Analysis of Woven Fabrics by A.F. Barker and E. Midgley

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Analysis of Woven Fabrics
By A.F. Barker and E. Midgley
Analysis of Woven Fabrics

Contents
CHAPTER I.
QUALITIES OF RAW MATERIAL~.
Animal Fibres-Vegetable Fibres-Re-manufactured Fibres-Wool-Varieties of Wool-General Classification of Wools Employed in the Worsted Trade-Mohair-Alpaca-Camel's Hair-Cashmere- Vicuna and LlamaBradfo"d Wool Quality Numbers-Range of Bradford Tops, Details of Qualities-Noils-Qualities of Noils-Shoddy-Mungo-Flocks-Extract
-Cotton-Grades of Cotton-Mercerized Cotton-Ramie, Rhea, Chinagrass-
Silk-Artificial Silk. Pages 1-18
CHAPTER II.
THE QUALITIES OF YARNS.
Influences which Determine Quality-Nature of the Raw Material-Method
of Preparing and Spinning-Folding of Yarns-Special Treatments-Wool
Yarns-Worsteds-Classification of Worsted Yarns-Counts of Worsted
Yarns-Woollen Yarn-Cotton Yarns-Silk Yarns-Net Silk-Spun SilkUnion
Yarns-Angola-Union Twist-Coloured Yarns-Mixlures-Melange
-Marls-Twists-Special Yarns-Matching Coloured Yarns and FabricsInfluence
of Twine of Yarn on Woven Fabrics-Right and Left Twist
Effects (Shadow Stripes) Pages 19-36
CHAPTER III.
C.U.CULATIONS RELATING TO YARNS.
Counting of Yarns-Various Systems of Counting Yarns-Testing a Given Count-Scales and V\'eights-Method of Obtaining Counts of Yarn from a Small Sample of Cloth-Gauge Points-Estimating the Counts-Chmging the Denomination-The Counts of Two-fold Yarns-Cost of Two and Many
Fold Yarns-Twillt of Yarns Pages 37-54
CHAPTER IV.
l'.\LCl'L.\TION:; RELATIN(; TO TH~: 'r~:I(;H'l'" OF CLOTH,..
Ordinary V\arp and \Veft Ca'culations-Complicated Calculations-Coloured
Wa.rp-Cloth with Two or more Counts-Backed and Double Cloth.-Crammed
Stripes-Other Necessary Calculations-Weight~ of FabricsChanging
the Weights of Cloths Pages 55.71
CHAPTER V
SETT~ .\ND SETTIN(; OF CLOTH~.
Methods of Indicating the Sett-Setting of Cloths-Influences to Con~ider-Diameters
of Yarns-The Weave-ClassificatIOn of "" eave-Cloth~ "V oven
on the Square-To Decide the" Set" or Distance Apart of the ""·arp
Threads-Weft-rib Cloths-Warp-rib Cloths-Difficulties in Applying the
Foregoing Principles-Changes in Counts and Sett~ Pages 72-~3
CHAPTER VI.
WE-WE ANALY~IS.
Two Methods - General Considerations - Instruments Required-Means of
Distinguishing Warp from Weft-Method of Dissecting for WeaveRepetition
of Weaves-Figure Analysis-The Counttng of Threads and
Picks - Classification of Woven Structures - Single Cloths - Ordinary
Structures-Rib Structures-Warp Ribs-Weft Ribs-Backed ClothsDouble
Cloths-The Tying of Backed and Double Cloths Pages 84.111
CHAPTER VII.
DRAFTS AND PEGGING PLANS.
Method of Drafting-Pegging Plan-Calculation for Mails per Shafts in Plain
and Fancy Drafts-Fancy Drafts-Casting-out-Crammed Stripes
Pages II2-121
CHAPTER VIII.
EFFECTS OF DYEING AND FINISHING ON WOOL CLOTHS.
General Conditions-Finishing all Wool Cloths-Vicuna Coating-Routine of
Finishing Processes-Variation of an" All Wool" Fabric after tne Various
Finishing Operations: Dyed Indigo Blue, Vicuna Finish-Clear Finished
Coating-Variation of an " All Wool" Fabric after the Various Finishing
Operations: Dyed Indigo Blue, Clear Finieh-Dyeing and Finishing a
Worsted Coating-Variation of a Worsted Coating after the Various Finishing Operations: Dyed Black, Clear Fimsh-Grey and Finished
Cloths-Loss in Weight (Worsteds)-Loss of Weight Incurred during
Finishing" Woollens "-Contraction and 8hrinkage of Yarns-Comparison
of Dimensions of Grey and Finished Cloths-Variation in the Dimensions
of Worsted Cloths-z/2 Twills-Covert Fabric-Effects of Shrinkage"
Veight per Yard-Counts of Warp and Weft-Threads and Picks per Inch
Pages 122-I42
CHAPTER IX_
EFFECTS OF Ih-EING AND FINI>'HING ON 1.:NION DRE..,'; FABRICS,
LINING, AND COTTON CLOTHS_
(jeneral Conditions-Finishing a Plain Lustre Dress Fabric-Alteration of
Structure-Crabbing Union Cloths-Contraction in 'Width and Elongation
in Length-Classification of Union Dress Fabrics-Variation of a Crossdyed
Lustre Cloth after the various Finishing Operations-Variation of a
Bleached Lustre Cloth after the various Finishing Operations-Standardization
of Dimensions-Variation of the Dimensions in Union Cloths
(Cotton Warp and Lustre Weft) submitted to a "Bright" Finish-Variation
in Threads and Picks per Inch-Loss in Weight-Italian LiningsVariation
of a Lining Cloth after the various Finishing Processes-Lengths
of Italian Lining Cloths-Loss in Weight incurred during DyelOg and
Finishing Cotton Yarns and Fabrics • Pages 143-I58
CHAPTER X.
OBTAINING THE LOOM PARTICULARS FROM A SMALL SAMPLE
OF FINISHED CLOTH.
Cutting the Pattern a Suitable Size-Weight per Yard-Loss in WeightAscertaining
the Contraction of Warp and Weft-Measuring Contraction of
Wool Yarns-Counts of Warp and Weft-Threads and Picks per InchWidth
in Loom-Selection of Reed-The Length of Warp-Length of
Grey Cloth-Length of Finished Cloth-Grey and Finished Weights Compared-
Edges or Lists Pages I59-180
CHAPTER Xl.
EXAMPLES IN THE ANALYSIS OF ''''OVEN FABRICS.
Worsted Costume Cloth-Figured Mohair, Lustre Dress Fabric-Extra Warp
Striped Cotton-Striped Moirette-Cotton and Artificial Silk Dress Fabric
-Corduroy Woollen-Double Cloth Woollen-Weft Cut Pile Corduroy
Woollen-Colour and Weave Worsted Costume Cloth Pages 181-213
CHAPTER XII.
QUICK :\IETHOD", OF /nL\LYSIS, ST.\ND_-\RD WEIGHTS .HIll GAUGES.
Contraction Table-Standard Weight~-Ounces per Yard and Grammes per
Square :\/etre-To obtain the Counts of Yarn-Basis of Calculation for
Standard Weights-Ounces per Yard-Counts of Yarn-Yarn Gauge-Basis
of Calculation for Yarn Gauge~Analysis by Comparison-ConditionsComparison
of .. Known" and .. Unknown" Cloths-Examples-Analysis
of Standard Cloths without Resort to Calculations-Method of Analysis
Pages 2I4-230
CHAPTER XIII.
QC_\l.IT.\T1VK _\l\'ll ()U_\XTIT_\TJVE .\X_\LYSIS OF FII1RES 1:-.1 'Yon~l\
F.\BRICS.
::'Ildhod of Determining the Nature and Quality of Fibres in \Voven FabricsGeneral
Observations- Burning Tests- Microscopical ExaminationChemical
Reaction on Textile Fibres-Distinguishing Tests for Flax and
Jute-Loading Worsteds and Woollens-Influences of Loading ori Wool
Fabrics-Standard Regains of Moisture-Loading and Filling of Cotton
Goods-Removing Size or Dressing from Cotton Cloths-Loading and
Filling in Silk Fabrics-Determination of Adulteration and FillingPhysical
Examination - Determination of Moistllre - Determination of
Extraneous Substances-Ether Test for Insolubles-N et Fatty Matters
by the Ether Process-To ascertain the amount of Cotton and Wool in
~/ ixed or Union Cloths-To ascertain the amount of Silk and Cotton in
l\"fixed or Union Cloths-Separation of Silk and Wool-Removing Rubber
from Ruhbered Waterproof Cloth-Fastness of Colour-Nitric Acid Test
lor Indigo-Tests for Indigo Dye-Test for Mercerized Cotton
Pages 23I-244
CHAPTER XIV.
TH~; COSTING OF \\'OVEN FABRICS.
Organization of the Worsted and Woollen Trades-Conditions of and Costing
in the Bradford Textile Trade-Cost of Materials (Yarns)-To Estimate
the Price of Yarns Spun from a Botany Top-To Estimate the Price of
Yarns Spun from Crossbred, Lustre, and Mohair Tops-Cost of Woollen
Yarns-Preparation for the Loom-vVinding-Warping-Sizing or Slashing-
Warp Dressing-Price List for Warp Dressing-Twisting-in, Looming,
and Sleying-Price List for T:-"isting-in, Looming, and SleyingCost
of Weaving-Standard Wagel.ist for Weavers-Perching, Picking,
Burling, and Mending-Cost of Burling and Mending Worsted Coatings
-Cost of Burling and Mending Dress Fabrics-u Other Expenses"General
Expenses-Working Expenses-Depreciation-Rates, Insurance~
Fuel, Lighting, 'Vater, Carriage of Yarn and Cloth-Interest on Capital -Price Paid in Bradford for Room and Power-" Otht:r Expt:ns~~" involved
in the Manufacture of Worsted Coatings-" Other Expenses"
involved in the Manufacture of Dress Goods-Dyeing and Finishing
Woven Fabrics - Price List for Dyeing and Finishing Dress Goods-·
Price List for Dyeing and Finishing \Voollens and 'Worsteds-Price List
for Dyeing and Finishing 1\I0reens and Venetians (Cotton~)-Example
in Costing a Mixture Won,ted Coating-Example in Costing a MohaIr
Lustre Cloth Pages 245 269
CHAPTER XV.
DEFINITIONS.
GLOSSARY OF T~:Rl\fS ApPLIED TO l'ROlll:CflO;'; 0[- \VOn:N
FABRIC:;.
Pages 270-316
INDEX Pages 317-322

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