Textiles for Protection Edited by Richard A. Scott

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Textiles for Protection
Edited by Richard A. Scott
Textiles for Protection

Contents
Contributor contact details xv
Introduction xxi
R A SCOTT, RASCOTEX, UK

Part I Materials and design
1 Overview of protective clothing 3
W ZHOU, N REDDY and Y YANG, University of Nebraska ±
Lincoln, USA
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Market prospects 3
1.3 Classification 5
1.4 Materials and technologies 15
1.5 Future of personal protection 22
1.6 References 25
2 Standards for protective textiles 31
J HAASE, STFI, Germany
2.1 Introduction 31
2.2 Requirements 35
2.3 International standards 42
2.4 Certification 45
2.5 Future trends 53
2.6 Sources of further information and advice 55
2.7 References 58
3 Fashion and function ± factors affecting the design and use of protective clothing 31
S BL A C K , V KA P S A L I , J BO U G O U R D and F GE E S I N ,
London College of Fashion, UK
3.1 Introduction 31
3.2 Factors influencing the design development process 32
3.3 Clothing systems and functionality 73
3.4 Reconciling fashion and function 81
3.5 Future trends 85
3.6 Sources of further information 88
3.7 References 88
4 Steps in the selection of protective clothing materials 90
A S H AW, University of Maryland Eastern Shore, USA
4.1 Introduction 90
4.2 Assess hazards 92
4.3 Identify relevant standards, specifications or guidelines 94
4.4 Screen materials based on protection performance 96
4.5 Selection of materials based on other major factors 106
4.6 Future trends 109
4.7 Sources of further information and advice 114
4.8 References 115
5 Fibres and fabrics for protective textiles 117
J W S HE A R L E , Consultant, UK
5.1 Introduction 117
5.2 More extensible fibres 120
5.3 Carbon fibres 124
5.4 Aramid and related fibres 126
5.5 High-modulus polyethylene 129
5.6 PBO and M5 130
5.7 Inorganic fibres 131
5.8 Resistant polymer fibres 133
5.9 Nano-fibres 137
5.10 Fibres to fabrics 140
5.11 References 147
6 Technical textiles for protection 151
P P O T L U R I and P NE E D H AM, University of Manchester, UK
6.1 Introduction 151
6.2 Technical textiles 151
6.3 Types of hazards 164
6.4 Mechanical hazards 165
6.5 Pressure hazards 168
6.6 Environmental and fire hazards 169
6.7 Chemical and biological hazards 169
6.8 Electrical and radiation hazards 172
6.9 Future trends 173
6.10 References 173
7 Intelligent textiles for protection 176
L VA N L A N G E N H O V E , R P U E R S and D MA T T H Y S ,
University of Ghent, Belgium
7.1 Introduction 176
7.2 Applications of smart textiles for protective purposes 178
7.3 Sensor function 180
7.4 Data processing 185
7.5 Actuators 185
7.6 Energy 188
7.7 Communication 188
7.8 Thermal protection 190
7.9 Electric actuation 193
7.10 A story on impact protection 193
7.11 References 193
8 Surface treatments for protective textiles 196
R BU C K L E Y , Eastgate Consulting, UK
8.1 Introduction 196
8.2 Types of surface treatment 196
8.3 Early treatments for protective textiles 197
8.4 Progression to modern treatments 198
8.5 Choice of treatments in relation to fibre and fabric types 199
8.6 Treatment process fundamentals 201
8.7 Treatment application systems 207
8.8 Brief overview of finishes for protection 209
8.9 Future trends 214
8.10 References 215
9 Evaluation of protective clothing systems using manikins 217
E A MCCU L L O U G H , Kansas State University, USA
9.1 Introduction 217
9.2 Thermal manikins 218
9.3 Measuring the insulation of protective clothing systems 220
9.4 Measuring the evaporative resistance of protective clothing systems 223
9.5 Ensemble data 225
9.6 Moving manikins 225
9.7 Manikin tests vs. fabric tests 229
9.8 Using manikins under transient conditions 230
9.9 Conclusions 230
9.10 References 230
10 Interactions between protection and thermal comfort 233
R RO S S I , EMPA, Switzerland
10.1 Introduction 233
10.2 Definition of comfort 233
10.3 Test methods for heat and moisture transfer 238
10.4 Measurement of thermal comfort with practice-related tests ± interactions between heat and mass transfer 244
10.5 Moisture storage and influences on protection 248
10.6 Future trends 251
10.7 References 253
11 Modeling thermal burn injury protection 261
G S O N G , University of Alberta, Canada
11.1 Introduction 261
11.2 Thermal hazard and lab simulation 264
11.3 Modeling heat transfer in protective fabrics 267
11.4 Heat transfer models 268
11.5 Modeling thermal degradation in fabrics 271
11.6 Skin heat transfer model and burn evaluation 272
11.7 Manikin fire heat test model development 276
11.8 Model predictions 283
11.9 References 289

Part II General protection requirements and applications
12 Civilian protection and protection of industrial workers from chemicals 295
J O S T U L L , International Personal Protection Inc., USA
12.1 Introduction 295
12.2 Classification of chemical protective clothing 295
12.3 Garment types, materials, design features and sizing 301
12.4 Garment material chemical resistance testing 313
12.5 Overall CPC integrity performance 333
12.6 Other CPC performance properties 340
12.7 CPC specification and classification standards 343
12.8 Summary 345
12.9 References 346
12.10 Appendix: List of referenced standards 348
13 Textiles for UV protection 355
A K S A R K A R , Colorado State University, USA
13.1 Introduction 355
13.2 Ultraviolet radiation 356
13.3 Assessment of ultraviolet protection of textiles 356
13.4 Standards for UV protective textiles 361
13.5 Textiles as protection from ultraviolet radiation 363
13.6 Future trends 373
13.7 References 374
14 Textiles for protection against cold 378
I HO LMEÂ
R , Lund Technical University, Sweden
14.1 Introduction 378
14.2 The cold environment 378
14.3 Energy metabolism, heat production and physical work 380
14.4 The human heat balance equation 381
14.5 Requirements for protection 383
14.6 Measurements of clothing performance 384
14.7 Performance of clothing for cold protection 387
14.8 Specific materials and textiles for cold protection 392
14.9 Sources of further information 395
14.10 References 395
15 Thermal (heat and fire) protection 398
R HO R R O C K S , University of Bolton, UK
15.1 Introduction 398
15.2 Fire science factors 399
15.3 Flame retardant fibres and textiles 403
15.4 Heat and fire resistant fibres and textiles 411
15.5 Design issues 418
15.6 Testing and performance 423
15.7 Future trends 436
15.8 References 437
16 Microorganism protection 441
K K L E O N A S , University of Georgia, USA
16.1 Introduction 441
16.2 Bacterial and liquid transmission through fabrics 443
16.3 Fabrics used in gowns and drapes 446
16.4 Fabric properties that influence barrier properties 451
16.5 Gown design 451
16.6 Guidelines, recommended standards, practices and regulations 452
16.7 Related studies 458
16.8 Critical issues today 460
16.9 References 461
17 Textiles for respiratory protection 465
I KR U C INÂ
S K A , Technical University of Lodz, Poland
17.1 Introduction 465
17.2 Filtration theories 466
17.3 Theories describing the breathing resistance 478
17.4 Manufacturing methods of filtration materials used for respiratory tract protection 478
17.5 Assessment of filter materials used for protection of the respiratory tract 493
17.6 References 499
17.7 Appendix: notation 501
18 Electrostatic protection 503
J A GO N Z A L E Z , University of Alberta, Canada
18.1 Introduction 503
18.2 Principles of electrostatics 504
18.3 Electrostatic hazards 509
18.4 Measurement techniques 512
18.5 Abatement of static electricity 517
18.6 Future trends 520
18.7 Sources of further information and advice 522
18.8 References 524
19 Ballistic protection 529
X CH E N and I CH A U D H R Y , The University of Manchester, UK
19.1 Introduction 529
19.2 History of body armours 530
19.3 Ballistic protective materials 532
19.4 Fabric structures used for body armour 537
19.5 Working mechanism of body armour 539
19.6 United States NIJ test methods for bullet resistant armours 541
19.7 Design and manufacture of ballistic body armour 545
19.8 Ballistic helmets 549
19.9 Future trends 551
19.10 References and further reading 554
20 Chemical and biological protection 557
Q TR U O N G and E WI L U S Z , Natick Soldier Center, USA
20.1 Introduction 557
20.2 Current CB protective clothing and individual equipment standards 561
20.3 Different types of materials 564
20.4 Proper protective material designs 567
20.5 Clothing system designs 571
20.6 Testing and evaluation of CB protective materials and clothing systems 573
20.7 Future trends 581
20.8 Acknowledgments 582
20.9 References 582
Appendix 1: Chemical warfare agent characteristics 585
Appendix 2: Selected biological agent characteristics 588
Appendix 3: Protective gloves and shoes 591
Appendix 4: Overgarment and other chemical protective
clothing systems 592
Appendix 5: ITAP, STEPO and other selected civilian
emergency response slothing systems 593
Appendix 6: Toxic industrial chemicals 594

Part III Case studies
21 Military protection 597
R A S C O T T , RASCOTEX, UK
21.1 Introduction 597
21.2 General requirements for military protective textiles 598
21.3 Textiles for environmental protection 599
21.4 Military combat clothing systems 602
21.5 Thermal and water vapour resistance data for combat clothing systems 603
21.6 Ballistic protection 604
21.7 Camouflage, concealment and deception 609
21.8 Flames, heat and flash protection 613
21.9 Nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) protection 616
21.10 Future trends 617
21.11 References 619
22 Firefighters'protective clothing 622
H MAÈ
K I N E N , Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Finland
22.1 Introduction 622
22.2 Different tasks and environments 622
22.3 Types of clothing needed for protection 627
22.4 Materials used in firefighters' protective clothing 629
22.5 Design, sizing and ergonomics 635
22.6 Effect of moisture on thermal protection 638
22.7 Selection, use and care 639
22.8 Future trends 640
22.9 Conclusion 642
22.10 References 642
23 Protection against knives and other weapons 648
P F E N N E , Metropolitan Police, UK
23.1 Introduction 648
23.2 History 649
23.3 Police requirements 650
23.4 Knife performance 652
23.5 Fundamental principles of knife impact 655
23.6 Knife protection design principles 659
23.7 Protection levels 660
23.8 Test methodology 663
23.9 Stab resistant body armour construction and manufacture 671
23.10 Future trends 676
23.11 References 676
24 Flight suits for military aviators 678
E M CR OWN and L CA P J A C K , The University of Alberta,
Canada
24.1 Introduction 678
24.2 Hazards of military aircraft operation 678
24.3 Performance requirements for military flight suits 680
24.4 Contribution of materials to meeting performance requirements 685
24.5 Contribution of garment design parameters 687
24.6 Future trends 693
24.7 Conclusions 694
24.8 Bibliography 694
25 Protection for workers in the oil and gas industries 699
E M CR OWN and J D DA L E , University of Alberta, Canada
25.1 Introduction 699
25.2 Hazards in the work environment 700
25.3 Requirements and performance of protective clothing 700
25.4 Maintenance of thermal protective performance properties 707
25.5 Future trends 710
25.6 Bibliography 710
26 Motorcyclists 714
P VA R N S V E R R Y , PVA Technical File Services Limited, UK
26.1 Introduction 714
26.2 Motorcycle clothing in the past 714
26.3 Development of European Standards 717
26.4 Impact abrasion resistance tests 720
26.5 Other test methods 723
26.6 Manufacture of textile garments 724
26.7 Police motorcyclists' clothing trials 729
26.8 Acknowledgement 732
26.9 References 732
26.10 Appendix 733
Index 734

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