Leadership and Communication: A Case from Glass, Textile and Apparel Sector in Turkey by Sinan Unsar

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Leadership and Communication: A Case from Glass, Textile and Apparel Sector in Turkey
By Sinan Unsar
Leadership and Communication: A Case from Glass, Textile and Apparel Sector in Turkey

Contents
1 Leadership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 The Concept of Leadership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 The Difference Between a Leader and a Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.3 The Role and Importance of a Leader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.4 Leadership Theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.4.1 Traits Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.4.2 Behavioural Theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.4.3 Situational (Conditional) Theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.4.4 Modern Leadership Theroies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2 Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.1 The Concept of Communication and Its Importance . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.2 The Factors Playing a Role in Communication Process . . . . . . . . . 29
2.2.1 Sender (Source) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2.2.2 Message (Information/News) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.2.3 Barriers (Noise) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.2.4 Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.2.5 Receiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.2.6 Feedback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2.3 Communication Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.3.1 Shannon and Weaver’s Model of Communication . . . . . . . 35
2.3.2 Laswell Communication Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
2.3.3 Aristotle’s Communication Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2.3.4 Wendel Johnsons Communication Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2.3.5 Gerbner Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
2.3.6 Newcomb Communication Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.3.7 Westley and Mac Lean Communication Model . . . . . . . . . 40
2.4 Types of Communicaton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
2.4.1 Non-Verbal Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
2.4.2 Verbal Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
2.4.3 Written Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
2.5 Body Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
2.5.1 Elements of Body Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
2.6 Organizational Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
2.6.1 What Is Organizational Communication? . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
2.6.2 Types of Organizational Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
2.7 Organizational Communication Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
2.7.1 Means of Written Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
2.7.2 Verbal Communication Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
2.7.3 Audiovisual Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
2.8 Organizational Communication Barriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
2.8.1 Emotion and Perceptions of Employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
2.8.2 Weak Listening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
2.8.3 Wrong Communication Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
2.8.4 Inappropriate Language (Semantic Barrier) . . . . . . . . . . . 56
2.8.5 Excessive Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
2.8.6 Time Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
2.9 Leadership and Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
3 Leadership and Organizational Communication: A Study in Glass,
Textile and Apparel Sectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
3.1 Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
3.2 Aim and Significance of The Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
3.3 Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
3.4 Population and Sampling of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
3.5 Data Collection Method and Used Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
3.6 Hypotheses of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
3.7 Socio-Demographic Characteristics of the Participants . . . . . . . . 63
3.8 Frequency and Percentage Distributions of Responds to
Leadership Behaviour Questionnaire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
3.9 Frequency and Percentage Distributions of Responds to
Communication Scale Questionnaire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
3.10 Evaluation and Interpretation of Study Findings . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
3.10.1 Mann-Whitney Test Results of the Difference According
to the Dimension of Marital Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
3.10.2 Mann-Whitney Test Results of the Difference According
to the Dimension of Working Status of the Spouses of the
Employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
3.10.3 Mann-Whitney Test Results of the Difference according
to the Dimension of Gender of the Employees . . . . . . . . 100
3.10.4 Kruskal Wallis Test Results of the Difference
According to the Dimension of Working Sectors
of the Employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
3.10.5 Kruskal Wallis Test Results of the Difference
According to the Dimension of Income Levels
of the Employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
3.10.6 Kruskal Wallis Test Results of the Difference According
to the Dimension of Place of Upbringing of the
Employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
3.10.7 Kruskal Wallis Test Results of the Difference According
to the Dimension of Educational Level of the
Employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
3.10.8 Kruskal Wallis Test Results of the Difference According
to the Dimension of Educational Level of Mother of the
Employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
3.10.9 Kruskal Wallis Test Results of the Difference According
to the Dimension of Educational Level of Fathers of the Employees . . . 117
3.11 Discussion Result and Suggestions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

Preface
The concepts of leadership and communication can be considered as the most dynamic two concepts of organizational behavior. These two concepts can be regarded as the two sides of a coin. Leaders motivate their followers by effectively using communication process. Thus, communication is an indispensable element of leadership.

Leadership is present both at group and enterprise level. Groups and enterprises can achieve their goals thanks to their leaders. The enterprises become successful thanks to their leaders and make a difference from other enterprises. Success and effectiveness of enterprises in today’s globalizing world depends on the potential of their leaders. Since majority of enterprises understood the importance and power of leadership, they make their managers or manager candidates to receive leadership training and thus contribute to the leadership development.

On the other hand, it can be stated that the leaders who use and manage communication well become more successful. It can be stated that the leaders who accurately and appropriately explain group members what they should do will be successful. It can be stated that the leaders who recognize their members thanks to communication process will assign tasks to appropriate and correct people.

A review of the literature revealed that interaction between leadership and communication has not been studied much in Turkey. As a result, it can be stated that this book, although partially, will contribute to the related literature. In this book, the concepts of leadership and communication were tried to be explained through literature knowledge. Definitions and models about the concepts were explained. An empirical study was carried out on employees working in glass, textile, and apparel sectors. The aim of the study was to determine the views of the employees working in the mentioned sectors on leadership behavior types and the method of establishing communication of their manager.

Introduction
Leadership is one of the most important concepts of today. Considering that there is a managed group and managers both in societies and enterprises, it is observed that leadership, which is one of the most important elements of management, gains prominence. Like in every era, humans always needed and will need a leader when they come together. The method of managing humans in an effective and efficient manner depends on leadership process. Groups and societies feel secure thanks to their leaders, and thus they become more successful. A leader enables communities to follow the right path confidently and safely. In addition, the efforts of the leader to establish and shape future are of great importance.

It may be said that the concept of leadership is as old as history of humanity. After mankind and groups and societies of mankind showed up, the need to affect and lead these masses arose, as well. In the places where societies or groups live, it is needed to leaders who will lead the individuals to certain purposes and aims. The need for effective leaders is increasing day by day in economic, social, political, and business world. Major leaders play such a significant role in business world that they could make a firm, which was on the brink of bankruptcy or went on bankrupt, one of the leading firms of the sector. When the groups are not diverted to a certain place, the power and energy of the group is wasted. Therefore, leaders are the individuals who lead the energy of the groups consisting of people in line with certain ambitions. Individuals in some group are ordinary people, and they do not draw any attention while some individuals affect other people with their characteristics in such a way that they come out as the leader of that group. Moreover, leaders can be seen as individuals who raise awareness about the features of conditions on which their subordinates take place and these leaders lead the subordinates in which way they should act.

Today, leadership is such a popular concept that lots of studies are being carried out, conferences are being held, articles are being written, books are being issued, and institutes are being established about this concept. Thus, it is tried to enlighten the structure and context of leadership much more and put forth its unknown aspects. Furthermore, teachable aspect of leadership is being established in academic sense, as well. On the other hand, there is a comprehensive literature regarding this topic. Every individual may possess the potential of a leader. However, there is a difference between possessing it and revealing it. It can be said that leadership is an innate feature and it can be developed through training and teaching. For instance, a person who does not have a fine ear for music probably will not be able to play the violin perfectly no matter how much violin lesson he/she takes. Similarly, a person who does not possess the leadership trait will not be able to be a real leader no matter how much he/she gets training and teaching. Therefore, it can be stated that leadership is based on the artistic aspect and is developed with academic support. Leadership is a social process. It necessitates communication and interaction with people and groups. The leader starts to be shaped and determined after people and group members realize each other. Leaders play significant roles in the amendment and development of especially societies and establishments. Therefore, leadership has a social mission, as well. It can be evaluated that the biggest dream of leaders is to move a society or an establishment to better places.

When it is considered that communication starts after two individuals realize each other, it is seen that this concept is also as old as history of humanity. It can be said that the communication from past to present has undergone radical changes only structurally. Communication is an indispensable process both in society and group life. Communication plays a crucial role in the whole coordination of departments in establishments so as to reach their purposes. The world has turned into a small village thanks to the radical changes in communication technology. An event occurring at any place of the world can be heard in 10–15 min by the other countries. Thus, communication technology proceeds at an unprecedented pace. As a result, establishments and leaders benefit from this technology, as well. Leaders should establish good communication with their subordinates in order to be effective. Actually, the success of a leader is related with the quality of communication process he/she establishes with his/her subordinates. A leader who effectively imposes the purposes or targets of the establishment to them and who always communicates with them during the process of application shall be successful. Therefore, those leaders who choose correct communication channel and use it rationally may gain major advantages. On the other hand, it can be said that leaders possessing the ability of establishing correct communication with people can be more successful in affecting people. Basic communication process is highly significant in motivating them and determining their problems.

In line with the above-mentioned evaluations, it was basically dealt with the concepts of leadership and communication in this study. Within this scope, leadership and communication role and importance were explained in order to put forth context framework of the topic at first. Then, leadership theories and communication models were specified. The interaction of leadership and communication was examined through explaining organizational communication and its tools. Consequently, leadership behavior types and communication skills of administrators of the employees working in glass, textile, and confection sectors were determined and the relationship between socio-demographic variables of employees and leadership behavior types and communication forms of the administrators were examined.


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