Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion, Volume 2: Fads to Nylon

5:48 AM
Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion, Volume 2: Fads to Nylon
Valerie Steele, Editor in Chief
Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion, Volume 2

Contents:
F
Fads
Fancy Dress
Fans
Fascist and Nazi Dress
Fashion
Fashion, Attacks on
Fashion, Historical Studies of
Fashion, Theories of
Fashion Advertising
Fashion and Homosexuality
Fashion and Identity
Fashion Designer
Fashion Dolls
Fashion Editors
Fashion Education
Fashion, Health, and Disease
Fashion Icons
Fashion Illustrators
Fashion Industry
Fashion Journalism
Fashion Magazines
Fashion Marketing and Merchandising
Fashion Models
Fashion Museums and Collections
Fashion Online
Fashion Photography
Fashion Plates
Fashion Shows
Fashion Television
Fasteners
Fath, Jacques
Feathers
Felt
Fendi
Ferragamo, Salvatore
Fetish Fashion
Fibers
Film and Fashion
First Ladies’ Gowns
Flannel
Flappers
Flocking
Flügel, J. C.
Fogarty, Anne
Folk Dress, Eastern Europe
Folk Dress, Western Europe
Folklore Look
Fontana Sisters
Footbinding
Ford, Tom
Formal Wear, Men’s
Fortuny, Mariano
Fulling
Fur
Future of Fashion
Futurist Fashion, Italian
G
G-string and Thong
Gabardine
Galanos, James
Galliano, John
Garments, International Trade in
Gaultier, Jean-Paul
Gender, Dress, and Fashion
Gernreich, Rudi
Gigli, Romeo
Girdle
Givenchy, Hubert de
Glazing
Globalization
Gloves
Godey’s Lady’s Book
Golf Clothing
Goths
Grès, Mme.
Grunge
Gucci
H
Hair Accessories
Hairdressers
Hairstyles
Halloween Costume
Halston
Handbags and Purses
Handwoven Textiles
Hartnell, Norman
Hats, Men’s
Hats, Women’s
Haute Couture
Hawaiian Shirt
Hawes, Elizabeth
Head, Edith
Headdress
Helmet
Hemlines
Hemp
Hermès
Heroin Chic
High Heels
High-Tech Fashion
Hijab
Hilfiger, Tommy
Hip-Hop Fashion
Hippie Style
Historicism and Historical Revival
Hollywood Style
Homespun
Horst, Horst P.
Hosiery, Men’s
Hoyningen-Huene, George
Hugo Boss
I
Ikat
Implants
India: Clothing and Adornment
Indigo
Inuit and Arctic Dress
Inuit and Arctic Footwear
Iran: History of Pre-Islamic Dress
Iribe, Paul
Islamic Dress, Contemporary
Italian Fashion
J
Jacket
James, Charles
Japanese Fashion
Japanese Traditional Dress and Adornment
Japonisme
Jeans
Jersey
Jewelry
Jewish Dress
Jilbab
Jockey Shorts
Jumper Dress
K
Kaffiyeh
Kain-kebaya
Kamali, Norma
Kanga
Karan, Donna
Kente
Kilt
Kimono
Klein, Calvin
Knitting
Knitting Machinery
Knotting
Korean Dress and Adornment
L
Labeling Laws
Labor Unions
Lace
Lacroix, Christian
Lagerfeld, Karl
Lang, Helmut
Lanvin, Jeanne
Latin American Fashion
Latino Style
Laundry
Lauren, Ralph
Laver, James
Leather and Suede
Legal and Judicial Costume
Leiber, Judith
Leotard
Lesage, François
Levi Strauss & Co.
Liberty & Co.
Linen
Lingerie
Lipstick
Little Black Dress
Logos
London Fashion
Loom
Lucile
M
Macaroni Dress
Mackie, Bob
Madonna
Mainbocher
Makeup Artists
Mallarmé, Stéphane
Mannequins
Mantua
Mao Suit
Margiela, Martin
Marimekko
Marks & Spencer
Marx, Karl
Masks
Masquerade and Masked Balls
Maternity Dress
McCardell, Claire
McFadden, Mary
McQueen, Alexander
Meisel, Steven
Microfibers
Middle East: History of Islamic Dress
Military Style
Milliners
Miniskirt
Missoni
Miyake, Issey
Modern Primitives
Mohair
Moore, Doris Langley
Mori, Hanae
Moschino, Franco
Mourning Dress
Muffs
Mugler, Thierry
Muir, Jean
Music and Fashion
Muslin
N
Nail Art
Napping
Nautical Style
Necklaces and Pendants
Neckties and Neckwear
Needles
Nehru Jacket
New Look
Newton, Helmut
Nightgown
Nonwoven Textiles
Norell, Norman
Nudism
Nudity
Nylon
 
FADS
Here today, gone tomorrow. It is hard to identify a fad until it has fizzled. Fashion cycles, more generally, vary in speed; fads are those particular fashion cycles that “take us by surprise, but also fade very quickly” (van Ginneken, p. 161). The term “fashion” implies “strong norms” (Crane, p. 1), and although this criterion may also apply to fads, these norms are of shorter duration and within a more limited population. Fred Davis goes so far as to say that fashion itself “somehow manage[s] on first viewing to startle, captivate, offend,” but ultimately “engage[s] the sensibilities of some culturally preponderant public, in America the so-called middle mass” (p. 15). By implication, a fad represents a temporary and limited divergence from a more general path of fashionability; the “so-called middle mass” may never approve.

A perusal of academic books in fashion studies over the last decade reveals that the term “fad” itself may have fallen out of style. Even Arthur Berger’s text Ads, Fads, and Consumer Culture includes little mention of fads. Still, popular media feature lists of “what’s hot” versus “what’s not.” Why aren’t these called fads? Perhaps the timespace nexus associated with contemporary fashion cycles is at issue: Influencing the rapidity and scope of “what’s hot” are factors such as a global economy, rapid technological change and media influence, “fast fashion” (or speed-to-market production), and a fashion system that combines branded commodities with stylistic diversity among consumers.

Nevertheless, a case can be made for interpreting the concept of fad for its historical, heuristic, and analytical significance. Issues of time, identity, stylistic detail, expression, and emotion all come into play in contemporary life, regardless of what we call the phenomenon in question. Historically, the term has been used to characterize collective behavior that may range from an article of clothing or an accessory (or how it is worn) to a hairstyle or other way of grooming. Or, it may describe toys or gadgets, or even activities or practices that do not require consumer purchase. Fads tend to be: (1) of a strikingly new or revolutionary quality that sets them apart from current fashion; (2) short-lived, with a rapid growth in popularity and demise; (3) accepted only in, and intensely popular within, small groups or subcultures; and (4) often “nonessential,” “mostly for amusement,” or a “passing fancy.”

The concept of a fad seems to relate almost as much to who participates as it does to time. According to the Oxford English Dictionary the term is related to the earlier concept of fidfad (short for fiddle-faddle). A fidfad, dating back to 1754, was a person who gave “fussy attention to trifles.” In the mid-nineteenth century, the terms “fad” and “faddish” were used to refer to shallow or unpredictable patterns of behavior or people.

It is interesting to note that the Oxford English Dictionary has not added new entries for the concept since its 1989 edition. However, it has generated related concepts that deserve careful attention: namely, “trendy” and “fashion victim.” Trendiness implies the state of being fashionable and up to date; it also connotes following the latest trend (“sometimes dismissively”). Since the early 1960s, “trendy” and “trendiness” have begun to displace the concept of fad linguistically. By the 1980s, the concept of trendy had become well-entrenched in everyday speech. The connotation of being shallow or narrowly focused persisted; the term still does not describe individuals who are immersed in the larger, “mainstream” issues of the day. Dating back to the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the concept of a trend implied divergence from the mainstream—initially in the context of physical or geological manifestations (for example, streams, currents, or valleys). By the 1960s, the idea of trend analysis had taken hold in the social context as well. The idea of a fad was morphing into a “trend.”

Aside from issues of intensified speed, media saturation, and identities and intentions, there is the question of who benefits from fads or trends, and how. Accordingly, Marx and McAdam made an analytical distinction between “spontaneous” and “sponsored” fads. The former appear and spread without the involvement (at least initially) of an entrepreneur or business. Usually a spontaneous fad can be pursued without an extensive monetary commitment; it tends to be behavioral in nature. Examples might include goldfish swallowing in the 1920s or “streaking” (running naked) in the 1970s; both of these fads spread and deceased rapidly as trends on college campuses. In contrast, a sponsored fad tends to be consciously promoted; this is probably most obvious when applied to toys or gadgets (for example, the “pet rock” fad of the mid-1970s or the Pog craze of the early 1990s).


Read "Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion" as PDF
How to Get Book? To get any book you can send Email: textileebooks@gmail.com

Share this

Related Posts

Previous
Next Post »