Additive Manufacturing: Design, Methods, and Processes Edited by Steinar Killi

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Additive Manufacturing: Design, Methods, and Processes
Edited by Steinar Killi
Additive Manufacturing: Design, Methods, and Processes

Contents
Preface xi
1. Scope of the Book 1
Steinar Killi
1.1 The Magic of 3D Printing 1
1.2 Legal Issues 4
1.3 The Power of Rhetoric 6
1.4 Maturing of Technology 7
1.5 “We Are All Designers” 8
1.6 From Rapid Prototyping to 3D Printing 13
1.7 The Chapters of the Book 18
2. A Design Sociotechnical Making of 3D Printing 21
William Lavatelli Kempton
2.1 Introduction 21
2.1.1 Disciplinary Boundaries and Claims to 3D Printing 21
2.1.2 Introducing a Sociotechnical Perspective to 3D Printing 22
2.1.2.1 Sociotechnical development from a design perspective 23
2.1.3 Outline 24
2.2 Socially Constructed Technologies and 3D Printing 25
2.2.1 The Relevance of Social Groups 25
2.2.2 From Video Production to Material Production 26
2.2.3 Technologies for Additive Making 26
2.2.4 Critical Theories and Studies of Technology 27
2.2.5 Unpacking the Views of 3D Printing 28
2.2.6 Socially Constructed Perspectives of Additive Making 29
2.2.7 Relevant Social Groups as Part of a Technological Frame 30
2.3 The 3D Printer Inventors 31
2.3.1 The First Wave of 3D Printer Inventors 32
2.3.2 The Second Wave of 3D Printer Inventors 34
2.4 Business Perspective of 3D Printing 36
2.4.1 Yet Another Industrial Revolution 36
2.4.2 Toward Economies-of-One 37
2.5 Designers’ Perspectives of 3D Printing Futures 40
2.5.1 Design and Additive Manufacturing 41
2.5.2 Designing with Technology 42
2.5.3 An Undetermined View of Design 43
2.6 A Layperson’s Perspective of 3D Printing Futures 44
2.6.1 A Layperson as a Maker 45
2.6.2 Making in a Learning Environment 46
2.7 Discussions and Conclusions 48
2.7.1 Summarizing the Perspectives 48
2.7.2 3D Printing Futures 48
2.7.3 Constructing a View of Sociotechnical Development 49
Appendix: Technologies for 3D Printing 50
3. AICE: An Approach to Designing for Additive Manufacturing 75
Steinar Killi
3.1 AICE: An Operational Model 81
3.1.1 Adapt 81
3.1.1.1 Design thinking 81
3.1.1.2 Multitypes 84
3.1.1.3 Models describing a typical design process 85
3.1.1.4 Methods used during a design process 89
3.1.2 Integrate 98
3.1.3 Compensate 100
3.1.3.1 Spare parts 102
3.1.3.2 Production aids 103
3.1.3.3 Enhancing the design 103
3.1.4 Elongate 106
3.2 Using the AICE Model and How the Drinking Container Came Out 109
4. The Impact of Making: Investigating the Role of the
3D Printer in Design Prototyping 111
William Lavatelli Kempton
4.1 Introduction 111
4.1.1 Prototyping as Design Development 111
4.1.2 Making as a Critical Practice 112
4.1.3 Outline 113
4.1.4 Methods 114
4.2 Background 115
4.2.1 From Rapid Prototyping to Additive Manufacturing 115
4.2.2 Ubiquity and Stratification of 3D Printing 117
4.2.3 Contexts for Additive Making 118
4.2.4 Hybrid Artifacts 120
4.2.5 Making Representations as a Way of Designing 121
4.3 Prototypes and Design Representations 121
4.4 The Changing Character of Design 123
4.4.1 New Product Development 123
4.5 Situating AM Prototypes within Design Practice 125
4.5.1 Developmental Prototypes 125
4.5.2 Initial Concept and Maturation of the SunBell Lamp 126
4.6 Design Representations and Multitypes in Product Design 129
4.6.1 Multitypes in Rapid Prototyping 131
4.7 Multityping in Additive Manufacturing 134
4.7.1 Popular yet Professional? 134
4.7.2 Integrating AM in Product Design 135
4.7.3 Toward the Releasetype 136
4.8 Conclusions 137
5. Visual 3D Form in the Context of Additive Manufacturing 143
Nina Bjørnstad and Andrew Morrison
5.1 Introduction 143
5.2 Aesthetics 144
5.3 Design, Action, and Profession 147
5.4 Ideals and Origin 148
5.5 Relevance of the Historic Model for
Tomorrow’s Form Givers 149
5.6 The Evolution of Form Model 150
5.6.1 Why Clay? 151
5.6.2 A Close-Up on Form 153
5.6.3 Distorted Forms 155
5.6.4 Intersectional Forms 157
5.7 Familiarity 160
6. Potential of Additive-Manufactured Products in Building Brands 165
Monika Hestad and Viktor Hiort af Ornäs
6.1 Product Role in Brand Building 168
6.1.1 Role of Design Elements in Building a Brand 168
6.1.2 Brand Story and Product Story 169
6.2 Additive Manufacturing as One of Many Other
Drivers That Affect a Product’s Role in Building Brands 171
6.2.1 Actual and Intended User Experience 171
6.2.2 Internal Drivers 173
6.2.3 External Drivers 174
6.3 How Additive Manufacturing Is Used in
Building a Brand 175
6.3.1 Mykita 177
6.3.1.1 How AM is used in the products 179
6.3.1.2 Design elements 179
6.3.1.3 User experience 179
6.3.1.4 Drivers 180
6.3.1.5 The Mykita brand story 182
6.3.2 pq Eyewear by Ron Arad 184
6.3.2.1 How AM is used in the products and in branding 186
6.3.2.2 Design elements 186
6.3.2.3 User experience 188
6.3.2.4 Drivers 189
6.3.2.5 The pq eyewear brand story 190
6.4 Potential of Additive-Manufactured Products in Building a Brand 191
6.4.1 How They Used AM in Building a Brand 191
6.4.2 Opportunities in New Production Techniques 193
6.4.3 Form Freedom and Brand Development 194
6.4.4 Potential of Disruptive Stories 195
7. A Tale of an Axe, a Spade, and a Walnut:
Investigating Additive Manufacturing and Design
Futures 199
Andrew Morrison
7.1 Prelude 199
7.2 Queries 201
7.2.1 On Discursive Design 203
7.3 “Problems” 205
7.3.1 Design, Narrative, Futures 205
7.4 Essayistic 206
7.4.1 Narrative 208
7.5 Promotion 210
7.5.1 Intersections 213
7.6 Foresight 214
7.6.1 Scenarios and Futures 216
7.6.2 The Fictive and Nondeterminist Futures 217
7.7 Reflections 218
7.7.1 Toward the Additive in Discursive Design 220
7.7.2 Design Baroque Futures 220
7.8 Generative Visions 222
Index 231

Preface
Just before the year’s end in 1997, the Oslo School of Architecture and Design (AHO) bought its first rapid prototyping machine. This was an early adaptation to an emerging technology, and we saw its potential for experimentation and pedagogy relating to product design. The machine used was Sinterstation 2000, a powder-based system that, up to this date, had been used by Chrysler. Over the next 20 years, AHO purchased several new machines, covering almost all available technologies relating to additive manufacturing, as this field has matured from rapid prototyping through the more recent commercialization and marketing of the now popular and “maker”- oriented 3D printing.

The terms describing this technology have changed over the period I have been exploring it, and this reflects largely a focus on technology. The terms have shifted somewhat from “rapid prototyping” to “rapid manufacturing” to “additive manufacturing.” When the more tabloid term “3D printing” was used is hard to determine, but it seems like the term at least was mentioned already in 1989 by Terry Wohler. In 2009 these technologies were labeled with an international standard (ISO/ASTM 52900) and revised in 2015 (among the terms described is “3D printing”): As seen in this paragraph, 3D printing is narrowed down to lowcost desktop printers. However, the industry, the Gartner group, and the media use the term “3D printing” to cover all technologies that produce 3D artifacts from a digital file. A wider term that is currently gaining traction is “digital fabrication.”

That said, this book is not about the technology; it’s about the uptake, use, and impact of the technology, and this spans more than two decades. Our interest is in design and its relation to these emergent technologies, not primarily as manufacturing but product design. As my colleague Andrew Morrison, my doctoral supervisor and an author of this collection, recently pointed out, we are actually in the business of additive designing in the context of digital fabrication. He argues that this includes interaction, systems, and service design, but our focus here is still on the designing of products. Consequently, I have chosen to use the different terms throughout the book, meaning you will meet rapid prototyping, rapid manufacturing, additive manufacturing, 3D printing, digital fabrication, fully freeform fabrication, and even other possible terms. Hopefully the contexts in which the terms are used in will provide better descriptions of the need and use rather than merely aligning with more technically correct ones not located in respect to design practice and analysis.

Since the arrival of our first machine, more than 1000 students have used a variety of additive manufacturing devices as part of their design education. I have had the privilege to work with almost all of them and to see their engagement and growth as this technology has also matured over time. My pedagogical approach has been one of dialogue and experimentation, querying and teasing out the possibilities of the technologies and processes of making and reflecting. Our work has always been curious about the possibilities these technologies offer design in the future.

Such a stance was also central to my own doctoral research completed in 2013. The design and pedagogical experimentation of working with additive manufacturing in its emergence was reflected in my own practice-based design research studies. Mine was one of the few early approaches to additive manufacturing that originated in design and, more specifically, product design. My thesis aimed to investigate how a product designer might approach and utilize additive manufacturing technology.

In this book I have drawn together the views and experiences of colleagues in design at the Oslo School of Architecture and Design and others. The chapters cover a range of design-centered views on additive manufacturing that are rarely addressed in the main conferences and publications that are still mostly, and importantly, concerned with tools, technologies, and technical development. Our interest is to try to locate and elaborate a design-centered view on additive manufacturing. The chapters are a mix of expertise and experience, some single-authored and several co-authored, reflecting dialogues about transdisciplinarity and the inclusion of domains such as business and aesthetics, narrative, and technology critique, and for us, two of the chapters are part of a second doctorate in additive manufacturing that is being conducted in the thesis by publication or compilation mode. I, too, have included my own more recent views and reflections, and I trust that together these will provide readers with a clearer design-centered view on additive manufacturing that might enrich a wider understanding of how design may inform technology development, use, and critique. This book will hopefully interest other design educators and students, professionals, and researchers in design and technical schools, colleges, and universities and their engagement in related courses.


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