Quality Assessmenf of Texfiles: Damage Detection by Microscopy by Karl Mahall

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Quality Assessmenf of Texfiles: Damage Detection by Microscopy
By Karl Mahall
Quality Assessmenf of Texfiles: Damage Detection by Microscopy

Contents
Fundamentals and Priming
Necessary Equipment .............. .
Preliminary Examination of Textile Test Material
Classical Examination Methods . . . . . . . . .
Preparation of Negative Imprints with the Size
of Microscope Slides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparation of Negative Imprints of Fibers and Yarns on
Thermoplastic Films . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Imprints of Larger Areas .............. .
Detection of Dyeing U nlevelness with the Aid of the
Replication Method - Practical Example . . . . . . .
Detection of Oil and/or Grease Soiling on Textile Fabrics
Detection of Structural Defects - Practical Example
Summarizing Evaluation of Large Imprints
Microtome Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chemical Damage
Chemical Damage to Wool ............... .
The Pauly Reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alkaline Damage to Wool and Wool-Like Natural Fibers
Dye Unlevelness in Wool Tops Made of Alkaline Damaged Wool
- Practical Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Strength Loss in Wool, Caused by Alkalinely Reacting
Untreated Yarn - Practical Example ......... .
Dye Stains on Polyester/Wool Due to Local Alkaline Damage
to the W 001- Practical Example ........... .
Limits of the Pauly Reaction - Strong Alkaline Damage
Acid Damage to Wool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chlorine Damage to Wool .............. .
Chlorination of a Wool Carpet (Gold Afghan), Increase of
Luster, Gold Effects - Practical Example . . . .
Chlorination of Wool in the Non-Felting Finish ..... .
Chemical Damage to Silk ................. .
Chemical Composition, Structure and Microscopy of Silk
Detection of Chemical Damage to Silk with Pauly Reagent
Control of the Degumming Effect
Chemical Damage to Cotton ........ .
Microscopy of Cotton . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Detection of Oxycellulose and Hydrocellulose
Bleaching Damage Due to Catalysts .....
Different Phenomena of Catalytic Bleaching Damage
Holes and Tears in a Bleached Cotton Fabric - Practical Example.
Small Holes in a Bleached Cotton Fabric - Practical Example
Chemical Damage to Synthetics .............. .
Acid Damage to Polyamide Knitwear - Practical Example
Detection of Acid-Damaged Polyamide Fibers by Means of
Imprints - Practical Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Acid Damage to Polyamide Stockings - Practical Example
Polyester Fabric with Acid Damage - Practical Example
Detection of Saponified Acetate Fibers . . . . . . . . . . .
Mechanical Damage
Mechanical Damage to Wool
Mechanical Damage to a Blended Fabric Due to Abrasion on the
Winch - Practical Example .................. .
Light Streaks and Stains on a Wool Fabric - Practical Example
Light Stains on a Wool Cloth Caused by Mechanical Damage
During Shearing - Practical Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mechanical Damage Caused by Tearing Wool, Comparison with
Recovered Wool .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mechanical Damage to Wool Fibers Caused by Wool Pests
Mechanical Damage to Silk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mechanical Damage to Cotton .............. .
Light Streaks on a Black-Dyed Poplin Fabric - Practical Example.
Mechanical Damage to a Feather Bed Ticking - Practical Example
Graying of a Dyed Cotton Fabric After Extended Use .....
Mechanically Damaged Cotton Threads of an Oriental Carpet
- Practical Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Darker Colored Streaks Due to Squashed Cotton Fibers
- Practical Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Crease Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mechanical Damage to Cellulose Regenerated Fibers
Graying During Dyeing on the Winch - Practical Example
Mechanical Damage to Synthetic Fibers ......... .
3.5.1 Graying of a Carpet Made of Acrylic Fibers - Practical Example 85
3.5.2 Graying of a Napped Blanket Material Made of Acrylic Fibers
- Practical Example ..................... 85
4 Thermal and Thermo-Mechanical Damage to Synthetics 87
Thermal Damage Caused by Direct Heat . . . . . . . . . . 87
Thermal Deformation of Synthetic Fibers During Setting . 87
Weft Streaks in a Fabric Made ofPolyesterlWool After Setting
- Practical Example ....................... 87
Graying in a Woven Fur Made of Polyvinyl Chloride and Acrylic
Fibers After Drying - Practical Example ........ 89
Thermal Deformations During Texturizing ....... 91
Light Stains on a Printed Cotton Fabric Due to Melted,
Flat-Rolled Polypropylene Fibers - Practical Example 91
Singeing Damage to Synthetic Fibers . . . . . . . . . . 93
Dark Stains on a Gabardine Fabric After Singeing and Dyeing
- Practical Example ...................... 93
Stain Formation and Film-Like Coating Due to Thermally
Deformed, Flat-Rolled Polyester Fibers - Practical Example 95
Streaks and Stains on a Singed Fabric Made of
Polyester/Viscose Staple - Practical Example ........ 95
Strength Loss After Singeing Due to Melting of Polyester Fibers
- Practical Example ....................... 98
Streakiness After Singeing and Dyeing Due to Melted, Darker
Dyed Polyamide Fibers - Practical Example . . . . . . . . . 98
Damage Caused by Ironing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Light Stains on a Fabric Made of PolyesterlW 001 Caused by
Ironing - Practical Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Thermal Deformation of Synthetic Fibers Due to Frictional Heat. 99
Streaks in a Piece of Knitwear Caused by Acrylic Fibers with
Thermo-Mechanical Damage - Practical Example ..... 102
Graying on a Dyed Acrylic Yarn - Practical Example .... 102
Light Patches on a Sewing Thread Made of Polyester Due to
Thermo-Mechanical Damage - Practical Example ... 102
Thermal Deformation of Polyester Fibers as a Result of
Excessive Spinning Speeds - Practical Example ..... 104
Fiber Dust Formation During Twisting of a Polyester/Cotton
Yarn - Practical Example ................. 104
Bar Formation Due to Polyester Fibers with Thermo-
Mechanical Damage in a Fabric Made of Poly esterl Wool
- Practical Example .......................... 104
4.3 Thermal Damage to Synthetic Fibers due to Impact . . . . . . . lO6
4.3.1 Lighter Yarn Areas Due to "Shuttle Marks" on a Fabric Made of
Acrylic Fibers - Practical Example ............... lO6
4.3.2 Light Streaks in a Black-Dyed Polyester Fabric Due to "Warp
Splashes" - Practical Example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
4.3.3 White Streaks in a Polyester/Acrylic Fabric Caused by "Warp
Splashes" - Practical Example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
4.4 Thermal Deformation of Synthetic Fibers Due to Cutting,
Punching and Sewing .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
4.4.1 Thermally Bonded Cut Ends in Polyamide Short Staple III
4.4.2 Streak Formation in a Plush Fabric Made of Acrylic Fibers
- Practical Example .................... ..... 111
4.4.3 Streak Formation in a Velour Carpet Made of Polyamide
- Practical Example .................... 111
4.4.4 Streak Formation in a Velour Carpet Made of Polypropylene
- Practical Example .................... 114
4.4.5 Bonding of Punched Pieces of a Knitted Fabric Made of
Polyamide - Practical Example . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .... 114
4.4.6 Detection of Cutting Defects on Polyester Fibers Through
Dyeing of the Cut Ends ........................ 114
5 Streaks and Bars in Textile Fabrics Due to Yarn Differences
and Technological Reasons 117
5.1 Streaks Due to Variations in the Yarn Volume or Yarn Count 119
5.1.1 Streaks Parallel to the Threads in a Viscose Staple Fabric
- Practical Example .......................... 119
5.1.2 Warp-Streaky Twill Due to Differences in the Yarn Count
- Practical Example ..................... 119
5.1.3 Streak Formation in a Tubular Knitted Fabric, Made of
Mercerized Cotton Yarn, Due to Differences in the Twisting
Effects - Practical Example .................. 119
5.1.4 Streaks and Bars in Cotton Fabrics Due to Varying Hairiness
of the Weft Yarn - Practical Example ............ 122
5.1.5 Streak Formation Due to Differently Twisted Mouline Yarns
- Practical Example .................. 122
5.1.6 Warp Streakiness in a Polyester/Wool Fabric Due to
Differences in Yarn Twist - Practical Example . . . . . . . . . 124
5.1.7 Streakiness in a Piece of Knitted Fabric Made of Bulked
Acrylic Yarn Due to Differences in Volume and/or in Bulking
- Practical Example .......................... 124
5.2 Streaks and Bars Parallel to Threads Due to Yarn
Mixture Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .......... 127
5.2.1 Dark Weft Bar in a Cotton Fabric After Dyeing
- Practical Example ............... 127
5.2.2 Weft Bars in a Fabric Made ofW ool/Viscose Staple
- Practical Example ...................... 127
5.2.3 Streaks in an Acrylic Fiber Fabric Due to Yarns of Different
Origin - Practical Example .................. 130
5.2.4 Warp Streaks in Polyamide Fabrics Due to Yarn Mixture Errors
- Practical Example ........................ 130
5.2.5 Dye Unlevelness in Cotton Pieces due to Yarns Manufactured
According to Different Spinning Processes - Practical Example 133
5.2.6 Warp Streaks and Bars Due to Yarns of Different Cotton Origin
- Practical Example ........................ 133
5.2.7 Warp Streaks in a Black-Dyed Wool Fabric - Practical Example 135
5.2.8 Color Differences and Streaks in Ribbons Made of Secondary
Acetate from Different Spinning Lots - Practical Example ... 135
5.3 Streak and Bar Formation Due to Other Yarn-Related Influences 135
5.3.1 Streaks Due to Incorrect Mercerization - Practical Example 137
5.3.2 Streaks Due to Differences in the Blend - Practical Example 137
5.3.3 Weft Streaks in a Polyamide Fabric Due to Absence of
Protective Twist - Practical Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
5.3.4 Warp Streaks Due to Incorrect Texturing - Practical Example 140
5.4 Streaks in Pile Goods ...................... 140
5.4.1 Streaks Parallel to the Threads in a Tufted Carpet Made of
Pure Wool, Caused by a Deeper Set Tuft Row - Practical Example 141
5.4.2 Streaks Parallel to the Threads in a Tufted Carpet Made of
Pure Wool Due to Different Needling - Practical Example . . . 141
5.4.3 Streak Formation in a Woven Wall-to-Wall Carpet Due to Yarn
Differences - Practical Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
5.4.4 Streaks and Bars in Cotton Velvet Due to Differences in the
Twisting of the Pile Yarns - Practical Example ....... 143
5.4.5 Streakiness in a Viscose Staple Plush Due to Yarn Differences
- Practical Example ....................... 145
6 Causes ofthe Formation of Tight Threads and Their Effects .. 146
6.1 Tight Threads in Wool Fabrics Caused by Uneven Yarn Moisture 146
6.1.1 Tight Picks in Wool Fabrics - Practical Example ......... 146
6.1.2 Tight Threads in the Warp of a Wool Fabric - Practical Example 147
6.2 Tight Picks in a Fabric Made of Viscose - Practical Example ... 150
6.3 Tight Threads Caused by Different Yarn Twist
- Practical Example .......................... 150
7 Defects Caused by Deposits and Encrustations on the Fiber
Material ................................ 153
Detection of Oil, Grease, Paraffin or Wax Deposits by Means
of Dyeing with Oil-Soluble Dyes ............... .
Dye Resisting Effects of a Polyamide Fabric - Practical Example
Warp Streakiness in a Lining Material Caused by Failure to
Adequately Wash Out the Spin Finish - Practical Example . . . . .
Streaks in Fulled Wool Fabrics Due to Differences in the
Fiber Lubricant Pick-Up - Practical Example ...... .
Detection of Oil and/or Grease Soiling on Polyester ... .
Detection of Oil, Grease, Wax and Paraffin Deposits by Means
of Film Imprints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Light Stains Caused by Oil Soiling in a Wool Fabric After
Dyeing - Practical Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reserved Areas Due to Oil Soiling in a Cotton Fabric
- Practical Example ....................... .
Streak Formation in Knitwear Caused by Uneven Paraffination
- Practical Example .................... .
Detection of Pigment Deposits on Imprints ....... .
Reserved Areas in a Polyester/Cotton Fabric Due to Resin
Deposits - Practical Example ............... .
Stain Formation Caused by Lime Deposits on Polyester Knitwear
- Practical Example ........................ .
Pigment Soiling on a Played Yarn Made of Acrylic Fibers
- Practical Example ................... ..... .
Speck-Like Dark Stains on a Cotton Fabric Caused by
Undissolved Dye Particles - Practical Example
Graying and Light Stains on a Polyester Fabric Due to
Oligomer Deposits - Practical Example ............ .
Detection ofFilm-Forming Products and Film-Like Deposits by
Means of Imprints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hardening of the Hand Due to Residues of Printing Paste
Thickeners - Practical Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wool Fabric Showing Chalky Marks when Scratched, Caused by
the Backing - Practical Example ................ .
Printed Fabric Made of Silk/Viscose with Hardened Areas
Caused by Adhesives for the Printing Table - Practical Example
7.4.4 Deposits of Sizing Agent on the Weft Yarns of a
Polyester/Cotton Fabric - Practical Example . . . . . . . . . 172
7.5 Detection of Deposits in Staining Tests, Yarn Cross-Sections
and/or Fabric Cross-Sections .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
7.5.1 Evaluation of Sizing Agent Distribution on Yarn Cross-Sections
by Staining of the Starch Sizing Agent with Iodine Solution 173
7.5.2 Oversized Warp Threads - Practical Example . . . . . . . 173
7.5.3 Detection of Durable Antistatics by Staining . . . . . . . . 176
7.5.4 Black Specks in a Polyester Curtain Fabric After Bleaching
- Practical Example .......................... 176
8 Other Defects in the Quality of Textiles ... 179
8.1 Skittery Dyed Wool Yarn - Practical Example . . . . . . . . . 179
8.2 Uneven Wool Printing - Practical Example .......... 179
8.3 Small Light Spots Caused by Trapped Air Bubbles During the
Dyeing of Wound Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
8.4 Dye Unlevelness in Polyester Knitwear Caused by Water Drops
- Practical Example ....................... 182
8.5 Dye Unlevelness Within a Spinning Lot Due to Separation of
the Fiber Components - Practical Example ....... 182
8.6 Darker Specks of Dyed Feather Bed Ticking Due to Non-
Decomposed Seed Husks - Practical Example . . . . . . . . . .. 183
8.7 Spots Due to Dark-Dyed Fly Fibers - Practical Example ..... 183
8.8 Red Specks Due to Dyed, Melted and Flat-Rolled Man-Made Fly
Fibers on a White Viscose Staple Fabric .............. 183
8.9 Light, Undyed Short Bristly Fibers in a Wool Yarn
- Practical Example .......................... 186
8.10 Gray, Dot-Like Stains on Needlefelt Sheets
- Practical Example ....................... 186
8.11 Running Marks in a Cotton Tricot Fabric - Practical Example 188
8.12 Shade Differences in Dress Fabrics Due to Different Hairiness
- Practical Example ..................... 188
8.13 Brittle, Dope-Dyed Acrylic Fiber Material on the Carding
Machine and Drawing Frames - Practical Example . . . . 188
8.14 Light Specks in a Milled Terry Towelling Fabric Due to Dead
Cotton - Practical Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
8.15 Bonded Yarns in a Cotton Cross-Wound Bobbin
- Practical Example ......................... 190
8.16 Knitted Goods Sticking Together in Garment Production Due to
Hairiness of Cotton Yarn - Practical Example . . . . . . . . . .. 191
8.17 Cotton Fabrics With Side-to-Center Shading Due to Uneven
Squeezing Effects - Practical Example ................ 191
Microbiological Damage to Fibers
Damage Caused by Fungi . . . . .
Mould Attack on Cotton - Practical Example
Mould Attack on Sausage Yarn Made of Hemp
- Practical Example .............. .
Mould Attack on Packing Cords Made of Hemp
- Practical Example ............... .
Mould Attack on Viscose Staple - Practical Example
Moulds on a Blended Fabric Made of Polyester/Cotton
- Practical Example .................. .
Moulds on a Sized Polyester Fabric - Practical Example
Moulds on a Polyester Yarn - Practical Example
Dark Stains on a Wool Fabric Caused by Moulds
- Practical Example ............... .
Cross-Wound Bobbins Made of Wool with Brownish and
Dark Green Mould Stains - Practical Example ..... .
Warp Beams Made of Polyamide/Wool with Differently Colored
Mildew Spots - Practical Example ........... .
Damage Caused by Bacteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bacterial Attack on a Military Cloth - Practical Example
Bacterially Damaged Carpet Yarn - Practical Example .
Streak Formation in a Dyed Fabric Made of Polyester/Wool
Caused by Bacterial Attack - Practical Example . . . . . . .
Poultry Feathers as Filling Material for Bedding and Textiles -
Analysis of Faults ..................... .
Chemical and morphological structure of poultry feathers
Detection of damage to poultry feathers ... . . . . . . .
Detection of damage to poultry feathers with the Pauly reagent
Detection of damage to poultry feathers with Neocarmin W . .
References 222
Figures 227
Subject Index 231
Appendix: Technical Equipment, Chemicals, Reagents and I' ! .. 235

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