The Chemistry of Printing Inks and Their Electronics and Medical Applications by Johannes Karl Fink

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The Chemistry of Printing Inks and Their Electronics and Medical Applications
By Johannes Karl Fink
The Chemistry of Printing Inks and Their Electronics and Medical Applications

Contents
Preface xiii
1 Inkjet Inks 1
1.1 History of Inkjet Printing 1
1.2 Image Forming Methods 3
1.3 Commercial Printing 3
1.4 Nozzle Design 4
1.5 Classification of Inks 4
1.6 Thermal Inkjet 4
1.7 Photographic Printing 5
1.8 Desirable Ink Properties 7
References 9
2 Characterization of Printer Inks 11
2.1 Quantization of Droplets 11
2.2 Solubility Parameters 13
2.3 HLB Value 15
2.4 Evaluation of Water Resistance 15
2.5 Evaluation of Rubbing Resistance 16
2.6 Evaluation of Lightfastness 16
2.7 Evaluation of Waterfastness 17
2.8 Detection of the Th ermal History 18
2.9 Security Aspects 19
2.10 Characterization of Pigment 19
2.10.1 Acid Content of Pigment 19
2.10.2 Oil Absorption of Pigment 19
References 20
3 Additives for Inks 23
3.1 Print Density 23
3.2 Solvent Systems 23
3.2.1 Water-Soluble Organic Solvents 23
3.3 Wetting Agents 25
3.4 Adhesion Improvers 26
3.5 Surfactants 26
3.6 Penetration Control 28
3.6.1 Quasisurfactants 30
3.6.2 Penetration Promoters 32
3.7 Controlled Encapsulation of Liquids 35
3.8 Fixing Additives 35
3.9 Humectants 36
3.10 Colorants 36
3.10.1 Natural Colorants 40
3.11 Primers 43
3.12 Antioxidants and UV Absorbers 43
3.13 Hindered Amine Light Stabilizers 45
3.14 Ozone Resistance 47
3.15 Chelating Agents 48
3.16 Corrosion Inhibitors 49
3.17 pH Control 49
3.18 Waterfastness 54
3.18.1 Ethoxylated Polyethyleneimine 56
3.18.2 Star Polymers 56
3.18.3 Sulfones 57
3.18.4 Triester Compounds 57
3.19 Monomers and Polymers 58
3.19.1 Oxetane 58
3.19.2 Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Polymer 60
3.19.3 Dendritic Polymers 61
3.19.4 Fluorescent Monomers for Food Packaging
Applications 64
3.20 Initiators 64
3.20.1 Photopolymerization Initiators 64
3.20.2 Photosensitizers 72
3.20.3 Sensitizing Dye 77
3.21 Gloss Unevenness 77
3.22 Lightfastness 82
3.23 Prevention of Curling 82
3.24 Smearing 85
3.24.1 Hydrosols 85
3.24.2 Zwitterionic Compounds 89
3.25 Smudge Resistance 89
3.26 Slipping Agents for Cured Inks 90
3.27 Scratch Resistance 91
3.28 Bronzing 91
3.29 Biocides 94
3.29.1 Fungicides 94
3.30 Dispersants 95
3.30.1 Polymer Dispersants 97
3.30.2 Flocculation 101
3.31 Aggregation and Color Bleeding 102
3.32 Other Additives 107
References 115
4 Dyes and Pigments 121
4.1 Dyes 121
4.1.1 Hyperbranched Polymeric Dyes 122
4.1.2 Monodisperse PMMA 123
4.2 Pigment Particles 125
4.2.1 Organic Pigments 126
4.2.2 Polymer-Encapsulated Pigments 129
4.2.3 Polymer Pigment Dispersant 130
4.2.4 Self-Dispersing Pigments 130
4.2.5 Polymeric Dispersants 134
4.3 Metallic Pigments 135
References 140
5 Ink Types 143
5.1 Oil-Based White Ink 143
5.2 Nonaqueous Ink Composition 144
5.3 Lightfast Inkjet Inks 147
5.4 Flame-Retardant Inkjet Inks 149
5.5 Fragrant Inkjet Ink 149
5.6 Radiation Curable Ink 158
5.7 Printing of Functional and Structural Materials 161
5.8 Coating Compositions for Paper 161
5.9 Photograph-like Gloss 162
5.10 Printing on Plastic Films 163
5.10.1 Oil-Based Ink Composition for PVC Printing 167
5.11 Printing on Glass and Metal 169
5.11.1 Anticorrosive Inkjet Inks 169
5.12 Printing on Ceramic Surfaces 170
5.12.1 Apparent Etching of Ceramic Surfaces 170
5.13 Phase Change Inks 177
5.14 Compositions for Textile Use 188
5.14.1 Poly(urethane) Resin 188
5.14.2 White Ink Composition 189
5.15 Color Filter 189
5.16 Ingestible or Nutritional Liquid Ink Compositions 190
5.17 Etched Metal Plates 191
5.18 High Electrical Resistivity Inkjet Ink Composition 194
5.19 Curable Ink with Wax 195
5.20 Outdoor Applications 196
References 204
6 Electronic Applications 209
6.1 Radio-Frequency Identifi cation 209
6.2 Inkjet Printing of Conductive Materials 210
6.3 Selective Surface Modifi cation 210
6.4 Printing on Integrated Circuits 211
6.5 Special Inks 211
6.5.1 Metal Ink 211
6.5.2 LED Phosphor Ink 212
6.5.3 Carbon Nanotubes 215
6.5.4 Exfoliated Graphene 215
6.5.5 Exfoliated Graphite Oxide 216
6.5.6 Conducting Polymer Inks 217
6.5.7 Electrochromic Inks 218
6.6 Special Applications 219
6.6.1 Liquid Crystal Displays 219
6.6.2 Inkjet-Printed Piezoelectric Polymer Actuators 221
6.6.3 Patterned Conductive PEDOT for Electronic
Applications 222
6.6.4 Optoelectronic Nose Applications 222
6.6.5 Printed Transistors 222
6.6.6 Flexible Electronics 225
6.6.7 Low Temperature Sintering 225
6.6.8 Solar Cells 226
References 229
7 Medical Applications 233
7.1 Bioprinting 233
7.2 Tissue Engineering 234
7.2.1 Scaff olds in Tissue Engineering 236
7.2.2 Coating of an Implantable Device 236
7.3 Drug Delivery Systems 237
7.3.1 Pharmaceutical Cocrystals 238
7.3.2 Drug-Eluting Stents 238
7.3.3 Microchamber for Bacteria-Based Drug Delivery 239
7.3.4 Polymer Microspheres 240
7.3.5 Inhalable Particles 241
7.3.6 Microfabricated Drug Delivery Systems 245
7.3.7 Oral Drug Delivery 245
7.3.8 Nasal Delivery and Diagnostics 247
7.3.9 Transdermal Drug Delivery Devices 249
7.3.10 Drop-on-Demand System 251
7.3.11 Pulmonary Drug Delivery 251
7.3.12 Microchip Drug Delivery 253
7.3.13 Microchannels Drug Delivery 253
7.3.14 Printing Poorly Soluble Drugs 254
7.3.15 Fabrication of Personalized Doses 254
7.3.16 Pharmaceutical Bilayer Tablets 255
7.3.17 Electrohydrodynamic Jet Printing 256
7.3.18 Th ree-Dimensional Printing 256
7.3.19 Bioabsorbable Stent with Prohealing Layer 257
7.3.20 Electrolytic Deposition 259
7.4 Polymeric Materials for Surface Modifi cation 261
7.4.1 Porous Polymer Particles 262
7.5 Nanomaterials 264
7.5.1 Photosensitive Nanoparticles 265
7.5.2 Crosslinked Polymeric Nanoparticles 268
7.6 Other Fabrication Methods 271
7.6.1 Controlled Spreading 271
7.6.2 Th ermal Inkjet Spray Freeze-Drying 272
7.6.3 Drug-Loaded Polymer Microparticles with
Arbitrary Geometries 273
7.6.4 Microarray technology 273
7.6.5 Biphasic Inks 274
7.6.6 Contact Lenses 278
7.6.7 Dip-Pen Nanolithography 282
7.6.8 Direct-Write Lithographic Printing of Peptides
and Proteins 282
References 285
8 3D Printing 293
8.1 Basic Principles 293
8.2 Uses and Applications 294
8.2.1 Microbattery Architectures 294
8.2.2 Th ree-Dimensional Plastic Model 294
8.2.3 Photoformable Composition 295
8.2.4 Comb Polymers 295
8.2.5 Post-Processing Infi ltration 296
8.3 Rapid Prototyping 297
8.3.1 Variants of Rapid Prototyping 298
8.3.2 3D Microfl uidic Channel Systems 301
8.3.3 Aluminum and Magnesium Cores 302
8.3.4 Cellular Composites 302
8.3.5 Powder Compositions 303
8.3.6 Th ermoplastic Powder Material 303
8.3.7 Plasticizer-Assisted Sintering 304
8.3.8 Radiation Curable Resin Composition 308
8.4 Medical Applications 308
8.4.1 Th ree-Dimensional Biological Structures 308
8.4.2 Scaff olds 309
8.4.3 Hydrogel Bioinks 310
8.4.4 Bionic Ears 310
8.4.5 Presurgical Simulation 311
8.4.6 Fluidic Devices 311
References 313
9 Special Aspects 317
9.1 Photographic Printing 317
9.1.1 Fading Stability 317
9.1.2 Coatings 318
9.1.3 Additives 319
9.2 Interaction between Ink and Printed Surface 319
9.3 Jetting-Out Performance 320
9.4 Microlens Arrays 322
9.5 Micro-Optical Devices 322
9.6 Nanostructured Surfaces 323
9.7 Electrohydrodynamic Jet Printing 324
9.8 Planographic Printing Plate 326
9.9 Environmental Aspects and Recycling 326
9.9.1 Coagulation Combined with Fenton Process 326
References 327
Index 331
Tradenames 331
Acronyms 343
Chemicals 344
General Index 358

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