Fibers and Composites Edited by Pierre Delhaès

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Fibers and Composites
Edited by Pierre Delhaès
Fibers and Composites

Contents
Introduction to the series
List of contributors
PART I
Carbon fibers
1 Formation of microstructure in mesophase carbon fibers
J. L. WHITE, B. FATHOLLAHI, AND X. BOURRAT
Introduction
Microstructural approach
Manipulation of mesophase flow in a spinneret
Discussion
2 The effect of processing on the structure and properties
D. D. EDIE
Introduction
PAN-based carbon fibers
Pitch-based carbon fibers
New developments
Summary
3 Electronic and thermal properties of carbon fibers
J.-P. ISSI
Introduction
Experimental challenges
Electrical resistivity
Thermal conductivity
Thermoelectric power
Fibrous intercalation compounds
Sample characterization
Carbon fiber composites
Conclusions
PART II
CVD/CVI processes
4 Fundamentals of chemical vapor deposition in hot wall reactors
K. J. HÜTTINGER
Introduction
Elementary processes
Hydrogen inhibition
Surface area/volume ratio
Saturation adsorption
The role of a complex deposition chemistry for CVI
Considerations about the formation of different
carbon microstructures
Summary
5 Chemical vapor infiltration processes of carbon materials
P. DELHAÈS
Introduction
General background on CVD and CVI processes
CVI processes and efficiency
Pyrocarbon microstructures
Physical models
Carbon–carbon composites
Conclusion and outlook
6 Industrial carbon chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) processes
I. GOLECKI
Introduction
Overview of carbon CVI
Chemical vapor infiltration processes
Summary
7 Liquid impregnation techniques for carbon–carbon composites
R. MENÉNDEZ, E. CASAL, AND M. GRANDA
Introduction
Impregnation technology
Densification efficiency
Matrix precursors
New developments in C–C composites
Summary and conclusions
PART III
Properties of matrices and composites
8 Structure of pyrocarbons
X. BOURRAT
Introduction
The various pyrocarbons
Cones and regenerative features
Carbon layer diameter and growth mechanisms
Density and anisotropy of pyrocarbons
Conclusions
9 Role of chemistry in advanced carbon-based composites
C. VIX-GUTERL AND P. EHRBURGER
Introduction: principle of composite materials
Surface properties of carbon fibers
Surface treatment of carbon fibers
Carbon fiber reinforced polymers
Carbon–carbon composites
Carbon-based composites with other matrices
Conclusion
10 Carbon–cement composites
D. D. L. CHUNG
Introduction
Structural behavior
Thermal behavior
Electrical behavior
Radio wave reflectivity
Cathodic protection of steel reinforcement in concrete
Strain sensing
Damage sensing
Temperature sensing through the thermistor effect
Thermoelectric behavior
Corrosion resistance
Conclusion

Introduction To The Series
The World of Carbon book series aims to propose different approaches to carbon materials which summarize the essential information regarding advances and results accumulated in basic and applied research during the last century. Indeed, carbon associated with other atoms is a key element in nature and life. The focus of these books is, however, elemental carbon in a condensed phase, that is, mainly related to materials science.

Besides the natural forms of carbon found in earth and in extraterrestrial media, the artificial ones have led to manifold technical applications. They cover areas such as industrial chemistry and metallurgy, terrestrial transports as well as aircraft and aeronautics or environmental protection. These examples are related to the numerous old and new forms of carbon that we have partly presented in the first book of the series.

The field of research of carbon materials is a beautiful example of the strong interactions between science and technology, where back and forth activity has worked together for a long time. As with other scientific events, a historical approach shows that advances are step-by-step rather than linear with strong breakthroughs; different strata of knowledge are accumulated but sometimes with a loss of memory of the previous one. It is crucial for scientific knowledge, as a part of human activity, that a basic synthesis is realized, which summarized the numerous annual publications. The aim of this series is thus to provide short tutorial articles containing a comprehensive summary of the different topics related to the science of carbon materials. They will be addressed to engineers, scientists and students who are seeking fundamental points whithout “reinventing the wheel”.

World of Carbon series will be devoted to specific subjects, which cover all forms of carbons: the old ones like graphites or diamonds, but also the applied ones as fibers and composites. Each volume will cover fundamental research in chemistry and physics, as well as current applications and future developments. Such is the case of the second volume, which is devoted to the different forms of fibers, their precursors and their uses. This is one part of the most important industrial applications of graphitic carbons as also carbon blacks, foams and aerogels, insertion and reactivity products. Other polymorphic forms will not be neglected in the future, as carbynes or the new molecular curved forms, fullerenes and nanotubes, which are opening new avenues in nanotechnology.

Finally, we expect to present a collection of articles at a level and a style accessible to a large audience that will cover almost all aspects of carbon materials.

Pierre Delhaès


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