Forensic Examination of Fibres, Third Edition Edited by James Robertson, Claude Roux and Kenneth G Wiggins

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Forensic Examination of Fibres, Third Edition
Edited by James Robertson, Claude Roux and Kenneth G Wiggins
Forensic Examination of Fibres

Contents
Preface to second edition ix
Preface to the third edition xi
Editors xiii
Contributors xv
1 Fibres, Yarns and Fabrics: An Introduction to Production,
Structure and Properties 1
STANLEY MACARTHUR FERGUSSON AND JANE HEMMINGS
2 Textile Damage Interpretation 61
JANE HEMMINGS, DEBRA CARR AND JAMES ROBERTSON
3 Ropes and Cordages 89
KENNETH G WIGGINS
4 From Crime Scene to Laboratory 99
JAMES ROBERTSON AND CLAUDE ROUX
5 Microscopic Examination of Fibres 145
SAMUEL J PALENIK
6 Colour Analysis of Fibres 179
THOMAS W BIERMANN AND KENNETH G WIGGINS
7 Infrared Microspectroscopy of Fibres 245
K PAUL KIRKBRIDE
8 Raman Spectroscopy of Fibres 289
JANE HEMMINGS
9 Other Instrumental Approaches to Fibre Examination 309
CLAUDE ROUX, RACHEL MORISON AND PHILIP MAYNARD
10 Interpretation of Fibre Evidence 345
MICHAEL GRIEVE, CLAUDE ROUX, KENNETH G WIGGINS,
CHRISTOPHE CHAMPOD AND FRANCO TARONI
11 Future Trends for Forensic Fibre Examination 427
KORNELIA NEHSE, SANDRA KOCH, MICHAEL GRIEVE, MAX M
HOUCK AND JAMES ROBERTSON
Index 455
Fibres, Yarns and Fabrics:
An Introduction to Production,
Structure and Properties
STANLEY MACARTHUR
FERGUSSON JANE HEMMINGS
Contents
1.1 Introduction 2
1.2 Fibres 2
1.2.1 Classification of Textile Fibres 3
1.2.2 Fibre Production 4
1.2.3 Fibre Characteristics 4
1.2.4 Properties of Fibre Forming Polymers 5
1.3 Natural Fibres – Vegetable Fibres 5
1.3.1 Seed Fibres – Cotton, Kapok and Coir 8
1.3.2 Stem Fibres – Flax, Jute, Ramie, Hemp, Kenaf 12
1.3.2.1 Flax 12
1.3.2.2 Jute 13
1.3.2.3 Ramie 13
1.3.2.4 Hemp 14
1.3.3 Leaf fibres – Sisal, Hemp (Manila and New Zealand) 14
1.3.3.1 Hemp-Abaca (or Manila Hemp) and New Zealand Hemp 14
1.3.3.2 Sisal and Henequen 15
1.4 Natural Fibres – Animal Fibres 15
1.4.1 Wool 16
1.4.1.1 Hair fibres or Speciality Wools 17
1.4.2 Silk—Silkworm 19
1.4.2.1 Spider Silk 20
1.5 Mineral Fibres (Asbestos) 20
1.6 Man-made Fibres 20
1.6.1 Fibres Regenerated from Natural Polymers 21
1.6.1.1 Viscose Rayon 21
1.6.1.2 Bamboo 23
1.6.1.3 Improved Forms of Viscose 24
1.6.1.4 Esters of Cellulose 25
1.6.1.5 Regenerated protein fibres 26
1.6.1.6 Alginate Fibres 26
1.6.2 Synthetic Fibres 26
1.6.2.1 Polyesters 28
1.6.2.2 Polyamides 30
1.6.2.3 Polyolefins 32
1.6.2.4 Polyvinyl Fibres 34
1.6.2.5 Polyurethane Fibres 35
1.6.2.6 Aramides 36
1.6.2.7 Polyvinyl Alcohol Fibres 37
1.6.2.8 Inorganic Man-Made Fibres 37
1.7 Bicomponent Fibres 38
1.8 New Fibres 39
1.9 From Fibre to Fabric 39
1.9.1 Introduction 39
1.9.2 Yarns 40
1.9.2.1 Types of Yarns 41
1.9.3 Fabrics 41
1.9.3.1 Woven Fabrics 42
1.9.3.2 Knitted Fabrics 47
1.9.3.3 Pilling 52
1.9.4 Non-Woven Materials 53
1.9.4.1 Leather 55
1.10 Conclusions 57
Acknowledgments 58
Further Readings 58
Textbooks 58
Textile Damage Interpretation
JANE HEMMINGS
DEBRA CARR
JAMES ROBERTSON
2.1 Introduction
Textile damage examination refers to the examination of any textile that may have undergone
damage and usually has legal implications. Another term commonly encountered
is textile severance morphology. Modern terminology favours the use of the word fabric
(then woven fabric, knitted fabric or nonwoven fabric) over the word textile (which now
Contents
2.1 Introduction 61
2.2 Recognition Level Examination 63
2.2.1 Causes of Textile Damage 64
2.2.2 Documentation 65
2.2.3 Packaging and Preservation 65
2.2.4 Briefing 67
2.3 1st Level Examination 68
2.3.1 Morphological Information to be Described at the Textile Product Level 69
2.3.2 Morphological Information to be Described at the Textile Level 70
2.3.3 Morphological Information to be Described at the Yarn Level 71
2.4 2nd Level Examination 73
2.4.1 Detailed Examinations 73
2.4.1.1 Morphological Information from the Fibre Level 74
2.4.2 Weapon/Implement Effects 75
2.4.2.1 Knives 76
2.4.2.2 Scissors 77
2.4.2.3 Blunt Implements 77
2.4.3 Textile Effects 77
2.4.4 Simulations 78
2.4.5 Limitations and Cautions 81
2.5 Testing 81
2.6 Interpretation, Reporting and Standards 82
2.7 Conclusions 83
Acknowledgements 83
Glossary 84
References 84
Further Reading 85
Appendix 2.1 Classification Scheme for Assessing Damage 86
Appendix 2.2 Parts of a Knife 87
Ropes and Cordages
KENNETH G WIGGINS
Contents
3.1 Introduction 89
3.2 Terminology 90
3.3 Structure of Rope 90
3.4 Sample Handling and Identification 91
3.4.1 Comparison Microscopy 92
3.4.2 Natural Fibre Ropes and Twines 92
3.4.2.1 Ashing 93
3.4.2.2 Maceration 93
3.4.3 Man-Made Fibre Ropes and Twines 93
3.4.3.1 Polarized Light Microscopy 93
3.4.3.2 Infrared Spectroscopy 95
3.4.3.3 Melting Point Determination 95
3.4.3.4 Density 95
3.4.4 Markers and Colour Comparison 95
3.4.5 Other Points of Comparison 96
3.5 Conclusion 97
References 98

Preface to second edition
By the time this volume is published, it will have been seven years since the first edition of Forensic Examination of Fibres appeared in print. This new volume contains material based on some of the content of that edition, and contributions from many new authors. The subject material covered has been considerably expanded, and all material, at the very minimum, has been revised and brought up to date. The past seven years have seen the introduction of several new fibres into the marketplace, yet the fibre types likely to be seen in the routine life of a forensic scientist remain relatively few. The content of this volume reflects an increased understanding of the importance of the interpretation of fibre findings and of the critical content-type of quality assurance in ensuring the reliability of the technical observations and results.

It is our hope that this volume will remain relevant for another seven years. To our contributing authors, our sincere and warm thanks for their efforts. To our various helpers in bringing this project to fruition and to our Commissioning Editor, Dilys Alam, thanks for your patience and understanding.


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