Acceptance Sampling in Quality Control, Third Edition | Edward G. Schilling and Dean V. Neubauer

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Acceptance Sampling in Quality Control, Third Edition
By Edward G. Schilling and Dean V. Neubauer
Acceptance Sampling in Quality Control

Contents
Preface to the Third Edition........................................................................xix
Note from the Series Editor for the First Edition..................................xxi
Foreword to the First Edition.................................................................. xxiii
Preface to the First Edition......................................................................xxv
Acknowledgments from the First Edition............................................. xxvii
Preface to the Second Edition................................................................xxix
Authors.........................................................................................................xxxi
List of Tables.................................................................................................. xxxiii
1. Introduction....................................................................................1
Acceptance Quality Control............................................................1
Acceptance Control and Process Control.....................................................4
Process Quality Control................................................................................4
Background of Acceptance Quality Control...............................................7
Top 10 Reasons for Acceptance Sampling.......................................9
Problems.........................................................................................................10
References...............................................................................................10
2. Probability and the Operating Characteristic Curve.............13
Probability...............................................................................................13
Classical Definition............................................................................................................13
Empirical Definition..........................................................................................................13
Subjective Definition..........................................................................................................14
Random Samples and Random Numbers...........................................................................14
Counting Possibilities.............................................................................................................15
Probability Calculus...............................................................................................................19
Operating Characteristic Curve............................................................................................23
Software Applications............................................................................................................27
Excel .....................................................................................................................................27
Minitab.................................................................................................................................29
Problems...................................................................................................................................32
References................................................................................................................................33
3. Probability Functions............................................................................................................35
Probability Distributions.......................................................................................................36
Measures of Distribution Functions.....................................................................................39
Hypergeometric Distribution................................................................................................41
Binomial Distribution.............................................................................................................43
Poisson Distribution...............................................................................................................45
f-Binomial Distribution..........................................................................................................49
Negative Binomial Distribution............................................................................................51
Exponential and Continuous Distributions........................................................................53
Weibull Distribution...............................................................................................................55
Normal Distribution...............................................................................................................57
Summary of Distributions.....................................................................................................60
Tables of Distributions...........................................................................................................60
Hypergeometric Tables.....................................................................................................60
Binomial Tables..................................................................................................................63
Poisson Tables.....................................................................................................................64
Negative Binomial Tables.................................................................................................64
Exponential and Weibull Tables.......................................................................................65
Normal Distribution Tables..............................................................................................65
Summary.....................................................................................................65
Useful Approximations..........................................................................................................66
Tests of Fit................................................................................................................................69
Software Applications.......................................................................................72
Excel .............................................................................................................72
Minitab...............................................................................................................74
Problems.....................................................................................................79
References.........................................................................................................80
4. Concepts and Terminology..................................................................................................83
Average Run Length of Type B Plans...................................................................................86
Sample Size and Lot Size.......................................................................................................87
Effect of Inspection Error.......................................................................................................90
Rectification.............................................................................................................................92
Curtailment..............................................................................................................................94
Tolerance and Confidence Intervals.....................................................................................97
Levels and Risks......................................................................................................................99
Choosing Quality Levels......................................................................................................101
Classification of Defects.......................................................................................................102
Measures of Sampling Plans: Terminology.......................................................................102
Graphs of Measures..............................................................................................................104
Specifying a Plan...................................................................................................................107
Software Applications..........................................................................................................108
Minitab...............................................................................................................................108
Problems.............................................................................................................. 110
References...................................................................................................... 111
5. Single Sampling by Attributes......................................................................................... 113
Operation............................................................................................................................... 113
Selection................................................................................................................................. 113
Tables of Poisson Unity Values...................................................................................... 114
Binomial Nomograph...................................................................................................... 116
f-Binomial Nomograph................................................................................................... 116
Thorndyke Chart.............................................................................................................. 118
Hypergeometric Tables................................................................................................... 119
Measures................................................................................................................................121
Software Applications..........................................................................................................123
Excel............................................................................................................123
Minitab...............................................................................................................................125
Statgraphics.......................................................................................................................127
Problems.................................................................................................................................130
References..............................................................................................................................131
6. Double and Multiple Sampling by Attributes..............................................................133
Operation...............................................................................................................................134
Double Sampling..............................................................................................................134
Multiple Sampling...........................................................................................................134
Selection.................................................................................................................................135
Measures................................................................................................................................141
Double Sampling..............................................................................................................141
Multiple Sampling...........................................................................................................143
Further Considerations........................................................................................................151
Software Applications..........................................................................................................151
Excel......................................................................................................151
Minitab...............................................................................................................................154
Statgraphics.......................................................................................................................154
Problems.................................................................................................................................156
References..............................................................................................................................157
7. Sequential Sampling by Attributes.................................................................................159
Operation...............................................................................................................................159
Selection.................................................................................................................................161
Measures................................................................................................................................163
Sequential Sampling for Defects per Unit.........................................................................165
Software Applications..........................................................................................................166
Excel...................................................................................................................................166
Problems.................................................................................................................................170
References..............................................................................................................................171
8. Variables Sampling for Process Parameter.....................................................................173
Single Sampling for Process Parameter.............................................................................173
Acceptance Control Charts..................................................................................................175
Sequential Plans for Process Parameter (σ Known).........................................................179
Sequential Plans for Process Parameter (σ Unknown)....................................................187
Cumulative Sum Charts.......................................................................................................190
Problems.................................................................................................................................193
References..............................................................................................................................194
9. Bulk Sampling......................................................................................................................195
Construction of the Sample.................................................................................................196
Estimation..............................................................................................................................198
Sampling Plans......................................................................................................................207
Simple Random Sampling of a Unique Lot (Components of Variance Unknown)....209
Sampling from Stream of Lots............................................................................................212
Estimation of Testing and Reduction Variances..........................................................212
Estimation of Segment and Increment Variances........................................................213
Application of Plan to Stream of Lots...........................................................................214
ISO 10725................................................................................................................................216
Problems.................................................................................................................................218
References..............................................................................................................................219
10. Sampling by Variables for Proportion Nonconforming..............................................221
Specification Limits..............................................................................................................222
Assumptions and Theory....................................................................................................223
Operation...............................................................................................................................225
X Method..........................................................................................................................225
k Method............................................................................................................................225
Double Specification Limits............................................................................................226
Selection.................................................................................................................................231
Tables.................................................................................................................................231
Formulas............................................................................................................................232
Jacobson Nomograph for Plan Selection......................................................................233
Measures................................................................................................................................234
Jacobson Nomograph for Operating Characteristics..................................................234
Calculation: σ Known......................................................................................................235
Calculation: σ Unknown.................................................................................................236
Double Specification Limits............................................................................................240
Measures of Performance...............................................................................................242
M Method...............................................................................................................................243
Plans Based on Sample Range............................................................................................248
Example.............................................................................................................................250
Double Sampling by Variables............................................................................................252
Tolerance Intervals and Variables Plans for Percent Nonconforming..........................255
Sequential Plans for Proportion Nonconforming............................................................259
Further Considerations........................................................................................................260
Derivation of n, k Formulas............................................................................................260
Need for Normality.........................................................................................................262
Software Applications..........................................................................................................262
Minitab...............................................................................................................................262
Statgraphics.......................................................................................................................269
Problems.................................................................................................................................273
References..............................................................................................................................274
11. Attributes Sampling Schemes...........................................................................................277
Sampling Schemes................................................................................................................277
Quick Switching Systems....................................................................................................277
Tightened–Normal–Tightened Plans.................................................................................279
MIL-STD-105E and Derivative Standards.........................................................................279
Operation...............................................................................................................................281
Selection.................................................................................................................................283
Measures................................................................................................................................286
Scheme Properties.................................................................................................................287
Implementation of MIL-STD-105E.....................................................................................289
Matching Individual Sampling Plans to MIL-STD-105E System Performance...........294
MIL-STD-105 Derivatives....................................................................................................296
ANSI/ASQ Standard Z1.4..............................................................................................297
ASTM International Standard E2234.............................................................................297
ISO Standard 2859............................................................................................................297
Further Considerations........................................................................................................299
Software Applications..........................................................................................................300
Minitab...............................................................................................................................300
Snap Sampling Plans!......................................................................................................300
Statgraphics.......................................................................................................................301
Problems.................................................................................................................................306
References..............................................................................................................................307
12. Variables Sampling Schemes............................................................................................309
MIL-STD-414.........................................................................................................................309
Operation............................................................................................................................... 311
Selection.................................................................................................................................313
Measures................................................................................................................................316
Implementation of Form 2...................................................................................................317
Implementation of Form 1...................................................................................................319
Implementation of Plans for Range and Variability Known..........................................320
Match between MIL-STD-414 and MIL-STD-105E..........................................................320
Conversion of MIL-STD-414 to ANSI/ASQ Z1.9.............................................................321
MIL-STD-414 Derivatives....................................................................................................322
ANSI/ASQ Z1.9...............................................................................................................322
ASTM International Standard E2762.............................................................................322
ISO 3951-1..........................................................................................................................323
Further Considerations........................................................................................................326
Software Applications..........................................................................................................326
Excel...................................................................................................................................326
Minitab...............................................................................................................................327
Statgraphics.......................................................................................................................327
Problems.................................................................................................................................334
References..............................................................................................................................335
13. Special Plans and Procedures............................................................................................337
No-Calc Plans........................................................................................................................337
Lot Plot Plans.........................................................................................................................339
Narrow-Limit Gauging........................................................................................................344
Mixed Variables: Attributes Plan........................................................................................354
Advantages and Disadvantages of Mixed Plans.........................................................356
Generalized Mixed Dependent Procedure...................................................................357
Measures: Independent Mixed Plan..............................................................................358
Measures: Dependent Mixed Plan.................................................................................360
MIL-STD-414 Dependent Mixed Plans.........................................................................365
Comparison of Independent and Dependent Mixed Plans.......................................366
Comparison of Mixed with Other Type Plans.............................................................367
Problems.................................................................................................................................368
References..............................................................................................................................369
14. Series of Lots: Rectification Schemes...............................................................................371
Single-Sampling AOQL Plan...............................................................................................372
Dodge–Romig Sampling Scheme.......................................................................................373
Operation..........................................................................................................................374
Selection.............................................................................................................................374
Measures............................................................................................................................381
Further Considerations...................................................................................................381
Constructing LTPD Plan with Minimum ATI.........................................................386
Constructing AOQL Plan with Minimum ATI........................................................388
Anscombe Rectifying Inspection Procedure.....................................................................391
Operation..........................................................................................................................391
Selection.............................................................................................................................392
Measures............................................................................................................................394
Credit-Based Schemes..........................................................................................................395
Dodge–Romig Plan Derivatives.........................................................................................398
Software Applications..........................................................................................................398
Excel...................................................................................................................................398
Snap Sampling Plans!......................................................................................................405
Problems.................................................................................................................................407
References..............................................................................................................................407
15. Continuous Sampling Plans..............................................................................................409
Dodge Continuous Plans.....................................................................................................409
Dodge CSP-1.....................................................................................................................409
Dodge–Torrey CSP-2 and CSP-3....................................................................................412
Measures of CSP-1, 2, and 3............................................................................................415
Stopping Rules and Selection of CSP-1 Plans..............................................................420
Multilevel Plans....................................................................................................................423
Tightened Multilevel Plans..................................................................................................427
Block Continuous Plans.......................................................................................................428
Wald–Wolfowitz Plan......................................................................................................428
Girshick Plan.....................................................................................................................430
MIL-STD-1235B.....................................................................................................................431
MIL-STD-1235B Derivatives................................................................................................439
ASTM International Standard E2819.............................................................................439
Software Applications..........................................................................................................439
Excel...................................................................................................................................439
Snap Sampling Plans!......................................................................................................442
Problems.................................................................................................................................443
References..............................................................................................................................444
16. Cumulative Results Plans..................................................................................................445
Skip-Lot Sampling Plans......................................................................................................445
SkSP-1................................................................................................................................445
SkSP-2................................................................................................................................447
Chain Sampling Plans..........................................................................................................453
ChSP-1...............................................................................................................................453
Two-Stage Plans...............................................................................................................457
Deferred Sentencing Schemes.............................................................................................458
Demerit Rating Plan.............................................................................................................462
CRC Plan................................................................................................................................466
Software Applications..........................................................................................................468
Excel...................................................................................................................................468
Problems.................................................................................................................................474
References..............................................................................................................................475
17. Compliance Sampling.........................................................................................................477
LSP..........................................................................................................................................478
Procedure..........................................................................................................................478
Protection..........................................................................................................................479
Producer’s Risk................................................................................................................481
Examples of LSP Applications.......................................................................................482
Further Considerations...................................................................................................484
TNT Scheme...........................................................................................................................484
Procedure..........................................................................................................................485
Protection..........................................................................................................................485
Selection.............................................................................................................................487
Quick Switching System......................................................................................................489
MIL-STD-1916.......................................................................................................................494
Structure............................................................................................................................494
Operation..........................................................................................................................494
Implementation................................................................................................................496
Measures............................................................................................................................498
Further Considerations...................................................................................................498
Simplified Grand Lot Procedure.........................................................................................499
Simon’s Approach............................................................................................................500
Simplified Procedure: Attributes...................................................................................502
Example: Attributes.........................................................................................................503
Simplified Procedure: Variables.....................................................................................504
Continuing Series of Lots................................................................................................510
Further Considerations...................................................................................................513
Nomograph for Samples Having Zero Defectives...........................................................515
Accept on Zero Plans............................................................................................................515
U.S. Department of Defense Approach.........................................................................515
Squeglia Plans...................................................................................................................516
AoZ and AQL Plans.........................................................................................................517
Chain Sampling Alternative...........................................................................................519
The Zero Acceptance Number Chained Quick Switching System...........................521
Summary...........................................................................................................................524
Software Applications..........................................................................................................525
Excel...................................................................................................................................525
LSP Plans......................................................................................................................525
TNT Plans.....................................................................................................................525
QSS Plans......................................................................................................................527
MIL-STD-1916 Plans...................................................................................................537
Chain Sampling Alternative Plans............................................................................538
Zero Acceptance Number Chained Quick Switching System Plans...................538
Minitab...............................................................................................................................543
Snap Sampling Plans!......................................................................................................544
LSP Plans......................................................................................................................544
Squeglia Plans..............................................................................................................545
Statgraphics.......................................................................................................................545
MIL-STD-1916 Plans...................................................................................................545
Problems.................................................................................................................................547
References..............................................................................................................................548
18. Reliability Sampling...........................................................................................................551
Censored Sampling...............................................................................................................552
Variables Plans for Life Testing and Reliability (Juran 1999)..........................................554
Handbook H-108...................................................................................................................555
Operation..........................................................................................................................556
Failure Terminated......................................................................................................558
Time Terminated..........................................................................................................558
Sequential.....................................................................................................................558
Proportion Failing by Specified Time.......................................................................558
Selection........................................................................................................................558
Example of H-108 Application.......................................................................................561
Failure Terminated......................................................................................................561
Time Terminated..........................................................................................................561
Sequential.....................................................................................................................563
Proportion of Lot Failing by Specified Time...........................................................563
Measures.......................................................................................................................564
Further Considerations...................................................................................................564
Technical Report TR7............................................................................................................565
Mean Life Criterion..........................................................................................................566
Hazard Rate Criterion.....................................................................................................568
Reliable Life Criterion.....................................................................................................568
TR7 Tables.........................................................................................................................568
Operation..........................................................................................................................569
TR7 with the MIL-STD-105E System.............................................................................576
Further Considerations...................................................................................................576
Problems.................................................................................................................................578
References..............................................................................................................................579
19. Administration of Acceptance Sampling........................................................................581
Selection and Implementation of a Sampling Procedure................................................583
Determining Quality Levels................................................................................................586
Setting AQL.......................................................................................................................587
Setting AOQL....................................................................................................................590
Setting IQ...........................................................................................................................590
Setting LTPD (or LQ).......................................................................................................590
Relation of Levels.............................................................................................................591
Setting PQL and CQL......................................................................................................593
Economic Considerations....................................................................................................593
Mandatory Standards...........................................................................................................595
Basic Principle of Administration.......................................................................................596
Problems.................................................................................................................................596
References..............................................................................................................................597
Answers to Problems..................................................................................................................599
Appendix 615
Index829


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