Chemicals and Methods for Conservation and Restoration: Paintings, Textiles, Fossils, Wood, Stones, Metals, and Glass by Johannes Karl Fink

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Chemicals and Methods for Conservation and Restoration: Paintings, Textiles, Fossils, Wood, Stones, Metals, and Glass
by Johannes Karl Fink
Chemicals and Methods for Conservation and Restoration

Contents
Preface xiii
1 Paintings 1
1.1 Cleaning 1
1.1.1 Special Considerations 3
1.1.2 Oxalate-Rich Surface Layers on Paintings 4
1.1.3 Leaching 5
1.1.4 Removal of Dirt 5
1.1.5 Effects of Organic Solvents 7
1.1.6 Cavitation Energy for Solvent Mixtures 11
1.1.7 Hydrogels Based on Semi-Interpenetrating Networks 13
1.1.8 Organogels 14
1.1.9 Microemulsions and Micellar Solutions 15
1.1.10 Acrylic Paintings 15
1.1.11 Acrylic Emulsion Paintings 17
1.1.12 Complications in the Cleaning of Acrylic Paint Surfaces 18
1.1.13 Poly(vinyl acetate) Paints 19
1.1.14 Surface Cleaning 21
1.1.15 Foxing Stain Removal 24
1.1.16 Vacuum Techniques 26
1.1.17 Laser Cleaning Removal 27
1.1.18 Atomic Oxygen Plasma for Removing Organic Protective Coatings 35
1.1.19 Rigid Gels and Enzyme Cleaning 36
1.1.20 Cleaning Efficacy of Sponges and Cloths 38
1.1.21 Smart Cleaning by Soft Nanoscience 38
1.1.22 Plywood Panels 38
1.1.23 Waterborne Emulsion Polymer Paints 39
1.2 Varnishes 41
1.2.1 Removability of Varnishes 41
1.2.2 Synthetic Resins for Varnishes 42
1.2.3 Ionic Liquids for Varnish Removal 45
1.2.4 Extraction of Soluble Components by a Varnish Solution 45
1.2.5 Mastic and Megilp 46
1.3 Methods and Materials for Conservation 47
1.3.1 Microbial Contamination 47
1.3.2 Oil Paintings 49
1.3.3 Organic Materials 51
1.3.4 Poly(vinyl acetate) Paints 55
1.3.5 Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives 56
1.3.6 Microcrystalline Cellulose Composites 57
1.3.7 Nanoscience for Art Conservation 57
1.3.8 Consolidating Wall Paintings Based on
Dispersions of Lime in Alcohol 62
1.3.9 Hindered Amine Light Stabilizers 64
1.3.10 Enzymes 66
1.3.11 y-Radiation and Polymers 67
1.3.12 Partially Hydrolyzed Poly(vinyl acetate)
and Borax Gels 67
1.3.13 Restoring Paper Paintings and
Calligraphic Works 69
1.4 Analysis and Analytical Methods 70
1.4.1 Technical Analysis of Paintings 70
1.4.2 Nondestructive Acoustic Method 73
1.4.3 Surface Characteristics of Paint 74
1.4.4 Binding Media and Protective Coatings 76
1.4.5 Degradation of Films of Dammar Resin 77
1.4.6 Spectroscopic Techniques 78
1.4.7 Organic Mass Spectroscopy 80
1.4.8 Portable NMR 80
1.5 Forgeries 81
1.5.1 Image Analysis Tools 82
1.5.2 Correlation Filters 82
1.5.3 X-Ray Analysis 82
1.5.4 Contourlet Transform 83
References 84
Textiles 95
2.1 Textile Colors 95
2.1.1 Historical Development of Colorants 95
2.1.2 Classification of the Used Colorants 96
2.1.3 Microanalysis of Organic Pigments in
Ancient Textiles 96
2.1.4 Analysis of Dyes 98
2.1.5 Organic Residue Analysis 99
2.1.6 Infrared Analysis 100
2.2 Textiles from Various Locations 101
2.2.1 Early Textiles and Textile Production in Europe 101
2.2.2 Natural Organic Dyes from Ancient Europe 102
2.2.3 Ancient Liturgical Vestment 103
2.2.4 Textiles and Dyes in Pre-Columbian
Northern Chile 104
2.2.5 Painted Andean Textiles 104
2.2.6 Textiles from the Silk Road 105
2.2.7 Historical Chinese Dyestuffs 106
2.2.8 Ancient Indonesian Textiles 108
2.3 Processing Methods 108
2.3.1 Ancient Chemical Processing of Organic
Dyes and Pigments 108
2.3.2 Color Preservation of Ancient Natural Dyes 109
2.3.3 Flavonols for Textile Dyeing 109
References 110
Archaeologica l Wood 113
3.1 Analysis Methods 113
3.1.1 Assessment of Commonly Used
Cleaning Methods 113
3.1.2 Predicting the Wood Preservation Status 114
3.1.3 Analytical Instrumental Techniques to Study
Degradation 116
3.1.4 Near Infrared Spectroscopic Observation of the Aging Process 119
3.1.5 X-ray Computed Tomography for Anatomical and Dendrochronological Analysis 119
3.1.6 Relationship Between Underwater Cultural
Heritage Deterioration and Marine
Environmental Factors 120
3.1.7 Characterizing the State of Preservation of Waterlogged Archaeological Wood 120
3.1.8 Oxygen Consumption by Conserved
Archaeological Wood 121
3.2 Materials for Conservation 122
3.2.1 Dimensional Stabilization 122
3.2.2 Polymers for Archaeological Wood 122
3.2.3 Nanotechnologies for the Restoration of
Archaeological Wood 126
3.2.4 Enzymes for Cleaning 128
3.2.5 Chitosan Treatment 128
3.2.6 Acetone-Carried Consolidants 129
3.2.7 Natural Polymers as Alternative Consolidants 130
3.3 Degradation 131
3.3.1 Chemical Changes of Wood by Conservation and Degradation 131
3.3.2 Microbial Degradation of Waterlogged
Archaeological Wood 132
3.3.3 Fungi 132
3.3.4 Degradation by Microorganisms 133
3.3.5 Degradation of Archaeological Wood Under Freezing and Thawing Conditions 134
3.3.6 Abiotic Chemical Degradation 135
3.3.7 Degradation of Lignin in Archaeological Waterlogged Wood 135
3.3.8 Identification of Bacterial Cultures 136
3.4 Special Properties 137
3.4.1 Wooden Shipwrecks 137
3.4.2 State of Preservation of Waterlogged Archaeological Wood 137
3.4.3 Adsorption and Desorption Mechanism of Water 138
3.4.4 PEG-Impregnated Waterlogged Archaeological Wood 140
3.4.5 Patterns in Tree Rings 141
3.4.6 Physical and Mechanical Properties of Archaeological Wood 141
3.4.7 Demethylation of Syringyl Moieties in Archaeological Wood 142
3.4.8 Decay Prevention Using Gamma Irradiation 142
References 143
Fossils 149
4.1 Monograph 149
4.2 Paleontological Skill and the Role of the
Fossil Preparator 149
4.3 Analysis Methods 150
4.3.1 Bone Samples 150
4.3.2 Stable Isotope Analysis 151
4.3.3 Amino Acid Analysis 153
4.3.4 Ancient DNA 153
4.3.5 Dentin Layers 155
4.3.6 Evolution of Diseases 156
4.3.7 Paleodietary Studies 157
4.3.8 Electron Spin Resonance Dating 162
4.4 Conservation Methods 163
4.4.1 Interventive Conservation Treatments of
Pleistocene Bones 163
4.4.2 Large Fossils 163
4.4.3 Micropreparation 164
4.4.4 Reaction Adhesives for Fossil Preparation 166
4.4.5 Histological Core Drilling 168
4.4.6 Manual Centrifuge for Resin Casting 170
4.4.7 Interferences of Conservation Treatments with
Subsequent Studies on Fossil Bones 170
References 172
Stones 177
5.1 Deterioration Processes 178
5.1.1 Biological Deterioration 178
5.1.2 Biological Colonization on Ceramics 181
5.1.3 Biofilm Formation 182
5.1.4 Bacterial Carbonatogenesi s 183
5.1.5 Microflora on Building Stones 183
5.1.6 Patina Formation on Mineralic Rocks 184
5.1.7 Cyanobacteria 185
5.1.8 Microbial Deterioration of Sandstone 185
5.2 Analytical Methods 187
5.2.1 Analysis of Starch 187
5.2.2 Residue Analysis 188
5.2.3 Optically Stimulated Luminescence Dating 189
5.2.4 NMR Devices in Stone Conservation 190
5.3 Conservation Methods 193
5.3.1 Changes in Petrophysical Properties of the Stone Surface Due to Past Conservation
Treatments 194
5.3.2 Conservation of Lime 195
5.3.3 Conservation of Gypsum 195
5.3.4 Stone Tools 197
5.3.5 Bioreceptivity of Glazed Tiles 198
5.3.6 Rock Art Protection 198
5.3.7 Polymers 199
5.3.8 Biocalcification Treatment 201
5.3.9 Water Repellent Treatment 202
5.3.10 Calcium Hydroxide Nanoparticles 202
5.3.11 Nanolime Calcium Hydroxide with Triton 203
5.3.12 Nanocomposites for the Protection of Granitic
Obelisks 204
5.3.13 Superhydrophobi c Films 205
References 206
6 Glass 213
6.1 Analytical Methods 213
6.1.1 Spectrometric Investigation of
Weathering Processes 213
6.1.2 Analysis of Historic Glass 214
6.1.3 Optical Spectroscopy 215
6.1.4 Portable Raman Spectroscopy 215
6.1.5 3D Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometry 216
6.2 Cleaning Methods 217
6.2.1 Medieval Stained Glass Corrosion 217
6.2.2 Effect of Soil pH on the Degradation 217
6.2.3 Adhesives and Consolidants 218
6.2.4 Biocorrosion and Biodeterioration 218
6.2.5 Potash-Lime-Silica Glass 220
6.2.6 Chemical Cleaning of Glass 221
6.2.7 Unstable Historic Glass 222
6.2.8 Epoxy-Amine Resins Used for Restoration 222
6.2.9 Potash Glass Corrosion 224
6.2.10 Zinc Treatment on Float Glass 226
6.2.11 Sol-Gel Silica Coating 226
6.2.12 Hybrid Sol-Gel-Based Coatings 227
6.2.13 Cyclododecane as Whitening Spray 228
6.3 Production Practices 229
6.3.1 Production Practices in Medieval Stained
Glass Workshops 229
6.3.2 Coloring Methods of Old Glass 230
6.3.3 Reverse Painting on Glass 230
6.4 Special Uses of Glass Materials 231
6.4.1 Medieval Glass Windows 231
6.4.2 Church Windows 232
6.4.3 Archaeological Glass 232
References 233
7 Archaeologica l Metals 237
7.0.4 Analytical Methods 237
7.0.5 Dating Archaeological Lead Artifacts 237
7.0.6 Lead Isotopic Measurements 239
7.0.7 Archaeometallurgical Analysis 240
7.0.8 Dating of Archaeological Copper Samples 241
7.0.9 Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy 242
7.0.10 Voltammetric Analysis 242
7.0.11 Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Analysis 244
7.0.12 Roughness Estimation of Archaeological Metal Surfaces 246
7.0.13 Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry 247
7.1 Cleaning Methods 247
7.1.1 Tarnished Silver 247
7.1.2 Laser Cleaning 248
7.1.3 Plasma Sputtering 250
7.1.4 Thermochemical Treatment for Iron and Copper Alloys 252
7.2 Special Uses of Metals 253
7.2.1 Archaeological Material from Underwater Sites 253
7.2.2 Bronze Shields 254
7.2.3 Copper and Bronze Axes 255
7.2.4 Coins 256
References 262
Index 267
Acronyms 267
Chemicals 269
General Index 273

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