Materials in Sports Equipment, Volume-1 Edited by Mike Jenkins

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Materials in Sports Equipment, Volume-1
Edited by Mike Jenkins
Materials in Sports Equipment, Volume-1

Contents
Preface xi
List of contributors xiii
1 Introduction 1
m. jenkins, university of birmingham, uk
1.1 Factors determining sports performance 1
1.2 Materials, processing and design in the pole vault 1
1.3 The relationship between materials technology and
design – fencing masks 4
1.4 Overview of ‘materials in sport’ 5
1.5 References 6
Part I General uses 7
2 Foam protection in sport 9
n. j . mills, university of birmingham, uk
2.1 Introduction 9
2.2 Static foam protection products 9
2.3 Soccer shin and ankle protectors 20
2.4 Rigid foam protection for sports wear – cycle helmets 30
2.5 Further sources of information 43
2.6 Summary 43
2.7 Acknowledgements 44
2.8 References 44
3 Performance of sports surfaces 47
c. walker, university of strathclyde,
scotland, uk
3.1 Introduction 47
3.2 Why do we have a diversity of sports surfaces? 47
3.3 The measurement of surface performance 48
3.4 Sport-specific surfaces 52
3.5 Future developments 63
3.6 References 63
4 Running shoe materials 65
n. j . mills, university of birmingham, uk
4.1 Introduction 65
4.2 Shoe construction 66
4.3 Running 77
4.4 Shoe foam stress analysis 80
4.5 Foam durability 90
4.6 Discussion 96
4.7 Future developments 97
4.8 Acknowledgements 97
4.9 References 97
5 Balls and ballistics 100
j . macari pallis, cislunar aerospace, inc. , usa
and r.d. mehta, sports aerodynamics consultant,
usa
5.1 Introduction 100
5.2 Basic aerodynamic principles 101
5.3 Cricket 102
5.4 Baseball 105
5.5 Tennis 107
5.6 Golf 110
5.7 Soccer/volleyball 113
5.8 Boomerang 115
5.9 Discus 119
5.10 Javelin 121
5.11 Future trends 123
5.12 References 124
Part II Particular sports 127
6 Materials in golf 129
m. strangwood, university of birmingham, uk
6.1 Introduction 129
6.2 Oversized golf drivers 130
6.3 Role of the face 133
6.4 Frequency spectrum testing A 136
6.5 Test variables 137
6.6 CoR–frequency relationship 143
6.7 Variability within a single club type 145
6.8 Head design criteria 146
6.9 Construction effects 153
6.10 Conclusions, further work and design trends 157
6.11 Acknowledgements 158
6.12 References 158
7 Surface engineering in sport 160
h. dong, university of birmingham, uk
7.1 Introduction 160
7.2 Surface properties and surface engineering 161
7.3 Surface coatings 165
7.4 Surface modification 173
7.5 Surface engineering case studies 183
7.6 Summary 192
7.7 Acknowledgements 192
7.8 References 193
8 Materials and tennis strings 196
r. cross, university of sydney, australia
8.1 Introduction 196
8.2 String types 197
8.3 The function of strings in a racquet 197
8.4 Frame stiffness 199
8.5 Laboratory testing of tennis strings 200
8.6 Quasi-static stretch tests 201
8.7 Energy loss in a string 203
8.8 Perception of string properties 204
8.9 Measurements of tension loss and dynamic stiffness 205
8.10 Tension loss results 207
8.11 Impact dynamics 211
8.12 Coefficient of friction 214
8.13 Discussion 216
8.14 Oblique impacts on tennis strings 217
8.15 Conclusions 218
8.16 References 220
8.17 Further reading and other resources 220
9 Materials and tennis rackets 222
h. lammer and j. kotze, head sport ag, austria
9.1 Introduction 222
9.2 Influence of materials on racket technology 222
9.3 Frame materials 229
9.4 Materials for accessories and special parts 237
9.5 Current manufacturing process 239
9.6 Design criteria 244
9.7 Future trends 247
9.8 References 247
10 Materials in bicycles 249
j .m. morgan, university of bristol, uk
10.1 Introduction 249
10.2 Wooden bikes! 249
10.3 Material properties 251
10.4 Failure by fatigue 254
10.5 Bike failures – some case studies 256
10.6 Pedal cycle injury statistics 263
10.7 The exploding wheel rim (case 1) 267
10.8 The Consumer Protection Act 272
10.9 The exploding wheel rim (case 2) 273
10.10 Conclusions 276
10.11 References 277
11 Materials in mountaineering 279
j .r. blackford, university of edinburgh,
scotland, uk
11.1 Introduction 279
11.2 Ropes 286
11.3 Harnesses and slings 292
11.4 Karabiners 297
11.5 Belay, descending and ascending devices 303
11.6 Rock protection 307
11.7 Ice climbing equipment 311
11.8 Helmets 316
11.9 Future trends 316
11.10 Sources of further information 318
11.11 Acknowledgements 324
11.12 References 324
12 Materials in skiing 326
h. casey, los alamos national laboratory, usa
12.1 Introduction 326
12.2 The impact of technology on the ski industry 327
12.3 Contribution from materials and manufacturing 330
12.4 Development of competitive and recreational skiing 335
12.5 Future trends 340
12.6 Acknowledgements 341
12.7 References and sources of further information 341
13 Materials in cricket 342
a. j . subic, rmit university, melbourne,
australia and a. j . cooke, cooke associates,
cambridge, uk
13.1 Introduction 342
13.2 Cricket balls 343
13.3 Cricket bats 353
13.4 Protective equipment in cricket 363
13.5 Conclusions 369
13.6 Future trends 370
13.7 Acknowledgements 372
13.8 References 372
14 Materials in Paralympic sports 376
j . macari pallis, cislunar aerospace, inc. , usa
14.1 Introduction 376
14.2 Physical disabilities 377
14.3 Considerations and limitations in design and materials
based on Paralympic sport regulations 381
14.4 Devices and materials used in Paralympic sports 381
14.5 Resources 395
14.6 Future trends 396
14.7 Acknowledgements 397
14.8 References 397
Index 399

Preface
Examination of the sporting goods sector in the UK reveals a market of significant size and growth potential. In 1998, the Sports Industries Federation evaluated consumer expenditure in the sports market sector. It was estimated at over £12b, with sports equipment contributing in the region of 28% to this market. A number of growth areas were also highlighted, including golf, team sports and fitness equipment. The growth of golfing activity has been most significant, increasing from £115 m in 1995 to £180 m in 1998. The growth of the sports sector as a whole is in accordance with increased participation in sporting activity and this has significant financial implications for society.

In terms of the financial costs of healthcare for the population, participation in sport and exercise can reduce the costs to the state in later life. In 1985,Australian research predicted savings of A$400m in the year 2000 if 50% of the population participated in some sporting activity. In addition, there are many opportunities for business diversification as new sports proliferate. There is also a significant financial incentive for entering the market if the following example is considered. In 1971, a ‘professional’ tennis racket cost £11. In 1998, based on inflation, the racket should have cost £48; it actually cost £230.

The driving force for a consumer to pay £230 for a tennis racket is the benefit that advanced materials bring to the product, most often in terms of increased stiffness and reduced weight. Therefore, in recent years the use of advanced materials in sport has increased and there has also been a corresponding increase in athletic performance. The purpose of this book is to detail the use of materials in sport and to discuss the relationship between materials selection, materials processing and design in a sporting context. To achieve this, a wide range of sports and equipment is considered including golf, tennis, body protection and mountaineering. The content of each chapter is aimed primarily at academics and manufacturers. However, it is also likely to be of interest to postgraduate students working in the area of sports engineering. To ensure this, each chapter is supported by numerous literature and internet-based resources.

Finally, I would like to extend my thanks to each author for their valuable contributions to this work.


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