Reference Books of Weaving (ACIMIT) by Giovanni Castelli, Salvatore Maietta, Giuseppe Sigrisi, Ivo Matteo Slaviero

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Reference Books of Weaving (ACIMIT)
by Giovanni Castelli, Salvatore Maietta, Giuseppe Sigrisi, Ivo Matteo Slaviero
Reference Books of Weaving (ACIMIT)

Introduction
I am pleased to introduce the first of a series of four ″Reference Books″ about textile machinery technologies, which the ACIMIT Foundation decided to offer to the Italian textile institutes.

The subjects of this Reference Book are machines, accessories, ancillary equipment and technologies related to ″Weaving″, a sector in which Italy boasts the presence of top−ranking companies offering worldwide a state-of-the-art know-how.

This Reference Book concerning ″Weaving″ will be followed in the year 2001 by three other References Books reserved to ″Knitting″, ″Spinning″ and ″Finishing.

The exigence of realizing these Reference Books originated from a series of meetings which the ACIMIT Foundation − within various initiatives aimed at developing their relations with the educational bodies - decided to start up in cooperation with the headmasters and the teaching staff of the textile institutes.

ACIMIT Foundation had been informed in fact that the editions which are presently used as textbooks in these institutes do not keep up any more with the continuous and rapid technological development characterizing this sector in last years.

Consequently, to comply as much as possible with the learning needs of the students, the ACIMIT Foundation thought it advisable, in agreement with the headmasters of the various institutes, to entrust the realization of the Reference Books to a group of teachers of these institutes, who accepted with great enthusiasm this not easy task. The Italian textile machinery producers wish therefore to thank sincerely the headmasters and teachers of these institutes, from which they draw precious resources for the development of their own enterprises.

As nothing is born perfect, we shall be sincerely grateful to everybody concerned (students, teachers, company technicians, etc.) for any suggestion and correction, which will enable us to improve our work and make it more and more profitable.

Alberto M. Sacchi, President, ACIMIT Foundation

Index
Introduction............................................................................page 8
Warping .................................................................................................... ″ 9
Creels ........................................................................................................... ″ 9
Sectional warping ................................................................................. ″ 12
Beam warping....................................................................................... ″ 18
Direct beaming..................................................................................... ″ 20
Sample warping ................................................................... ″ 21
Sizing .............................................................................................. ″ 21
Preparation of weaving machines ............................................... ″ 24
Weaving machines..................................................................... ″ 28
Rapier weaving machines .............................................................. ″ 29
Projectile weaving machines ............................................ ″ 36
Air jet weaving machines .......................................................... ″ 42
Water jet weaving machines ........................................................ ″ 45
Special weaving machines .................................................... ″ 47
Bearing structure of a weaving machine .................................... ″ 54
Warp let-off and fabric take-up ....................................................... ″ 55
Shedding machines .............................................................. ″ 57
Drive and control of weaving machines ......................................... ″ 64
Other equipment ......................................................... ″ 66
Weft feeders............................................................................... ″ 70
Weft and warp control ................................................................. ″ 71
Selvedges .................................................................................... ″ 75
Production control and analysis in the weaving rooms ........................................″ 77
Multimediality and Internet in weaving........................................ ″ 82
Air conditioning plants ................................................................... ″ 83
The hazards in the textile industry ....................................................... ″ 84
Fabric defects and machine setting problems ................................................. ″ 88
Cost accounting ............................................................................................ ″ 91

Introduction
A fabric is a flat structure consisting of fibrous products, either natural or ″man made″. Nowadays there are various technologies suitable to create textiles, which all of them go by the name of fabrics.

We shall deal here exclusively with the technology producing orthogonal fabrics by interlacing together two elements: warp and weft. The first element is represented by the threads placed lengthwise in the fabric, while the second is represented by the threads placed in width direction.

The yarn is marketed wound on various types of packages, which generally depend on the technology of the spinning process from which the yarn originates; the most common packages are cones (either cones or bicones, or tubes, or tricones), spools or bobbins, flanged bobbins, hanks and cheeses.

Owing to the specialization trend of modern technology, the weaving industry is supplied today only with ″hard″ packages, with yarn wound on rigid tubes which consequently can be used as such in the weaving process.

Should the type of package not be appropriate, then the first operation to carry out would be rewinding (cone winding), a processing phase which can be considered as the last integration of the spinning process.


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