Advances in Polymer Coated Textiles Edited by Guneri Akovali

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Advances in Polymer Coated Textiles
Edited by Guneri Akovali
Advances in Polymer Coated Textiles

Contents
1 Thermoplastic Polymers Used in Textile Coatings....................................... 1
1.1 Introduction..................................................................................... 1
1.1.1 Polymers and their Classification........................................ 3
1.1.1.1 Thermoplastics .................................................. 4
1.1.1.2 Thermosets ....................................................... 5
1.1.1.3 Rubbers ............................................................ 6
1.2 Polymeric Materials Commonly Used for Textiles Coating ............. 7
1.2.1 Polyvinyl Chloride.............................................................. 9
1.2.2 Polyvinylidene Chloride.................................................... 13
1.2.3 Polyvinyl Acetate and Acetate Copolymers
(Ethlene Vinyl Acetate)..................................................... 15
1.2.4 Acrylics (Acrylic Polymers)............................................... 16
1.2.5 Polyurethane..................................................................... 17
1.2.5.1 Polyurethane Foams......................................... 22
1.2.5.2 Polytetrafluoroethylene Coatings..................... 22
1.2.5.3 Polyolefin Coatings.......................................... 23
2 Rubbers and Elastomers Used in Textile Coatings .................................... 25
2.1 Natural and Synthetic Rubbers Used for the Coating of Textiles.... 27
2.1.1 Natural Rubber ............................................................... 27
2.1.1.1 Production and Processing of Natural Rubber .28
2.1.1.2 Properties of Natural Rubber........................... 29
2.1.1.3 Additives Used in Natural Rubber Mixes......... 31
2.1.1.4 Derivatives of Natural Rubber......................... 35
2.1.2 Styrene Butadiene Rubber ................................................ 37
2.1.2.1 Properties of Styrene Butadiene
Rubber and Textile Coating............................. 37
2.1.2.2 High Styrene Resins ........................................ 40
2.1.3 Polybutadiene Rubber ...................................................... 40
2.1.4 Chloroprene Rubber......................................................... 42
2.1.5 Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber (Nitrile Rubber).............. 46
2.1.5.1 Derivatives of Nitrile Rubber........................... 51
2.1.6 Isobutylene-isoprene Rubber (IIR).................................... 51
2.1.6.1 Derivatives of Butyl Rubber............................. 55
2.1.7 Ethylene Propylene Rubber............................................... 56
2.1.8 Silicone Rubber................................................................. 60
2.1.9 Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Rubber ............................ 64
2.1.10 Polyacrylic Rubbers.......................................................... 67
2.1.11 Polysulfide Rubber............................................................ 70
2.1.12 Reclaim (or Regenerated) Rubber..................................... 72
3 Criteria for the Selection of Rubbers for Coating: Physical
and Chemical Characteristics.................................................................... 79
3.1 Selection Criteria for Rubber Coating on Textiles.......................... 80
3.1.1 Processability.................................................................... 80
3.1.2 Adhesion to Fabrics.......................................................... 89
3.2 Requirements of Physical and Chemical Characteristics................. 92
3.2.1 Tear and Abrasion Resistance .......................................... 95
3.2.2 Resilience and Flexibility.................................................. 97
3.2.3 Characteristics of Environmental Resistance:
Ozone and Ultraviolet Light............................................. 98
3.2.4 Low Temperature Flexibility of Elastomers..................... 101
3.2.5 Electrical Conductivity and Electrical Resistivity............ 102
3.2.6 Impermeability to Air and Gases .................................... 105
3.2.7 Resistance to Water, Acids and Alkalis............................ 106
3.2.8 Resistance to Oils and Solvents....................................... 109
3.2.9 Flame Resistance............................................................. 112
3.2.10 Rot-proofing, and Resistance to Attack by
Fungi and Insects............................................................ 114
3.2.11 Odorants and Flavouring Agents.................................... 116
4 Natural and Synthetic Textiles Used in Polymer Coatings ...................... 119
4.1 Introduction................................................................................. 119
4.2 General Criteria for the Selection of Textile for Polymer
Coatings...................................................................................... 121
4.2.1 Choice of Textiles for Rubber Coating............................ 121
4.3 Reinforcing Fibres and their Origins for Application
in Elastomer Coatings.................................................................. 123
4.3.1 Natural Origin Fibres .................................................... 123
4.3.2 Man-made Rayon Fibres ................................................ 124
4.3.3 Fibres of Organic (Man-made) Synthetic Polymers ........ 124
4.3.3.1 Nylon ............................................................ 124
4.3.3.2 Polyester ....................................................... 124
4.3.3.3 Aramid........................................................... 125
4.3.4 Non-Polymeric (and Man-made) Fibres.......................... 125
4.3.4.1 Steel Fibre...................................................... 125
4.3.4.2 Fibres of Mineral Origin: Asbestos................. 125
4.3.5 Synthetic (Man-made) Polymers of Inorganic Origin...... 125
4.3.6 Cotton ........................................................................... 126
4.3.6.1 Processing of Cotton Fabric........................... 127
4.3.6.2 Finishes and Treatments of Cotton Fabric...... 127
4.3.6.3 Characteristics of Cotton Fabric.................... 129
4.4 Jute Textile Fabric........................................................................ 129
4.4.1 Characteristics of Jute Fabric.......................................... 131
4.5 Rayon.......................................................................................... 131
4.5.1 Characteristics of Rayon Fabric...................................... 132
4.6 Nylon Textiles.............................................................................. 133
4.6.1 Characteristics of Nylon Fabric...................................... 136
4.7 Polyester Fibre and Fabric............................................................ 136
4.7.1 Characteristics of Polyester Fabric ................................. 138
4.8 Kevlar.......................................................................................... 138
4.8.1 Properties of Kevlar Textiles........................................... 140
4.9 Carbon Fibre............................................................................... 141
4.9.1 Characteristics of Carbon Textiles.................................. 144
4.10 Glass Fabric................................................................................. 144
4.10.1 Characteristics of Glass Fabric........................................ 147
4.11 Asbestos Fibre.............................................................................. 147
4.11.1 Characteristics of Asbestos Fabric................................... 148
4.12 Steel Fibre.................................................................................... 148
4.12.1 Characteristics of Steel Cord........................................... 149
4.13 Construction of Textile Fabrics.................................................... 150
4.13.1 The Fibre........................................................................ 151
4.13.2 Cords.............................................................................. 151
4.13.3 Textiles........................................................................... 152
4.14 Weaving of Textiles...................................................................... 155
4.14.1 Spinning.......................................................................... 155
4.14.2 Spun Yarns...................................................................... 156
4.14.3 Weaving.......................................................................... 157
4.14.4 Loom-weaving................................................................ 158
4.14.5 Types of Weave Patterns................................................. 161
4.14.5.1 Plain Weave ................................................... 161
4.14.5.2 Twill Weave .................................................. 162
4.14.5.3 Satin Weave ................................................... 162
4.14.6 Knitting ......................................................................... 163
4.14.7 Rip-stop Fabric .............................................................. 164
4.14.8 Non-wovens................................................................... 165
4.15 Preparation of Textiles for Coating.............................................. 167
4.15.1 Sizing.............................................................................. 167
4.15.2 Desizing ......................................................................... 167
4.15.3 Scouring.......................................................................... 168
4.15.4 Shrinkage Control of the Fabric ..................................... 168
4.15.5 Heat Setting ................................................................... 168
4.15.6 Mercerisation ................................................................. 169
4.16 Dyeing......................................................................................... 170
4.16.1 Sulfur Dyes .................................................................... 170
4.16.2 Vat Dyes......................................................................... 171
4.16.3 Reactive Dyes ................................................................ 171
4.16.4 Jig Dyeing ...................................................................... 171
4.16.5 Pad Dyeing .................................................................... 172
4.16.6 Jet Dyeing ...................................................................... 172
4.17 Bleaching .................................................................................... 172
4.18 Calendering................................................................................. 173
4.19 Speciality Treatment of Raw Textiles........................................... 173
4.19.1 Flame-retardant Basic Fabrics......................................... 174
4.19.2 Antimicrobial Treatment to Basic Fabrics....................... 176
4.19.3 Water-repellent Treatment............................................... 177
4.20 Fabric Inspection and Quality Assurance..................................... 178
5 Basic Features of the Manufacturing Technology of
Polymer-Coated Textiles and Fabrics ...................................................... 183
5.1 Introduction................................................................................. 183
5.2 Process of Coating Textiles.......................................................... 184
5.3 Rubber Textile Adhesion.............................................................. 186
5.3.1 Resorcinol-formaldehyde Latex Dipping......................... 187
5.3.2 Dry Bonding System....................................................... 190
5.3.3 Chemical Bonding Method ............................................ 190
5.3.4 Steel Cord Adhesion ...................................................... 191
5.3.5 Proprietary Bonding Agents for Textile Adhesion........... 192
5.4 Coating of Fabrics with Thermoplastic Polymers ........................ 192
5.4.1 Hot-melt Process ............................................................ 193
5.4.2 Transfer Coating............................................................. 193
5.4.3 Lamination..................................................................... 193
5.4.4 Solvent-based Adhesive System ...................................... 193
5.4.5 Flame Lamination........................................................... 194
5.4.6 Aqueous-Based Adhesive Lamination............................. 194
5.4.7 Extrusion Coating of Thermoplastics.............................. 195
5.5 Preparation of Rubber Compounds for Coating Fabrics.............. 196
5.5.1 Rubber Compounding: Preparation Methods ................ 196
5.5.2 Rubber Compounding Ingredients ................................. 197
5.5.2.1 Functional Classifications of Rubber
Compounding Ingredients ............................. 198
5.5.2.2 Process Oils in Rubber Compounding ........... 199
5.6 Mixing in a Two-roll Open Mill.................................................. 201
5.7 Internal Mixer............................................................................. 205
5.8 Rheology and Processability of Rubber Compounds
for Textile Coatings..................................................................... 208
5.8.1 Mooney Viscometer Test................................................. 209
5.8.2 Rheological Study of Rubber.......................................... 210
5.8.3 The Rheometer .............................................................. 211
5.9 Rubber Coating of Textiles.......................................................... 213
5.9.1 Wet System of Coating Textiles....................................... 214
5.9.2 Latex Coating................................................................. 218
5.10 Technology of Calendering on Fabric Coatings............................ 219
5.10.1 Technical Prerequisites of Calender Machine Rolls......... 220
5.10.1.1 Roll Deflection and Coating Uniformity......... 221
5.10.2 Arrangements of Calender Rolls and their
Operational Requirements.............................................. 222
5.10.3 Calendering for Coating................................................. 224
5.10.3.1 Three-roll Calendering................................... 224
5.10.3.2 Four-roll Calendering Unit ............................ 226
5.10.4 Control of Temperature in the Calender Rolls ............... 227
5.10.5 Thickness Measurement and its Control in Calendering. 228
5.10.6 Problems Encountered During Calendering ................... 230
5.11 Methodology of Vulcanisation of Coated Fabrics........................ 231
5.11.1 Festoon Curing............................................................... 233
5.11.2 Autoclave Curing............................................................ 234
5.11.3 ‘Step’ Curing System....................................................... 235
5.11.4 Press Curing.................................................................... 235
5.11.5 Rotocure System (Continuous Cure)............................... 237
5.12 Some Suggested Formulations for Rubber Coated Fabrics........... 240
5.12.1 Oil Resistant Coating...................................................... 245
5.12.2 High Waterproof and Weather Resistant Coating........... 246
5.12.3 Heat-Resistant Textile Coatings ..................................... 246
5.12.4 Sponge Rubber Coating.................................................. 249
5.12.5 Latex Carpet Backing..................................................... 250
6 Some Applications of Polymer-Coated Textiles and Fabrics..................... 253
6.1 Introduction................................................................................. 253
6.2 Domestic Applications of Rubber-coated Textiles ....................... 254
6.2.1 Rainwear, Cycle Jackets, and Wind Cheaters.................. 254
6.2.1.1 Polymer-coated Breathable Fabrics................. 258
6.2.1.2 Permeability and Impermeability
Factors of Coating ........................................ 260
6.2.2 Latex Coating on Fibre and Textiles............................... 262
6.2.3 Hospital Sheeting, Bedspreads, Baby Mats and Aprons.. 263
6.2.3.1 Rubber-coated Textile Aprons ....................... 264
6.2.3.2 Ice Bags ......................................................... 265
6.2.4 Coated Textiles in Footwear Applications ...................... 266
6.3 Rubber-coated Textiles for Producing Industrial
and Automobile Products............................................................ 269
6.3.1 Insertion Sheets, Diaphragms and Gaskets...................... 271
6.3.2 Hoses.............................................................................. 271
6.3.3 Conveyor and Transmission Belting................................ 272
6.3.4 Offset Printing Blankets.................................................. 275
6.3.5 Pollution Control Equipments ....................................... 277
6.3.6 Automobile Crash Cushion: Airbags............................... 277
6.4 Coated Fabrics in Engineering and Architectural Uses................. 279
6.4.1 Inflatable Products.......................................................... 279
6.4.1.1 Rubber Dams................................................. 279
6.4.1.2 Floating Bridges............................................. 280
6.4.1.3 Inflatable Domes ........................................... 282
6.4.1.4 Pneumatic Fenders ........................................ 284
6.4.1.5 Testing of Air Permeability............................. 286
6.4.1.6 Rubber-coated Fabrics in Biotechnology
Applications................................................... 288
6.4.2 Non-inflatable Items....................................................... 289
6.4.2.1 Roofing, Pond Lining and Rainwater
Harvesting Coated Fabric Membranes........... 289
6.5 Coated Fabric Inflatable Devices for Use in Therapeutic
and Lifesaving Equipment............................................................ 291
6.5.1 Air Support Sleeping System........................................... 291
6.5.2 Water Mattresses for Prevention of Pressure Sores.......... 293
6.5.3 Rubberised Airbags to Monitor Breathing Disorders...... 294
6.5.4 Inflatable Splints: Aids for Limb Injuries ........................ 295
6.5.5 Pressure Device for the Treatment of Filariasis................ 296
6.6 Coated Fabrics in the Military..................................................... 297
6.6.1 Collapsible Fuel Storage Tanks....................................... 297
6.6.2 Inflatable Boats and Aeronautical Life Raft
Survival Equipment ........................................................ 300
6.6.3 Life Rafts........................................................................ 302
6.6.4 Life Jacket – Safety Equipment....................................... 305
6.6.5 Anti-Gravity Suit – Life-saving Equipment...................... 307
6.6.6 Helicopter Landing Pads ................................................ 308
6.6.7 Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Protective
Clothing and Protective Gear.......................................... 310
7 Emerging Technologies in Polymer-coated Textiles: Smart, Intelligent
and Nano-structured Fibres and Fabrics.................................................. 315
7.1 Introduction................................................................................. 315
7.2 Definition of Smart and Intelligent Textiles ................................. 317
7.3 Classification of Smart Textiles.................................................... 318
7.4 Functions of Smart Textiles.......................................................... 319
7.5 Configuration of Smart and Intelligent Structures........................ 321
7.6 Properties of Smart Materials...................................................... 322
7.7 Varieties of Smart and Intelligent Polymers.................................. 324
7.8 Smart Polymers for Smart Textiles............................................... 324
7.8.1 Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials .................. 325
7.8.1.1 Microencapsulation Technique and
the Physical Properties of
Microencapsulated Phase-change Materials... 328
7.8.1.2 Applications of Paraffin Waxes in the
Storage of Thermal Energy ............................ 331
7.8.1.3 Method of Incorporation and Functioning of
Microencapsulated Phase-change Materials
in Textiles....................................................... 333
7.8.1.4 Commercial Varieties of Microencapsulated
Phase-change Materials.................................. 335
7.8.2 Shape Memory Polymers ............................................... 336
7.8.3 Stimuli-sensitive Polymers .............................................. 337
7.8.3.1 Smart Textile Materials with Biopolymeric
Systems.......................................................... 338
7.8.4 Chromic Textiles............................................................. 340
7.8.4.1 Photochromic Textiles.................................... 341
7.8.4.2 Thermochromic Textiles................................. 342
7.8.4.3 Ionochromic Textiles...................................... 343
7.8.4.4 Solvatochromic Textiles ................................ 343
7.8.5 Electroactive Polymers ................................................... 343
7.8.6 Conductive Fabrics......................................................... 344
7.8.6.1 Development of Electromagnetic
Shielding Apparels ........................................ 345
7.8.7 Smart Clothing with Electronic Devices.......................... 346
7.9 High-tech Applications of Smart and Intelligent Textiles.............. 347
7.9.1 Development of Smart Shirts.......................................... 347
7.9.2 Snowmobile Garments.................................................... 348
7.9.3 Intelligent Textiles in Healthcare..................................... 350
7.9.4 Implantable Devices........................................................ 351
7.9.4.1 Smart Degradable Sutures ............................. 351
7.9.4.2 Textile Scaffolds............................................. 352
7.9.5 Embroidery Technique for Smart Textiles....................... 353
7.9.6 Bio-processing of Smart Textiles..................................... 353
7.9.6.1 Usage of Enzymes in Textile Processing.......... 354
7.10 Role of Nanotechnology In Textiles............................................. 355
7.10.1 Carbon Nanofibres......................................................... 356
7.10.2 Clothing-grade Fabrics.................................................... 357
7.10.3 Speciality Fabrics............................................................ 358
7.10.4 Nanotechnology in Biomedical Applications................... 359
7.11 Summary of Applications of Smart and Intelligent Textiles.......... 359
8 Some Methodologies for Testing and Quality Control of Domestic
and High Tech Polymer Coated Textiles and Fabrics............................... 369
8.1 Introduction................................................................................. 369
8.2 Coating Mass per Unit Area (BS 3424 [2], IS 7016 Part 1 [3])..... 369
8.3 Bursting Strength and Puncture Resistance (ASTM D751 [1]
and IS 7016 Part 6 [6])................................................................ 370
8.4 Hydrostatic Resistance (ASTM D751 [1], BS 3424 [2],
IS 7016 Part 7 [7])....................................................................... 371
8.5 Cone Test (IS 7941 [8])................................................................ 372
8.6 Water Repellency – Spray Rating Test (IS 390 [9],
AATCC 22 – 1996 [10]).............................................................. 372
8.7 Adhesion of the Coating to the Fabric (ASTM D751 [1])............ 372
8.8 Low Temperature Bending Test (ASTM D2136 [12],
IS 7016 Part 10 [13])................................................................... 374
8.9 Brittleness Point of Flexible Polymers and Coated Fabrics
(ASTM D2137 [14], BS 3424 [2],
IS 7016 Part 14 [15])................................................................... 374
8.10 Accelerated Ageing Test (BS 3424 [2], IS 7016 Part 8 [16],
ASTM D751 [1])......................................................................... 376
8.10.1 Lifetime Estimation by Ageing Studies............................ 377
8.11 Test Methods for Determination of Volatile Loss
(ASTM D1203 [20]).................................................................... 378
8.12 Blocking Test (ASTM D751 [1], IS 7016 Part 9 [23])................... 378
8.13 Wicking Test (ASTM D751 [1])................................................... 379
8.14 Degree of Fusion (or Degree of Curing) of the Coating
(BS 3424 [2], ASTM D4005 [24])................................................ 379
8.15 Stiffness of Fabric Test (IS 6490 [25]).......................................... 380
8.16 Flexibility Flat Loop Method (IS 7016 Part 11 [26]).................... 381
8.17 Colour Fastness to Dry and Wet Rubbing (BS 3424 [2],
IS 1259 [27])................................................................................ 382
8.18 Flame Resistance Test (IS 11871 [28], BS 3119 [29])................... 382
8.19 Abrasion Resistance Test (ASTM D3389 [30], BS 3424 [2])........ 384
8.20 Method for Determination of Air Retention
(ASTM D5193 [31]).................................................................... 384
8.21 Damage Due to Flexing Test (ASTM D2097 [32], BS 3424 [2],
IS 7016 Part 4 [33])..................................................................... 385
8.22 Hydrolytic Stability of Upholstery Fabric (ASTM D3690 [21]).... 385
8.23 Air Permeability Test (BS 3424 [2]).............................................. 386
8.24 Water Vapour Permeability Test (ASTM E96 [34])...................... 386
8.25 Resistance to Permeation by Hazardous Liquid Chemicals
(ASTM F739 [36])....................................................................... 387
8.26 Resistance To Penetration By Blood-borne Pathogens
(ASTM F1671 [37])..................................................................... 388
8.27 Test Method for Coated Fabrics Used for Oil Spill Control
and Storage (ASTM F715 [38]).................................................... 388
8.28 Fire Test for Roof Coverings for Architectural Textiles
(ASTM D4851 [19] and ASTM E108 [41])................................. 389
8.29 Noise Reduction Coefficient of Architectural Textiles
(ASTM D4851 [19], ASTM C423 [42])....................................... 390
8.30 Solar Optical Properties of Architectural Fabrics
(ASTM D4851 [19], ASTM E424 [43])....................................... 391
8.31 Lifetime Estimation and Biodeterioration Studies by
Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA)............................................. 391
8.31.1 Life Estimation .............................................................. 391
8.31.2 Biodeterioration ............................................................. 392
8.32 Resistance to Penetration or Permeation of Chemical
Warfare Agents: Defence Applications......................................... 393
8.32.1 Introduction.................................................................... 393
8.32.1.1 Chemical Warfare Scenario............................ 393
8.32.2 Qualitative Liquid Mustard Agent
Penetration for Air-impermeable Fabric......... 394
8.32.3 Testing of Permeable Clothing Against Gas
Vapour of Chemical Warfare Agents.............. 395
8.32.4 Liquid Tests for Permeable Clothing.............. 396
8.32.4.1 Application of Droplets............. 396
8.32.4.2 Exposure................................... 397
9 Quality and Productivity Improvement in Rubber-coated Textile
Industries, Tools and Techniques ............................................................ 403
9.1 Introduction................................................................................. 403
9.2 Global Competitiveness .............................................................. 404
9.3 Total Quality Management for Rubber Industries........................ 405
9.3.1 Managing Quality in Rubber Industries.......................... 406
9.3.2 Quality Policy................................................................. 407
9.4 Objective-oriented Planning......................................................... 408
9.4.1 Methodology of Ziel-Orientierte Projekt Planung........... 408
9.4.2 Participation of Employees in the Planning Process......... 409
9.5 Quality Management Tools ......................................................... 410
9.5.1 Quality Improvement Techniques: The Five-S
Programme..................................................................... 410
9.6 Lean Manufacturing Method....................................................... 412
9.6.1 Lean Manufacturing Principles....................................... 413
9.6.2 The Seven Wastes............................................................ 413
9.7 The 3-M Practice......................................................................... 414
9.8 Quality Circle in the Success of Total Quality Control ................ 415
9.8.1 Quality Circle Tools........................................................ 415
9.9 Kaizen the Continuous Improvement........................................... 418
9.9.1 Relevant Factors in a Manufacturing Industry ............... 418
9.9.2 Process-oriented Perspective............................................ 419
9.9.3 Implementation of Kaizen as Continuous Development.. 420
9.10 ‘Poka-Yoke’ in Error-proof Product............................................. 421
9.10.1 Poka-Yoke Manufacturing.............................................. 421
9.10.2 Sources of Product Defects.............................................. 422
9.10.3 Error-proofing Meth....................................................... 422
9.11 Six Sigma Concept in Quality Management................................. 423
9.11.1 Six Sigma Methods......................................................... 423
9.11.2 Six Sigma Goals.............................................................. 423
9.11.3 Implementation of Six Sigma ......................................... 424
9.11.4 Category Six Sigma of Belts............................................ 425
9.12 Zero-Defect Products as a Quality Goal...................................... 426
9.12.1 A Proactive Approach..................................................... 427
9.12.2 Zero Defects Programme................................................ 428
9.12.3 Implementation and Achievement of Zero Defects.......... 429
9.13 Reliability of the Quality of Rubber-coated Textile Products....... 429
9.13.1 Lifecycle Estimation of Coated Products......................... 430
9.13.2 Lifetime Prediction Techniques for Rubber-coated
Fabrics............................................................................ 431
9.13.3 Major Occurences of Failure of Elastomer-coated
Fabrics While Conducting Tests in the Laboratory.......... 432
9.13.4 Probable Reasons for the Failure of Rubber-coated
Products.......................................................................... 432
9.13.5 Selection of Tests in Life Prediction for Rubber-coated
Textile Products ............................................................. 433
Abbreviations..................................................................................................... 439
Index ............................................................................................................... 447

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