is ongoing, many products are being developed with special properties allowing them to ‘do something’ rather than just look good or have good physical properties.

When people fi rst found out they could smear animal grease onto a skin or grass-cloth and make it more waterproof, the coated fabrics industry was born. Later, we fi nd other materials such as natural latex were used, beginning a never-ending search for better products and performance. We have been putting something on fabrics ever since to look nice, repel water or other liquids, protect from chemicals and heat/fi re, to hold gases, and a huge variety of other applications and reasons. Coating and laminating have evolved substantially into a multi-billion dollar industry (actually industries), using coatings and laminates to improve the performance of fabrics, to make new forms of materials possible/practical, to provide aesthetics and/or decorate materials, providing working surfaces, or to replace other types of materials (i.e. leather). Some products are luxurious, some as ‘working’ materials or of a highly technical nature, many components of other products, machines, equipment, or systems. Coated and laminated fabrics touch virtually every segment of our lives, quite frequently not seen, are taken for granted and not given much thought.


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