A Novel Green Treatment for Textiles: Plasma Treatment as a Sustainable Technology | Chi-wai Kan

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A Novel Green Treatment for Textiles: Plasma Treatment as a Sustainable Technology
By Chi-wai Kan
A Novel Green Treatment for Textiles: Plasma Treatment as a Sustainable Technology

Contents
List of Figures...........................................................................................................xv
List of Tables............................................................................................................xix
Series Preface........................................................................................................ xxiii
Foreword.................................................................................................................xxv
Preface..................................................................................................................xxvii
Acknowledgements................................................................................................xxix
About the Author...................................................................................................xxxi
Chapter 1 Introduction...........................................................................................1
1.1 Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry for Textile Wet Processing............1
1.2 Importance of Green Chemistry in Textile Wet Processing......2
1.2.1 Pretreatment Process.....................................................3
1.2.2 Colouration Process......................................................3
1.2.3 Finishing Process..........................................................4
1.3 Water Requirement for Textile Wet Processing.........................5
1.4 Sustainability Consideration of Conventional Textile Wet
Processing...................................................................................6
1.4.1 Accurate Colour Communication.................................6
1.4.2 Intelligent Dye Selection for Product Durability..........7
1.4.3 Intelligent Dye Selection for Chemical Compliance.....7
1.4.4 Intelligent Process Selection for Improved
Resource Efficiency.......................................................8
1.4.5 Waste Minimisation and Pollution Control...................9
1.5 Development of Non-Aqueous Green Treatment..................... 11
1.6 Conclusions............................................................................... 12
References........................................................................................... 12
Chapter 2 Textile Materials.................................................................................. 15
2.1 Textile Fibres............................................................................ 15
2.2 Classification of Textile Fibres................................................. 15
2.2.1 Natural Vegetable Fibres (Cellulosic Fibre)................ 17
2.2.1.1 Cotton.......................................................... 17
2.2.1.2 Flax (Linen)................................................. 17
2.2.1.3 Jute............................................................... 18
2.2.1.4 Ramie........................................................... 18
2.2.2 Natural Animal Fibres (Protein Fibres)...................... 18
2.2.2.1 Wool............................................................. 19
2.2.2.2 Hair..............................................................20
2.2.2.3 Silk...............................................................20
2.2.3 Man-Made Fibres........................................................ 21
2.2.3.1 Acetate......................................................... 21
2.2.3.2 Viscose Rayon.............................................22
2.2.3.3 Lyocell (Trade Name ‘Tencel’)....................22
2.2.3.4 Polyester.......................................................22
2.2.3.5 Nylon (Polyamide).......................................23
2.2.3.6 Acrylic and Modacrylic...............................24
2.2.3.7 Polyolefins....................................................24
2.3 Essential Properties of Textile Fibres.......................................25
2.4 Conclusions...............................................................................26
References...........................................................................................26
Chapter 3 Processes for Treating Textile Fibres..................................................27
3.1 Pretreatment (Preparation) Process..........................................27
3.1.1 Pretreatment (Preparation) for Cellulosic Fibres........28
3.1.1.1 Grey Inspection...........................................28
3.1.1.2 Singeing.......................................................28
3.1.1.3 Desizing.......................................................28
3.1.1.4 Scouring.......................................................28
3.1.1.5 Bleaching.....................................................29
3.1.1.6 Mercerization...............................................29
3.1.1.7 Fluorescent Brightening..............................29
3.1.2 Pretreatment for Protein Fibres...................................29
3.1.2.1 Pretreatment of Wool...................................29
3.1.2.2 Pretreatment of Silk..................................... 31
3.1.3 Pretreatment for Man-Made (Synthetic) Fibres........... 32
3.1.3.1 Desizing....................................................... 33
3.1.3.2 Scouring and Relaxation.............................. 33
3.1.3.3 Heat Setting................................................. 33
3.1.3.4 Bleaching.....................................................34
3.2 Dyeing Process.........................................................................34
3.2.1 Factors that Affect Dyeing.......................................... 35
3.2.2 Classification of Dyes.................................................. 35
3.2.3 Application of Pigments.............................................. 37
3.2.4 Methods of Dyeing......................................................38
3.2.4.1 Fibre Dyeing................................................ 39
3.2.4.2 Yarn Dyeing................................................. 39
3.2.4.3 Fabric Dyeing.............................................. 39
3.2.4.4 Garment Dyeing..........................................40
3.2.5 Dyeing of Cellulosic Fibres.........................................40
3.2.5.1 Direct Dyes.................................................. 41
3.2.5.2 Sulphur Dyes............................................... 42
3.2.5.3 Reactive Dyes.............................................. 43
3.2.5.4 Azoic Dyes...................................................44
3.2.5.5 Vat Dyes.......................................................44
3.2.6 Dyeing of Protein Fibres............................................. 45
3.2.6.1 Acid Dyes.................................................... 45
3.2.6.2 Chrome Dyes...............................................46
3.2.6.3 Metal-Complex Dyes for Wool.................... 47
3.2.6.4 Reactive Dyes for Wool............................... 47
3.2.7 Dyeing of Silk............................................................. 47
3.2.8 Dyeing of Hair Fibres..................................................48
3.2.9 Dyeing of Synthetic Fibres..........................................48
3.2.9.1 Disperse Dyes..............................................48
3.2.9.2 Basic Dyes...................................................49
3.2.9.3 Acid Dyes....................................................50
3.2.10 Pigment Dyeing...........................................................50
3.3 Printing Process........................................................................50
3.3.1 Methods of Printing.................................................... 52
3.3.1.1 Roller Printing............................................. 52
3.3.1.2 Flatbed Screen Printing............................... 52
3.3.1.3 Rotary-Screen Printing................................ 53
3.3.1.4 Transfer Printing..........................................54
3.3.1.5 Digital Printing............................................54
3.3.2 Printing of Cellulosic Fibres with Reactive Dyes.......54
3.3.3 Printing of Cellulosic Fibres with Vat Dyes................54
3.3.4 Printing of Protein Fibres............................................54
3.3.5 Printing of Polyester Fibre..........................................54
3.3.6 Printing of Acetate Fibres........................................... 55
3.3.7 Printing of Acrylic Fibres............................................ 55
3.3.8 Printing of Polyamide Fibres.......................................56
3.3.9 Pigment Printing.........................................................56
3.4 Finishing Process.....................................................................56
3.4.1 Mechanical Finishing.................................................. 57
3.4.1.1 Calendering.................................................. 57
3.4.1.2 Friction Calendering.................................... 57
3.4.1.3 Schreinering................................................. 59
3.4.1.4 Embossing.................................................... 59
3.4.1.5 Chintz Finishing..........................................60
3.4.1.6 Chasing........................................................60
3.4.1.7 Swissing Finishes (Normal Gloss)...............60
3.4.1.8 Compressive Shrinkage...............................60
3.4.1.9 Raising.........................................................60
3.4.1.10 Brushing...................................................... 61
3.4.1.11 Pressing........................................................ 61
3.4.1.12 Shearing (Cropping).................................... 61
3.4.1.13 Emerising (Sanding, Sueding)..................... 62
3.4.1.14 Decatising.................................................... 62
3.4.1.15 Moire............................................................ 62
3.4.1.16 Heat Setting................................................. 62
3.4.1.17 Stentering.....................................................63
3.4.2 Chemical Finishing.....................................................63
3.4.2.1 Resin Finishing (Crease Resist,
Permanent Press).........................................63
3.4.2.2 Resin Finishes for Wool...............................65
3.4.2.3 Water-Repellent Finishing...........................65
3.4.2.4 Oil-Repellent Finishing...............................66
3.4.2.5 Soil-Release Finish......................................66
3.4.2.6 Soil Repellency............................................66
3.4.2.7 Flame-Retardant Finishing..........................66
3.4.2.8 Handle-Modifying Finishes......................... 67
3.4.2.9 Soft-Handle Treatment................................68
3.4.2.10 Stiffening.....................................................68
3.4.2.11 Shrink Resist................................................68
3.4.2.12 Antifelting Finish.........................................69
3.4.2.13 Antistatic Finishing.....................................69
3.4.2.14 Coating and Laminating.............................. 70
3.4.2.15 S-Finish........................................................ 70
3.4.2.16 Antimicrobial/Antifungal Finishes.............. 71
3.4.2.17 Insect-Repellent Finishes............................. 71
3.4.2.18 Mothproofing............................................... 72
3.5 Conclusions............................................................................... 72
References........................................................................................... 72
Chapter 4 What Is Plasma?.................................................................................. 75
4.1 Introduction.............................................................................. 75
4.1.1 Production of Plasma Species..................................... 75
4.1.1.1 Ionisation and Detachment.......................... 76
4.1.1.2 Recombination, Detachment and
Diffusion......................................................76
4.2 Mechanisms of Plasma Treatments on Material......................77
4.2.1 Polymerisation.............................................................77
4.2.2 Plasma Ablation (Physical Sputtering and
Chemical Etching).......................................................80
4.2.2.1 Sputtering.....................................................80
4.2.2.2 Chemical Etching........................................80
4.2.2.3 Ion-Enhanced Energetic Etching................. 81
4.2.2.4 Ion-Enhanced Protective Etching................ 81
4.2.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Plasma
Treatment...................................................................81
4.3 Method of Generating Plasma..................................................82
4.3.1 DC Glow Discharge....................................................82
4.3.2 Radio-Frequency (RF) Discharge...............................83
4.3.3 Microwave Plasma......................................................84
4.4 Various Plasma Treatment Operating Systems........................84
4.4.1 Low-Pressure (Vacuum) Plasma Devices...................84
4.4.1.1 DC Glow Discharge for Low-Pressure
Plasma..........................................................84
4.4.1.2 RF (AC) Discharges for Low-Pressure
Plasma..........................................................85
4.4.2 Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma.....................................86
4.5 Factors Affecting Plasma Treatment........................................88
4.5.1 Nature of Gas Used.....................................................88
4.5.1.1 Inert Gas......................................................89
4.5.1.2 Oxygen-Containing Gas..............................89
4.5.1.3 Nitrogen-Containing Gas............................90
4.5.1.4 Fluorine-Containing Gas.............................90
4.5.1.5 Hydrocarbon................................................ 91
4.5.1.6 Halocarbon.................................................. 91
4.5.1.7 Organosilicon Plasma.................................. 91
4.5.2 Flow Rate.................................................................... 91
4.5.3 System Pressure...........................................................92
4.5.4 Discharge Power..........................................................93
4.5.5 Duration of Treatment.................................................93
4.5.6 Ageing of Plasma-Treated Surface..............................93
4.5.6.1 Effects of Environment................................94
4.5.6.2 Effect of Temperature..................................94
4.5.7 Temperature Change during Plasma Treatment..........95
4.5.8 Sample Distance..........................................................95
4.6 Conclusion................................................................................96
References...........................................................................................96
Chapter 5 Application of Plasma in the Pretreatment of Textiles...................... 101
5.1 Plasma Pretreatment for Cellulosic Fibres............................. 102
5.1.1 Application of Plasma Pretreatment for Cotton
Fibre........................................................................... 102
5.1.2 Application of Plasma Pretreatment for Bast
Fibre......................................................................103
5.2 Plasma Pretreatment for Protein Fibres.................................. 110
5.2.1 Application of Plasma Pretreatment for Wool
Fibre....................................................................... 110
5.2.2 Application of Plasma Pretreatment for Silk Fibre...... 119
5.3 Plasma Pretreatment for Synthetic Fibres.............................. 122
5.3.1 Application of Plasma Pretreatment for Polyester
Fibre........................................................................... 122
5.3.2 Application of Plasma Pretreatment for Nylon
Fibre..........................................................................126
5.3.3 Application of Plasma Pretreatment for Acrylic
Fibre........................................................................... 130
5.4 Conclusions............................................................................. 132
References......................................................................................... 132
Chapter 6 Application of Plasma Treatment in the Dyeing of Textiles............. 139
6.1 Effect of Plasma Treatment on Dyeing of Cellulosic
Fibres.................................................................................. 141
6.1.1 Dyeing Behaviour of Plasma-Treated Cotton
Fibre......................................................................142
6.1.1.1 Wicking Rate after Plasma Treatment....... 144
6.1.2 Dyeing Behaviour of Plasma-Treated Hemp Fibre.... 147
6.1.3 Dyeing Behaviour of Plasma-Treated Flax
(Linen) Fibre.............................................................. 150
6.2 Effect of Plasma Treatment on Dyeing of Protein Fibres....... 154
6.2.1 Dyeing Behaviour of Plasma-Treated Wool Fibre..... 154
6.2.2 Chrome Dyeing......................................................... 157
6.2.2.1 Hexavalent Chromium Determination...... 158
6.2.2.2 Trivalent Chromium Determination.......... 159
6.2.3 Dyeing Behaviour of Plasma-Treated Silk Fibres..... 159
6.2.4 Dyeing Behaviour of Plasma-Treated Mohair
Fibre........................................................................160
6.3 Effect of Plasma Treatment on Dyeing Synthetic Fibres....... 163
6.3.1 Dyeing Behaviour of Plasma-Treated Polyester
Fibre........................................................................... 163
6.3.2 Dyeing Behaviour of Plasma-Treated Nylon Fibre..... 166
6.3.3 Dyeing Behaviour of Plasma-Treated Acrylic
Fibre........................................................................172
6.3.4 Dyeing Behaviour of Plasma-Treated Tencel Fibre.......173
6.4 Conclusion.............................................................................. 176
References......................................................................................... 176
Chapter 7 Application of Plasma Treatment in the Printing of Textiles............ 183
7.1 Effect of Plasma Treatment on Printing of Cellulosic
Fibres.................................................................................... 183
7.2 Effect of Plasma Treatment on Printing of Protein Fibres..... 185
7.2.1 Printing Properties of Plasma-Treated Wool
Fabrics.......................................................................185
7.2.2 Printing Properties of Plasma-Treated Silk Fibre:
Ink-Jet Printing.......................................................... 188
7.3 Effect of Plasma Treatment on Printing Synthetic Fibres...... 191
7.4 Conclusion.............................................................................. 195
References......................................................................................... 195
Chapter 8 Application of Plasma Treatment in Finishing of Textiles................ 199
8.1 Effect of Plasma Treatment on Finishing Cellulosic Fibres.....199
8.1.1 Denim Finishing........................................................ 199
8.1.2 Flame Retardancy of Cotton by
Plasma-Induced Graft-Polymerization (PIGP)..........200
8.1.3 Plasma-Enhanced Synthesis of Flame-Retardant
Cellulosic Materials...................................................206
8.1.4 Metal Absorption and Antibacterial Property on
Cotton Modified by Plasma.......................................208
8.1.5 Antimicrobial Efficacy of Plasma- and Neem
Extract-Treated Cotton..............................................209
8.1.6 Plasma-Induced Durable Water-Repellent
Functionality and Antimicrobial Functionality
on Cotton/Polyester Blend......................................... 212
8.1.7 Plasma Pretreatment on the Wrinkle-
Resistance Properties of Cotton Treated with
1,2,3,4-Butanetetracarboxylic Acid........................... 215
8.2 Effect of Plasma Treatment on Finishing Protein Fibres....... 218
8.2.1 Finishing Effect Imparted on Wool Fibre by
Plasma Treatment...................................................... 218
8.2.1.1 Shrinkproofing of Plasma-Treated
Wool Fabric................................................ 218
8.2.1.2 The Effect of Enzyme, Peroxide,
Plasma and Chitosan Processes on
Wool Fabrics and Evaluation for
Antimicrobial Activity............................... 219
8.2.2 Finishing Effect Imparted onto Silk Fibre by
Plasma Treatment...................................................... 221
8.2.2.1 Hydrophobicity Improvement of Silk........ 221
8.2.2.2 Plasma-Induced Graft Polymerization of Flame-Retardant Compound  onto Silk..................................................222
8.3 Effect of Plasma Treatment on Finishing of Synthetic
Fibres......................................................................................227
8.3.1 Finishing Effect Imparted on Polyester Fibre by
Plasma Treatment......................................................227
8.3.1.1 Antistatic Effect.........................................227
8.3.1.2 Water-Repellency Property........................230
8.3.1.3 Formation of Hydrophobic and Water-
Repellent Surface....................................... 232
8.3.1.4 Chitosan Modification of Polyester
Fabric and Its Antibacterial Effects........... 235
8.3.1.5 Functionalization of Polyester Fabrics
with Nanosilver.......................................... 237
8.3.2 Finishing Effect Imparted on Nylon Fibre by
Plasma Treatment...................................................... 239
8.3.2.1 Water-Repellency and Antibacterial
Activities of Plasma-Treated Cleavable
Silicone Surfactants on Nylon Fabrics....... 239
8.3.2.2 Nylon Grafted with Chitosan by
Plasma and Its Antimicrobial Effect......... 241
8.3.3 Finishing Effect Imparted on Acrylic Fibre by
Plasma Treatment...................................................... 243
8.3.3.1 Improved Surface Wettability and
Antistatic Ability....................................... 243
8.3.3.2 Water Repellent, Stain-Resistant or
Flame-Retardant Acrylic (PAN) Fibres..... 245
8.3.3.3 Fire-Retardant Property.............................246
8.4 Conclusion.............................................................................. 247
References.........................................................................................248
Chapter 9 Sustainability and Development of Plasma Treatment in Textile
Wet Processing.................................................................................. 257
9.1 Economic Aspect.................................................................... 257
9.2 Environmental Aspects.......................................................... 258
9.3 Social Accountability Aspect................................................. 258
9.4 Future Development............................................................... 259
9.5 Conclusion..............................................................................260
References......................................................................................... 261

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