Textiles for Industrial Applications by R. Senthil Kumar

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Textiles for Industrial Applications
by R. Senthil Kumar
Textiles for Industrial Applications

Contents
Preface.................................................................................................xvii
Author........................................................................................................xix
1. Introduction..........................................................................................1
1.1 Industrial Textiles: An Overview........................................................1
1.2 Industrial Textiles: Definition and Scope...........................................2
1.2.1 Definition...................................................................................2
1.2.2 Scope...........................................................................................2
1.2.3 Filtration Textiles......................................................................3
1.2.4 Hose, Ropes, and Belts.............................................................3
1.2.5 Composites.................................................................................3
1.2.6 Technical Needled Fabrics.......................................................4
1.2.7 Air Bags......................................................................................4
1.2.8 Other Textile-Based Industrial Products...............................4
1.3 Industrial Textiles: Market Scenario...................................................5
1.4 Future Trends of Industrial Textiles....................................................6
1.5 Technology and Material Trends.........................................................8
Bibliography.......................................................................................................9
2. Fiber, Yarn, and Fabric Structures Used in Industrial Textiles............11
2.1 Fibers in Used Industrial Textiles......................................................11
2.1.1 Natural Fibers..........................................................................11
2.1.2 Synthetic Fibers.......................................................................12
2.1.2.1 Viscose Rayon..........................................................12
2.1.2.2 Polyamide.................................................................12
2.1.2.3 Polyester....................................................................13
2.1.2.4 Polyolefin Fibers......................................................13
2.1.2.5 High-Performance Fibers.......................................13
2.1.2.6 Specialty Fibers........................................................14
2.2 Yarn Formation.....................................................................................15
2.2.1 Staple Fiber Yarns...................................................................16
2.2.2 Filament Production...............................................................17
2.2.3 Textured Yarn Production.....................................................17
2.2.4 Doubled Yarn Production......................................................18
2.3 Fabric Structures..................................................................................18
2.3.1 Fabric Formation.....................................................................18
2.3.1.1 Weaving....................................................................18
2.3.1.2 Woven Structures....................................................19
2.3.2 Noncrimp Fabrics...................................................................21
2.3.3 Knitted Fabrics........................................................................23
2.3.3.1 Weft-Knitted Fabrics...............................................23
2.3.3.2 Warp-Knitted Fabrics.............................................24
2.3.3.3 Warp Knitting versus Weft Knitting....................26
2.3.4 Multiaxial Fabrics...................................................................26
2.3.5 Braided Fabrics........................................................................27
2.3.5.1 Types of Braided Structures..................................29
2.3.5.2 Conventional 2-D Braided Structures..................30
2.3.5.3 Multiaxial Differentially Oriented Structures.................................30
2.3.5.4 Biaxial Structures....................................................31
2.3.5.5 Multiaxial Structures..............................................31
2.3.5.6 Multiaxial Structures for Fiber-Reinforced Plastics......................................................................32
2.3.6 Nonwoven Structures............................................................33
2.3.6.1 Web Formation Methods........................................34
2.3.6.2 Consolidation Processes.........................................35
2.3.7 Membranes..............................................................................36
2.3.7.1 Industrial Textile Product Manufacturing Processes...................................................................37
Bibliography.....................................................................................................38
3. Medical Textiles.............................................................................................39
3.1 Market Scenario—Medical Textiles..................................................39
3.1.1 World Trade of Medical Textiles...........................................40
3.1.2 Global Consumption of Medical Textiles............................41
3.1.2.1 Market Size: Hygiene Textiles...............................41
3.1.2.2 Market Size: Wound Care Products.....................41
3.1.2.3 Market Size: Surgical Textiles................................41
3.1.2.4 Market Size: Nonwovens—Medical and Hygiene Textiles.............41
3.1.3 Economic Aspects: Market Scenario....................................42
3.1.3.1 European Textile Sector..........................................42
3.1.4 Asia...........................................................................................43
3.2 Textile Structures and Biomaterials in Healthcare.........................44
3.2.1 Material Selection and Fiber Types......................................44
3.2.2 Form of Textile Materials.......................................................45
3.2.3 Medical Fabric Structures and Properties...........................47
3.2.3.1 Woven Fabrics..........................................................47
3.2.3.2 Knitted Fabrics.........................................................48
3.2.3.3 Braided Fabrics........................................................48
3.2.3.4 Nonwoven Fabrics...................................................49
3.2.3.5 Medical Fabric Manufacturing: Trends and Innovations.....................50
3.2.4 Medical Products....................................................................50
3.2.4.1 Vascular Grafts........................................................50
3.2.4.2 Cardiac Support Device.........................................52
3.2.4.3 Embroidered Implants............................................52
3.2.5 Implantable Medical Textiles................................................52
3.2.6 Tissue Engineering.................................................................54
3.2.7 Biomedical Textiles.................................................................56
3.2.8 Tissue Engineering: Cell Scaffolds.......................................57
3.3 Advanced Wound Dressing: Structure and Properties..................58
3.3.1 Advanced Polymers and Textiles.........................................60
3.3.2 Specialty of Textile Fibers......................................................60
3.3.3 Structure and Specific Qualities...........................................61
3.3.4 Drawback of Traditional Medical Dressing........................61
3.3.5 Function of Modern Wound Dressing.................................61
3.3.6 Advanced Wound Dressing Products.................................62
3.3.7 Absorption Characteristics: Textile Structures...................63
3.3.8 Textile Architectures for Tissue Engineering.....................63
3.3.9 Nanotechnology for Advanced Wound Management......64
3.4 Natural and Biopolymer Finishes for Medical Textiles..................66
3.4.1 Wound Healing.......................................................................66
3.4.2 Wound Dressing Products....................................................67
3.4.3 Alginate....................................................................................67
3.4.4 Chitin........................................................................................68
3.4.5 Chitosan...................................................................................68
3.4.6 Alginate Filaments..................................................................69
3.4.7 Branan Ferulate.......................................................................69
3.4.8 Collagen Materials..................................................................69
3.5 Healthcare Products in the Hospital Environment.........................70
3.5.1 Healthcare Textiles.................................................................71
3.5.2 Medical Implants and Devices..............................................71
3.5.2.1 Vascular Grafts........................................................71
3.5.2.2 Heart Valves.............................................................72
3.5.2.3 Artificial Tendon (Mesh)........................................72
3.5.2.4 Artificial Joints.........................................................72
3.5.2.5 Artificial Kidney......................................................72
3.5.2.6 Cardiovascular........................................................72
3.5.2.7 General Surgery.......................................................73
3.5.2.8 Orthopedics..............................................................73
3.5.2.9 Bariatric.....................................................................73
3.5.2.10 Scaffolds: Tissue Growth........................................73
3.5.2.11 Cosmetic/Reconstructive Surgery........................74
3.5.2.12 Dental Implants.......................................................74
3.5.3 Other Applications: Healthcare Textiles..............................74
3.5.3.1 Pressure-Relieving Mattress..................................74
3.5.4 Current Research in Healthcare Textiles.............................77
3.5.5 Textile-Based Medical Products Used in Hospitals...........78
3.6 Evaluation and Testing of Medical Textiles.....................................80
3.6.1 Protection of the Patient versus Medical Staff....................82
3.6.2 Microbiology Tests for Textiles.............................................83
3.6.3 Special Test Methods and Their Importance......................85
3.7 Future Medical Textiles.......................................................................90
3.7.1 Current Medical Textile Research........................................90
3.7.2 Nanotechnology in Medical Textiles...................................91
3.7.3 Antibacterial Textiles..............................................................92
3.7.4 Antimicrobial Wound Dressings..........................................92
3.7.5 Antiadhesive Wound Dressings...........................................93
3.7.6 Product Examples...................................................................93
3.7.7 Medical Smart Textiles...........................................................94
3.7.8 Medical Industry Key Players...............................................94
Bibliography.....................................................................................................95
4. Finishing of Industrial Textiles................................................................101
4.1 Introduction........................................................................................101
4.2 Types of Finishing..............................................................................102
4.2.1 Mechanical Finishing of Industrial Textiles.....................102
4.2.1.1 Heat Setting............................................................103
4.2.1.2 Calendering............................................................103
4.2.1.3 Sueding or Emerizing...........................................107
4.2.1.4 Raising or Napping...............................................108
4.2.1.5 Singeing..................................................................109
4.2.1.6 Perforating and Slitting........................................110
4.2.1.7 Sanforizing.............................................................110
4.2.1.8 Decatizing..............................................................111
4.2.1.9 High-Pressure Water Jet Softening.....................111
4.2.2 Chemical Finishing of Industrial Textiles.........................111
4.2.2.1 Flame-Retardant Finishes....................................113
4.2.2.2 Waterproof and Water-Repellent Finishes.........115
4.2.2.3 Oil- and Stain-Repellent Finishes.......................117
4.2.2.4 Antimicrobial Finishes.........................................119
4.2.2.5 Antistatic Finishes.................................................120
4.2.2.6 Ultraviolet Protection Finish...............................121
4.2.2.7 Other Finishes........................................................123
4.2.3 Plasma Treatment for Industrial Textiles..........................123
4.2.3.1 Magnetron Sputtering of Textiles.......................125
4.2.4 Nanofinishes for Industrial Textiles...................................126
4.2.5 Coating and Lamination Technologies..............................129
4.2.5.1 Applications of Coating and Laminating in Industrial Textiles..................................................129
4.2.5.2 Future Trends.........................................................131
Bibliography...................................................................................................132
5. Filtration Textiles.........................................................................................135
5.1 Introduction........................................................................................135
5.2 Filtration: Market Share....................................................................135
5.3 Filtration: Definition..........................................................................136
5.3.1 Filtration: Terms and Definition.........................................136
5.4 Filtration: Principles of Particle Retention......................................137
5.4.1 Filtration: Collection Efficiency..........................................140
5.5 Filtration Fundamentals....................................................................141
5.5.1 Fluid Flow through Porous Media.....................................142
5.5.2 Particle Settlement................................................................142
5.6 Filtration Types...................................................................................143
5.6.1 Classification of Filtration....................................................143
5.6.2 Methods of Filtration............................................................145
5.7 Filter Media.........................................................................................145
5.8 Filter Media Design/Selection Criteria...........................................147
5.8.1 Thermal and Chemical Conditions....................................147
5.8.2 Filtration Requirements.......................................................149
5.8.3 Equipment Considerations..................................................151
5.8.4 Cost.........................................................................................152
5.9 Yarn Construction and Properties...................................................152
5.9.1 Monofilament........................................................................152
5.9.2 Multifilament.........................................................................154
5.9.3 Staple Yarns...........................................................................154
5.9.4 Fibrillated Tape Yarns..........................................................154
5.10 Fabric Construction and Properties................................................155
5.10.1 Woven Fabric Filters.............................................................155
5.10.1.1 Properties of Woven Filter Fabric........................157
5.10.2 Nonwoven Filtration Media................................................159
5.10.2.1 Dry-Laid Media.....................................................160
5.10.2.2 Wet-Laid Media.....................................................160
5.10.2.3 Characteristics of Nonwoven Filter Media........161
5.10.2.4 Factors Influencing the Air Permeability of Nonwoven Filter................................................161
5.11 Finishing Treatments.........................................................................162
5.11.1 Heat Setting...........................................................................162
5.11.2 Singeing..................................................................................162
5.11.3 Calendering...........................................................................163
5.11.4 Raising or Napping..............................................................163
5.11.5 Antistatic Finish....................................................................163
5.12 Nanofiltration.....................................................................................163
Bibliography...................................................................................................165
6. Textiles in Hoses..........................................................................................167
6.1 Introduction........................................................................................167
6.2 Hose: Definition.................................................................................167
6.2.1 Factors Governing Hose Selection.....................................167
6.2.1.1 Pressure..................................................................167
6.2.1.2 Temperature...........................................................168
6.2.1.3 Fluid Compatibility...............................................168
6.2.1.4 Size..........................................................................168
6.2.1.5 Environment..........................................................168
6.2.1.6 Mechanical Loads.................................................169
6.2.1.7 Abrasion..................................................................169
6.2.1.8 Electrical Conductivity.........................................169
6.2.1.9 Hose Length...........................................................170
6.3 Hose: Construction............................................................................170
6.3.1 Reinforcement and Its Functions........................................171
6.3.2 Fibers Used in Hose Reinforcement...................................171
6.3.3 Yarn Structure in Hose Reinforcement.............................172
6.3.4 Reinforcement Fabric Structures........................................173
6.3.5 Hose Components Manufacture.........................................173
6.3.5.1 Tube.........................................................................173
6.3.5.2 Reinforcement: Types...........................................175
6.4 Hose: Manufacturing........................................................................178
6.4.1 Nonmandrel Style.................................................................178
6.4.2 Flexible Mandrel Style..........................................................179
6.4.3 Rigid Mandrel Style..............................................................179
6.5 Application of Textile-Reinforced Hoses in Different Sector......179
6.6 Pressure and Bursting Pressure in Hose........................................180
Bibliography...................................................................................................180
7. Textiles in Transmission and Conveyor Belts.......................................181
7.1 Introduction........................................................................................181
7.2 Transmission Belts.............................................................................181
7.2.1 V-Belts.....................................................................................181
7.2.1.1 V-Belt Construction...............................................182
7.2.2 Flat Belts.................................................................................182
7.2.3 Timing Belts...........................................................................183
7.2.3.1 Characteristics of Reinforcing Fibers.................184
7.3 Conveyor Belts....................................................................................185
7.3.1 Conveyor Belt: Construction...............................................185
7.3.2 Conveyor Belt: Types............................................................187
7.3.3 Conveyor Belt: Property Requirements.............................188
7.3.4 Carcass Constructions.........................................................191
7.3.4.1 Factors Influencing Carcass Selection................192
7.3.5 Belt Covers.............................................................................192
7.3.6 PVC Impregnation................................................................192
7.3.7 Conveyer Belts: Applications..............................................194
7.3.8 Specialty Conveyor Belts.....................................................195
Bibliography...................................................................................................196
8. Textiles in Ropes..........................................................................................197
8.1 Introduction........................................................................................197
8.2 Ropes: Definition and Types............................................................197
8.3 Fibers Used in Rope Construction...................................................198
8.4 Rope Construction.............................................................................200
8.4.1 Twisted Ropes.......................................................................200
8.4.2 Braided Ropes........................................................................201
8.4.2.1 Solid Braid Ropes..................................................202
8.4.2.2 Diamond Braid......................................................202
8.4.2.3 Double Braid..........................................................203
8.4.2.4 Kernmantle Ropes.................................................204
8.5 Properties of Rope..............................................................................204
8.5.1 Rope Size................................................................................204
8.5.2 Rope Strength........................................................................205
8.5.3 Rope Elongation....................................................................207
8.5.4 Energy Absorption...............................................................207
8.5.5 Rope Recovery from Stretch................................................208
8.5.6 Creep.......................................................................................208
8.5.7 Fatigue and Flexing Endurance..........................................209
8.5.8 Abrasion Resistance and Friction.......................................209
8.5.9 Environmental Protection...................................................210
8.5.10 Shrinkage, Spliceability, and Knot Retention...................210
8.6 Production of Rope............................................................................210
8.6.1 Production Routes of Modern Ropes.................................211
8.6.1.1 Yarn Manufacture.................................................211
8.6.1.2 Strand Manufacture..............................................212
Bibliography...................................................................................................214
9. Textiles in Civil Engineering....................................................................217
9.1 Introduction........................................................................................217
9.2 Geotextiles...........................................................................................217
9.2.1 Classification of Geotextiles Based on Manufacture.......218
9.2.2 Functions of Geotextiles......................................................222
9.2.2.1 Separation...............................................................222
9.2.2.2 Filtration.................................................................224
9.2.2.3 Drainage.................................................................225
9.2.2.4 Moisture and Liquid Barrier................................225
9.2.2.5 Erosion Control......................................................227
9.2.2.6 Reinforcement........................................................228
9.2.2.7 Survivability of Geotextiles.................................229
9.2.3 Design of Geotextiles...........................................................229
9.2.4 Properties of Geotextiles......................................................230
9.2.4.1 Physical Properties................................................231
9.2.4.2 Mechanical Properties..........................................231
9.2.4.3 Hydraulic Properties.............................................233
9.2.4.4 Endurance, Degradation, and Survivability Properties..............................................................234
9.2.4.5 Durability..............................................................235
9.2.5 Raw Materials of Geotextiles..............................................235
9.2.6 Applications of Geotextiles.................................................236
9.2.7 Limited-Life Geotextiles......................................................237
9.3 Textile-Reinforced Concrete.............................................................237
9.4 Textiles in Architecture.....................................................................239
9.5 Nanotextiles in Civil Engineering Applications...........................242
Bibliography...................................................................................................242
10. Textiles in Automobiles..............................................................................245
10.1 Introduction........................................................................................245
10.2 Automobile Industry: Global Scenario...........................................245
10.2.1 Automotive Textiles: Market Scenario...............................246
10.3 Major Components of Automotive Textiles....................................248
10.3.1 Seat Belts................................................................................248
10.3.1.1 Seat Belts: Market Scenario.................................248
10.3.1.2 Seat Belts: A Lifesaving Guard...........................248
10.3.1.3 Seat Belts: Classification......................................248
10.3.1.4 Seat Belts: Dynamics............................................248
10.3.1.5 Seat Belts: Critical Characteristics.....................252
10.3.1.6 Seat Belts: Fibers and Fabric Structure..............252
10.3.1.7 Seat Belts: Manufacturing Method....................253
10.3.1.8 Seat Belts: Finishing.............................................253
10.3.1.9 Seat Belts: Quality Requirements......................253
10.3.1.10 Performance Tests and Standards for Seat Belt Webbing.........................................................254
10.3.1.11 Seat Belts: Various Defects..................................254
10.3.1.12 Inflatable Belts......................................................254
10.3.2 Air Bags..................................................................................255
10.3.2.1 Air Bag: Market Scenario....................................256
10.3.2.2 Air Bag: Principle of Operation..........................256
10.3.2.3 Laws of Motion.....................................................256
10.3.2.4 Air Bag Inflation...................................................258
10.3.2.5 Types of Air Bags.................................................259
10.3.2.6 Raw Materials (Fibers) for Air Bags..................260
10.3.2.7 Manufacturing of Air Bag Fabrics.....................262
10.3.3 Automotive Filters................................................................262
10.3.3.1 Materials and Functions of Filters.....................262
10.3.3.2 Air Filters...............................................................263
10.3.3.3 Oil Filters...............................................................265
10.3.3.4 Fuel Filters.............................................................267
10.3.3.5 Cabin Filters..........................................................270
10.3.4 Tire Cords...............................................................................271
10.3.4.1 Functions of Tires..................................................272
10.3.4.2 Tire: Parts................................................................272
10.3.4.3 Reinforcement Materials......................................275
10.3.4.4 Tire Cords...............................................................277
10.3.4.5 Weaving of Tire Fabrics........................................278
10.3.4.6 Heat Treatment......................................................279
10.3.5 Automotive Interiors............................................................280
10.3.5.1 Automotive Seats...................................................280
10.3.5.2 Door Trims, Roof Trims, and Floor Coverings...............................284
10.3.6 Other Textile Applications in Automobiles......................284
10.4 Nonwovens in Automotive Applications.......................................286
10.4.1 Nonwovens Used in Cars....................................................286
10.5 Natural/Biodegradable Fibers in Automotive Textiles................287
10.6 Nanotechnology in Automotive Textiles........................................288
10.6.1 Applications of Nanotechnology in Automotive Textiles.........................................................289
10.6.2 Future Scope of Nanotechnology in Automotive Textiles.........................................................289
Bibliography...................................................................................................290
11. Miscellaneous Applications in Industrial Textiles..............................293
11.1 Bolting Cloth.......................................................................................293
11.2 Membrane Fabric...............................................................................293
11.3 Filter System........................................................................................295
11.4 Tissue Engineering............................................................................296
11.5 Acoustic Uses......................................................................................296
11.6 Decatizing Cloth................................................................................298
11.7 Printed Circuit Board........................................................................298
11.8 Screen for Electronic Printing..........................................................298
11.9 Battery and Fuel Cell.........................................................................300
11.10 Smart Woven Fabrics: Renewable Energy......................................300
11.11 Composites..........................................................................................301
11.12 Battery Separators..............................................................................302
11.13 Cigarette Filter....................................................................................306
11.14 Coated Abrasives...............................................................................306
11.15 Nonwoven Abrasives.........................................................................309
Bibliography...................................................................................................310
12. Testing of Industrial Textiles....................................................................311
12.1 Testing of Filter Fabrics.....................................................................311
12.1.1 Testing of Filter Media.........................................................312
12.1.2 Testing Filtration Characteristics........................................312
12.1.2.1 Permeability...........................................................312
12.1.3 Testing of Mechanical Properties.......................................316
12.1.3.1 Strength..................................................................316
12.1.3.2 Resistance to Abrasion..........................................317
12.1.3.3 Thickness, Compressibility, and Resilience......317
12.1.3.4 Membranes.............................................................317
12.2 Testing of Hoses.................................................................................320
12.2.1 Hydrostatic Pressure Tests..................................................320
12.2.1.1 Destructive Tests...................................................320
12.2.1.2 Nondestructive Tests............................................320
12.2.2 Design Considerations.........................................................322
12.3 Testing of Transmission Belt.............................................................322
12.4 Testing of Conveyor Belts.................................................................323
12.4.1 Aramid Conveyor Belts........................................................325
12.4.2 DIN (German)........................................................................325
12.4.3 ISO (World)............................................................................326
12.5 Testing of Ropes.................................................................................328
12.6 Testing of Composites.......................................................................330
12.6.1 Types of Loading..................................................................331
12.6.1.1 Tensile.....................................................................331
12.6.1.2 Compression..........................................................331
12.6.1.3 Shear........................................................................331
12.6.1.4 Flexure....................................................................332
12.6.2 Destructive Testing...............................................................332
12.6.2.1 Tensile Testing.......................................................332
12.6.2.2 Compression Test..................................................334
12.6.2.3 In-Plane and Interlaminar Shear Properties......336
12.6.2.4 Interlaminar Fracture...........................................339
12.6.2.5 Moisture Diffusivity and Moisture Equilibrium...................................342
12.6.2.6 Fiber Volume Fraction..........................................343
12.6.2.7 Void Content of Composites................................343
12.6.2.8 High-Speed Puncture Multiaxial Impact..........344
12.6.2.9 Accelerated Weathering Testing.........................344
12.7 Nondestructive Testing of Composites...........................................345
Bibliography...................................................................................................345
13. Textile Composites......................................................................................347
13.1 Introduction to Composites..............................................................347
13.2 Composite Materials: Global Scenario............................................347
13.3 Composite Materials: Definition and Classification.....................348
13.3.1 Classification of Composites Based on Matrix.................348
13.3.1.1 Metal Matrix Composites.....................................348
13.3.1.2 Ceramic Matrix Composites................................348
13.3.1.3 Polymer Matrix Composites................................349
13.3.2 Classification of Composites Based on Reinforcement Forms...........................................................349
13.3.2.1 Fiber-Reinforced Composites..............................349
13.3.2.2 Whisker-Reinforced Composites........................350
13.3.2.3 Laminar Composites.............................................350
13.3.2.4 Flake Composites..................................................351
13.3.2.5 Filled Composites..................................................351
13.3.2.6 Particulate Composites.........................................351
13.4 Reinforcement: Fibers........................................................................351
13.4.1 Reinforcement: Fiber Forms................................................352
13.4.1.1 Discontinuous Fibers............................................352
13.4.1.2 Roving and Tow....................................................353
13.4.1.3 Mats.........................................................................354
13.4.1.4 Woven Fabrics........................................................354
13.4.1.5 Hybrid Fabrics.......................................................359
13.4.1.6 Noncrimp Fabrics..................................................359
13.4.1.7 Knitted Fabrics.......................................................359
13.4.1.8 Multiaxial Fabrics..................................................360
13.4.1.9 Braided Fabrics......................................................360
13.5 Polymer Matrices or Resins..............................................................362
13.5.1 Thermoplastic Matrices.......................................................362
13.5.2 Thermosetting Resins..........................................................363
13.6 Prepregs and Preforms......................................................................363
13.6.1 Prepregs..................................................................................363
13.6.2 Preforms.................................................................................364
13.7 Composite Manufacturing Technologies.......................................364
13.7.1 Open Mold Process...............................................................365
13.7.1.1 Hand Laminating or Hand Layup or Wet Layup............................365
13.7.1.2 Spray Layup...........................................................365
13.7.1.3 Filament Winding.................................................365
13.7.2 Closed Mold Process............................................................366
13.7.2.1 Compression Molding..........................................366
13.7.2.2 Resin Transfer Molding........................................367
13.7.3 Continuous Mold Process....................................................367
13.7.3.1 Pultrusion...............................................................367
13.8 Applications........................................................................................367
Bibliography...................................................................................................369
Index......................................................................................................................371

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