Advanced Textile Engineering Materials Edited by Shahid-ul-Islam and B.S. Butola

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Advanced Textile Engineering Materials
Edited by Shahid-ul-Islam and B.S. Butola
Advanced Textile Engineering Materials

Contents
Preface xvii
Part 1: Chemical Aspects 1
1 Application of Stimuli-Sensitive Materials in Smart Textiles 3
Ali Akbar Merati
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Phase Change Materials 4
1.3 Shape Memory Materials 11
1.4 Chromic Materials 13
1.5 Conjugated Polymers 14
1.6 Conductive Polymers 16
1.7 Piezoelectricity 17
1.8 Optical Fibers 18
1.9 Hydrogels 20
1.10 Smart Textiles and Nanotechnology 22
1.11 Future Trends 23
References 23
2 Functional Finishing of Textile Materials and Its
Psychological Aspects 31
Muhammad Mohsin and Qurat Ul Ain Malik
2.1 Introduction 31
2.2 Softeners 34
2.3 Oil- and Water-Repellent Finishes 36
2.4 Fire Retardants 39
2.5 Easy Care Finishing 43
2.6 Psychological Aspect of Functional Textiles 47
2.7 Challenges and Future Directions 50
2.8 Conclusion 50
References 51
3 Recent Advances in Protective Textile Materials 55
Santanu Basak, Animesh Laha, Mahadev Bar and
Rupayan Roy
3.1 Introduction 56
3.1.1 Advancement in Flame-Resistant Textiles 57
3.1.2 Flame Protection by Plant-Based Bioproducts 58
3.1.3 Flame Retardancy by Protein-Based Bioproducts 61
3.1.4 Flame Retardancy Imparted by Nanoparticles 63
3.1.5 Future Thrust and Challenges in the Field of Flame-
Resistant Clothing 64
3.2 Application of the Protective Textile in the Defense Arena 65
3.2.1 Bulletproof Textile Material 65
3.2.2 Stab-Resistant Textile Materials 69
3.3 Recent Advancements in Engineering to Create
UV-Protective Textiles 70
3.3.1 Sustainable Materials Used for Making
UV-Protective Textiles 72
3.4 Insect-Repellent Textiles 72
3.4.1 Methods for Imparting Insect- and
Microbe-Protective Agents on Textiles 74
3.4.2 Insect Protection Efficiency 75
3.5 Microorganism Protective Textile Materials 75
3.5.1 Microbes, Antimicrobial Agents and Their Modes
of Action 75
3.5.2 Plant-Based Products Used for Making
Microorganism Protective Textiles 76
3.6 Camouflage Application as Protective Textile 78
3.7 Challenges and Future Directions 79
References 80
4 Antibacterial Aspects of Nanomaterials in Textiles:
From Origin to Release 87
Zahra Khodaparast, Akram Jahanshahi and
Mohammadreza Khalaj
4.1 Introduction 87
4.2 Nanomaterial Properties 89
4.2.1 Composition 89
4.2.2 Particle Size 97
4.2.3 Particle Shape 98
4.2.4 Surface Modifications 99
4.2.5 Crystallinity 100
4.2.6 Surface Charge 101
4.3 Release 103
4.3.1 Textile Properties 103
4.3.2 Washing 111
4.3.3 Sweating 112
4.3.4 Mechanical Stresses 113
4.3.5 Leaching in Landfills 114
4.3.6 Nanomaterial Properties 114
4.4 Conclusion 116
Acknowledgment 117
References 117
5 Modification of Wool and Cotton by UV Irradiation for
Dyeing and Finishing Processes 125
Franco Ferrero, Gianluca Migliavacca and Monica Periolatto
5.1 Introduction 126
5.2 Interaction of UV Radiation with Textile Fibers 128
5.2.1 Introduction 128
5.2.2 Influence of Wavelength 128
5.2.3 Influence of Moisture 132
5.2.4 Influence of Temperature 133
5.3 Interaction of UV Radiation with Naturally Present
Chromophores of Different Fibers 135
5.3.1 Introduction 135
5.3.2 Interaction between Wool Chromophores and
Radiation 135
5.3.2.1 Free-Radical Oxidation of the Peptide
Chain at α-Carbon to Form α-Ketoacids 136
5.3.2.2 Chromophore Formation via Increased
Conjugation: Semiconductor Theory 136
5.3.2.3 Oxidation by Singlet Oxygen 139
5.3.2.4 Oxidation on Sulfur Species 140
5.3.2.5 Oxidation by Hydroxyl Radicals 141
5.3.3 Interaction between Cotton Chromophores and
Radiation 141
5.4 UV Irradiation on Wool 144
5.4.1 Wool Dyeability Improvement 144
5.4.2 Experiments on Wool Dyeing Improvement with
UV Irradiation 147
5.4.2.1 Static UV Irradiation 147
5.4.2.2 Dynamic UV Irradiation 148
5.4.3 Adjustment and Optimization of the Degree of
Wool Treatment 149
5.4.3.1 Available Tests 151
5.4.3.2 Proposed Test 153
5.4.3.3 Comparison between the Tests 154
5.4.4 Differential Dyeing Effects 155
5.4.5 Wool Finishing Processes 159
5.4.5.1 Improvement of Wool Shrinkage
Resistance 159
5.4.5.2 Multifunctional Finishing 160
5.5 UV Irradiation on Cotton 162
5.5.1 Cotton Dyeability Improvement 162
5.5.2 Differential Dyeing Effects by Fading of Dyed
Cotton Yarn 164
5.5.3 Cotton Finishing 166
5.6 Conclusions 168
5.7 Future Perspectives 169
References 170
6 Electroconductive Textiles 177
Arobindo Chatterjee and Subhankar Maity
6.1 Introduction 177
6.2 Electrical Conductivity 179
6.2.1 Graphene 179
6.2.2 The Electroconductive Polymers 179
6.3 The Source of Conductivity in Conducting Polymers 182
6.4 Electroconductive Textiles Based on Metals 183
6.5 Electroconductive Textiles Based on Graphene 183
6.6 Electroconductive Textile Based on PPy 184
6.6.1 In Situ Chemical Polymerization 185
6.6.2 In Situ Electrochemical Polymerization 186
6.6.3 In Situ Vapor Phase Polymerization 187
6.6.4 In Situ Polymerization in Supercritical Fluid 188
6.6.5 Solution Coating Process 189
6.6.6 Molecular Template Approach 189
6.7 Conductive Polymer-Based Textiles 190
6.7.1 Cotton as Substrate 190
6.7.2 Wool as Substrate 191
6.7.3 Silk as Substrate 193
6.7.4 Viscose as Substrate 194
6.7.5 Polyester as Substrate 196
6.7.6 Nylon as Substrate 197
6.7.7 Polypropylene as Substrate 199
6.7.8 Glass as Substrate 199
6.7.9 Other Fibers 199
6.8 Effect of Various Yarns and Fabrics as Substrate 200
6.9 Applications of Electroconductive Textiles 202
6.9.1 Application of Electroconductive Textiles for Heat
Generation 202
6.9.2 Applications of PPy-Based Electroconductive
Textiles as Sensor 206
6.9.2.1 Strain Sensor 207
6.9.2.2 Gas Sensor 209
6.9.2.3 pH Sensor 212
6.9.2.4 Humidity Sensor 213
6.9.3 Applications of Electroconductive Textiles for EMI
Shielding 215
6.9.3.1 Textile/Metal Composites for EMI
Shielding 215
6.9.3.2 Conductive Polymer-Coated Textiles for
EMI Shielding 218
6.9.3.3 Conductive Polymer-Coated Woven
Fabrics for Electromagnetic Shielding 219
6.9.3.4 Conductive Polymer-Coated Nonwoven
Fabrics for Electromagnetic Shielding 221
6.9.3.5 Effects of Different Process Parameters on
EMI Shielding 222
6.9.4 Thermoelectric Effect of Conductive Polymer-Based
Textiles 224
6.9.5 Corrosion Protection by Conductive Polymers 229
6.9.6 Wastewater Treatment by Conductive Polymers 230
6.9.7 Antistatic Properties of Conductive Polymer-Based
Textiles 230
6.9.8 Antimicrobial Properties of Conductive
Polymer-Based Textiles 231
6.10 Durability Properties of Conductive Polymer-Based Textiles 231
6.10.1 Tensile Property 231
6.10.2 Launderability 232
6.10.3 pH Stability 232
6.10.4 Environmental Stability 233
6.10.5 Thermal Stability 235
6.11 Future Scope and Challenges 239
6.12 Conclusions 239
References 240
7 Coated or Laminated Textiles for Aerostat and Stratospheric
Airship 257
Bapan Adak and Mangala Joshi
7.1 Introduction 258
7.2 Global Competitors for Making Aerostat/Airship at
Present 260
7.3 Working Atmosphere of Aerostats and High Altitude
Airship (HAA) 260
7.4 Materials Used in LTA Envelopes 261
7.4.1 Requirements for Hull Materials 261
7.4.1.1 Strength Layer 262
7.4.1.2 Weather-Resistant or -Protective Layer 266
7.4.1.3 Gas Barrier Layer 267
7.4.1.4 Adhesive Layer 267
7.4.2 Requirements for Ballonet Materials 268
7.4.3 Different Polymers as Potential Candidates for
Protective/Gas Barrier Layer 268
7.4.4 Coating and Lamination: Processing Techniques,
Advantages, and Disadvantages 270
7.5 Case Studies on Different Coated or Laminated LTA
Envelopes 272
7.6 Advanced Polymer Nanocomposites as Potential Material
for LTA Envelopes 274
7.6.1 Why Nanocomposites? 275
7.6.2 Some Case Studies and Applications of Polymer
Nanocomposites in Inflatables 276
7.6.3 Difficulties and Future Challenges for Polymer
Nanocomposites 279
7.7 Models for Predicting the Performance and Service Life of
Aerostats/Airships 280
7.8 Challenges and Future Scopes 281
7.9 Conclusion 282
References 283
8 Woolen Carpet Industry: Environmental Impact and Recent
Remediation Approaches 289
Anu Mishra
8.1 Introduction 289
8.2 Flowchart of the Manufacture of a Woolen Carpet, Its Use,
and After-Use Disposal 290
8.3 Wool Fiber Production and Related Environmental Issues 290
8.3.1 Pesticides in Raw Wool 293
8.4 Wool Fiber Cleaning and Related Environmental Issues 295
8.4.1 Mechanical Opening and Cleaning 295
8.4.2 Wool Scouring 296
8.4.3 Role of Detergent in Wool Scouring 298
8.4.4 Carbonization of Wool 299
8.5 Woolen Carpet Yarn Manufacturing and Related
Environmental Issues 299
8.6 Bleaching of Woolen Yarn and Related Environmental
Issues 302
8.7 Dyeing of Woolen Carpet Yarn and Related
Environmental Issues 303
8.8 Manufacture of Woolen Carpets and Related
Environmental Issues 308
8.8.1 Environmental Issues Related to Carpet
Manufacture 308
8.9 Washing of Carpets and Related Environmental Issues 311
8.9.1 Disadvantages of the Process 313
8.10 Environmental Issues Related to the Usage of Woolen
Carpets 314
8.10.1 Microbial and Dust Mite Generation in an Indoor
Environment 314
8.10.2 Emission of Volatile Organic Compounds 314
8.11 Environmental Issues Related to the Disposal of Used
Woolen Carpets 315
8.12 Some Remediation Approaches to Combat Environmental
Issues of Wool Carpet Industry 315
8.12.1 Adoption of Alternative Techniques 315
8.12.1.1 Eco-Efficient Wool Dry Scouring (WDS) 315
8.12.1.2 Wool Scouring Using Natural Ingredients 317
8.12.1.3 Energy-Efficient Wool Scouring 317
8.12.2 Treatment of Wool Scouring Effluents 317
8.12.2.1 Primary Treatments 319
8.12.2.2 Secondary Treatments 320
8.12.2.3 Tertiary Treatments 320
8.12.3 Treatment of Dye Wastewater Effluents 320
8.12.4 Adoption of Best Practices to Reduce Effluent
Generation 322
8.13 Conclusion 324
References 324
9 Intensification of Textile Wastewater Treatment Processes 329
Mahmood Reza Rahimi and Soleiman Mosleh
9.1 Introduction 330
9.2 AOP Techniques 333
9.2.1 Homogeneous Process 333
9.2.1.1 O3/UV 334
9.2.1.2 H2O2/UV 334
9.2.1.3 O3/H2O2/UV 334+
9.2.1.4 Photo-Fenton (Fe2+/H2O2/UV) 335
9.2.1.5 O3 /US 336
9.2.1.6 H2O2/US 337
9.2.1.7 Electrochemical Oxidation 337
9.2.1.8 Plasma-Based Oxidation Methods 337
9.2.1.9 Electro-Fenton 338
9.2.1.10 O3 in Alkaline Medium 340
9.2.1.11 O3/H2O2 341
9.2.2 Heterogeneous Processes 341
9.2.2.1 Catalytic Ozonation 341
9.2.2.2 Photocatalytic Ozonation 342
9.2.2.3 Heterogeneous Photocatalysis 342
9.3 Process Intensification 343
9.3.1 Sonophotocatalysis 344
9.3.2 Sono-Fenton (Fenton/Sonolysis) 346
9.4 Equipment and Processes 347
9.5 Catalyst Design and Modification 354
9.5.1 Development of New Efficient Photocatalysts 356
9.5.2 Metal Organic Frameworks Photocatalysts 356
9.6 Economic Evaluation/Justification of AOPs 357
9.6.1 Power Consumption and Cost-Effectiveness 362
9.7 Industrial and Large-Scale Applications 366
9.8 Application of Nanostructures in Wastewater Treatment 367
9.9 Challenges and Future Directions 370
9.10 Conclusion 371
References 371
10 Visible-Light-Induced Photocatalytic Degradation of Textile
Dyes over Plasmonic Silver-Modified TiO2 389
Rashmi Acharya, Brundabana Naik and K. M. Parida
10.1 Introduction 390
10.2 Basic Principle of Photocatalysis 391
10.3 TiO2 as a Versatile Photocatalyst 392
10.4 Silver (Ag)-Modified TiO2 (Ag-TiO2) as
Visible-Light-Induced Photocatalyst 393
10.5 Ag-Modified TiO2 with Non-Metal Doping 404
10.6 Ag-TiO2 with Other Plasmonic Metals 408
10.7 Conclusion 410
References 410
Part 2: Mechanical Aspects 419
11 Application of Textile Materials in Composites 421
Swati Sharma, Indu Chauhan and Bhupendra Singh Butola
11.1 Introduction 421
11.1.1 Types of Composites 422
11.1.1.1 Classification of Composites Based on
Type of Matrix 423
11.1.1.2 Classification of Composites Based on
Type of Reinforcement 425
11.1.1.3 Classification of Composites Based on
Size of Reinforcement 426
11.1.2 Application of Composites 426
11.2 Essential Properties of Fibers for Composite Applications 427
11.2.1 Effect of Concentration and Geometrical Properties
of Fibers 428
11.2.2 Effect of Fiber Orientation 429
11.2.3 Effect of Mechanical and Surface Properties of Fibers 431
11.3 Textile Fibers Used for Composite Applications 432
11.3.1 Natural Fibers 433
11.3.1.1 Vegetable Fibers 433
11.3.1.2 Animal Fibers 434
11.3.2 Synthetic Fiber 435
11.3.2.1 Glass Fiber 435
11.3.2.2 Aramid Fibers 436
11.3.2.3 Carbon Fibers 438
11.3.2.4 Ultrahigh-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene
(UHMWPE) 438
11.3.3 Textile Preform 439
11.3.3.1 Woven Fabrics 439
11.3.3.2 Braided Fabrics 441
11.3.3.3 Knitted Fabrics 442
11.4 Surface Modification of Fibers 443
11.4.1 Surface Coating 443
11.4.2 Plasma Surface Modification 443
11.4.3 Chemical Surface Modification 444
11.4.4 Mechanical Surface Treatment 444
11.5 Manufacturing of Textile Composite Materials 444
11.5.1 Open Mold Processes 445
11.5.1.1 Hand Lay-Up 445
11.5.1.2 Spray Lay-Up 445
11.5.1.3 Bag Molding Process 446
11.5.2 Closed Mold Techniques 447
11.5.2.1 Transfer Molding 447
11.5.2.2 Compression Molding 448
11.5.2.3 Injection Molding 450
11.5.3 Pultrusion 450
11.5.4 Filament Winding 451
11.6 Application of Textile Composites in Various Industries 451
11.6.1 Aerospace 452
11.6.2 Civil Construction 453
11.6.3 Sports 453
11.6.4 Biomedical 454
11.6.5 Defense 454
11.7 Conclusions 454
References 455
12 Emerging Trends in Three-Dimensional Woven Preforms for
Composite Reinforcements 463
R. N. Manjunath and B. K. Behera
12.1 Introduction 463
12.2 Three-Dimensional Fabrics 466
12.2.1 Three-Dimensional Solid Structures 466
12.2.1.1 Manufacturing Technique and Structural
Attributes 468
12.2.2 Three-Dimensional Hollow Structures 470
12.2.2.1 3D Hollow Fabrics with Flat/Even Surfaces 470
12.2.2.2 Production Technique of Woven Spacer
Fabrics 472
12.2.2.3 Three-Dimensional Hollow Structures with
Uneven Surfaces 474
12.2.2.4 Integrated Stiffened Preforms 474
12.2.2.5 Production Technique of Stiffener Fabrics 474
12.2.2.6 Honeycomb Structures 475
12.2.2.7 Principle of Structure Formation 475
12.2.3 Three-Dimensional Domed Fabrics 477
12.2.3.1 Combination of Weaves 478
12.2.3.2 Molding Process 479
12.2.3.3 Weaving with a Differential Take-up System 480
12.2.3.4 Weaving of Corner-Fitting Plies 482
12.2.4 3D Nodal Structures 484
12.2.4.1 Translation of 3D to 2D Strut Geometries 485
12.2.4.2 Development of Weave Architectures on a
2D Graph Template 486
12.2.4.3 Formulating Node/Nodal Boundaries and
Inner Segmentation 487
12.2.4.4 Varying the Number, Dimensions, and
Angle Orientation of the Child Struts 488
12.3 Challenges and Future Directions 490
12.4 Summary and Outlook 491
References 491
13 Evolution of Soft Body Armor 499
Sanchi Arora and Aranya Ghosh
13.1 Introduction 499
13.2 Constituents of Soft Body Armor 501
13.2.1 Response of a Woven Fabric to Ballistic Impact 501
13.2.1.1 Propagation of Longitudinal and
Transverse Waves 502
13.2.2 Factors Influencing Fabric Ballistic Performance 504
13.2.2.1 Fiber Properties 504
13.2.2.2 Yarn Structure 508
13.2.2.3 Yarn Friction 508
13.2.2.4 Fabric Structure 510
13.2.2.5 Number of Layers 514
13.2.3 Significant Properties of STF 515
13.2.3.1 Particle Volume Fraction 517
13.2.3.2 Particle Aspect Ratio 518
13.2.3.3 Particle Size 519
13.2.3.4 Particle Size Distribution 520
13.2.3.5 Particle–Particle Interactions 520
13.2.3.6 Particle Hardness 520
13.2.3.7 Particle Roughness 522
13.2.3.8 Particle Modifications 522
13.2.3.9 Liquid Medium 523
13.2.3.10 Effect of Temperature 524
13.2.4 Interaction of Fabric and STF 525
13.3 Performance Evaluation of Materials 526
13.3.1 Analytical Approach 527
13.3.2 Semi-Empirical and Empirical Approach 527
13.3.3 Numerical Approach 527
13.3.4 Experimental Approach 528
13.3.4.1 Ballistic Energy Absorption Assessment 528
13.3.5 Ballistic Limit or V50 Test 530
13.3.6 Back Face Signature or Blunt Trauma Assessment 530
13.3.7 Yarn Pull-Out Test 530
13.4 Advancements in Soft Body Armor Technology 532
13.4.1 Hybrid Armor Panels 532
13.4.2 3D Fabrics 534
13.4.3 Multiphase STF Systems 536
13.5 Conclusion 540
References 541
Index 553


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