Nanofinishing Science and Technology: Basic and Advanced Finishing and Polishing Processes Edited by V. K. JAIN

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Nanofinishing Science and Technology: Basic and Advanced Finishing and Polishing Processes
Edited by V. K. JAIN
Nanofinishing Science and Technology: Basic and Advanced Finishing and Polishing Processes

Contents
Foreword ..............................................................................................xi
Preface ................................................................................................... xiii
Editor.........................................................................................xv
Contributors ....................................................................................... xvii
Section I Introduction
1. Nanofinishing: An Introduction .................................................................3
Vijay K. Jain
Section II Traditional Nanofinishing Processes
2. Honing ............................................................................................................29
Pramod Kumar Jain and Harpreet Singh
3. Lapping ........................................................................................................... 59
Pramod Kumar Jain and Harpreet Singh
Section III Advanced Nanofinishing Processes
4. Abrasive Flow Finishing Process and Modelling ..................................75
Sachin Singh, M. Ravi Sankar, Vijay K. Jain and J. Ramkumar
5. Elastic Emission Machining ..................................................................... 111
Ajay Sidpara
6. Elasto-Abrasive Finishing ........................................................................ 133
V.S. Sooraj and V. Radhakrishnan
7. Focused Ion Beam (FIB) Nanofinishing for Ultra-Thin TEM
Sample Preparation .................................................................................... 155
Rakesh G. Mote and Li Xiaomin
Section IV Magnetic Field Assisted
Nanofinishing Processes
8. Magnetic Abrasive Finishing Process and Modelling ........................ 179
Sachin Singh, Deepu Kumar, M. Ravi Sankar and Vijay K. Jain
9. Magnetorheological Finishing ................................................................. 215
Ajay Sidpara and Vijay K. Jain
10. Nanofinishing of Freeform Surfaces Using BEMRF ...........................235
Faiz Iqbal and Sunil Jha
11. Nanofinishing Process for Spherical Components ..............................265
Jomy Joseph, Ajay Sidpara, Jinu Paul and Vijay K. Jain
Section V Hybrid Nanofinishing Processes
12. Chemomechanical Magnetorheological Finishing (CMMRF) .........285
Prabhat Ranjan, R. Balasubramaniam, Vinod K. Suri and Vijay K. Jain
13. Electrochemical Grinding ......................................................................... 321
Divyansh S. Patel, Vijay K. Jain and J. Ramkumar
14. Electrochemical Magnetic Abrasive Finishing ....................................353
K.B. Judal and Vinod Yadava
15. Electro-Discharge Diamond Grinding .................................................. 381
Vinod Yadava
16. Fine Finishing of Gears by Electrochemical Honing Process ...........407
Neelesh Kumar Jain and Sunil Pathak
Section VI Miscellaneous
17. Measurement Systems for Characterisation
of Micro/Nano-Finished Surfaces ...........................................................449
G.L. Samuel
18. Optimisation of Advanced Finishing Processes Using
a Teaching-Learning-Based Optimisation Algorithm ........................ 475
R. Venkata Rao and Dhiraj P. Rai
19. Molecular Dynamics Simulation (MDS) to Study Nanoscale
Cutting Processes .......................................................................................499
Saurav Goel, Saeed Zare Chavoshi and Adrian Murphy
20. Nanofinishing of Biomedical Implants..................................................549
Naveen Thomas, Ashif Iquebal Sikandar, Satish Bukkapatnam
and Arun Srinivasa
21. Chemical Mechanical Planarisation ....................................................... 597
David Lee Butler
Author Index ....................................................................................................... 617
Subject Index ...................................................................................................... 625

Preface
This unique book on Nanofinishing Science and Technology: Basic and Advanced Finishing and Polishing Processes is the result of the combined effort of 34 eminent professors and researchers in different fields of nanofinishing science and technologies. The main objective of this book is to acquaint the readers with both the science and technology of many newly developed nanofinishing processes as well as commonly practiced nanofinishing processes in a single volume. Such a collection of the articles will definitely help teachers, researchers, as well as shop floor engineers. This book encompasses not only the nanofinishing technologies but also the process optimisation methodologies that will help in extracting the best from the process under consideration. Knowledge of the application areas of different nanofinishing processes is equally important. Hence, almost every chapter deals with the specific applications and a separate section deals with general applications of different nanofinishing processes. Further, you cannot finish a product unless you can measure it. Hence, this book deals with topics such as optimisation, applications of nanofinishing processes and measurement techniques for nano-level finished parts. Most of the chapters have an extensive references list or bibliography, a set of review questions and in some cases, solved problems as well. All this material makes this book a suitable candidate for a textbook on nanofinishing science and technologies that can be offered to both undergraduate and postgraduate students, apart from being a reference book for researchers and practicing engineers.

This book is divided into six major sections. Section I gives an introductory overview of nanofinishing technologies, their working principles and in some cases, process-specific applications. Section II deals with two traditional nanofinishing processes, namely, honing and lapping. Section III discusses the advanced nanofinishing techniques requiring no magnetic field assistance. This section includes four processes, namely, abrasive flow finishing, elastic emission machining (EEM), elasto-abrasive finishing (EAF) and focused ion beam (FIB) nanofinishing for ultra-thin tunneling electron microscope (TEM) sample preparation. The beauty of the first process of this category is that it can finish, deburr and radius very large, three-dimensional (3D), complex and freeform surfaces at comparatively very high finishing rate. However, the best surface roughness value reported is around 20 nm. EEM removes the material almost atom by atom by using sub-micron-sized abrasive particles. In the case of the EAF process, elastomer balls embedded with the required type of abrasive particles are prepared as a finishing tool to achieve the desired surface roughness value on different kinds of workpieces. However, the last process (FIB) is useful only for dealing with submicron or a few micron-size working areas.

Section IV describes the nanofinishing processes that are assisted by magnetic field. In these processes, to some extent, you can control the forces on-line. This section includes the following processes: magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF) process, magnetorheological finishing (MRF), nanofinishing of freeform surfaces using ball end MRF and nanofinishing process for spherical components. These processes are also known as deterministic nanofinishing processes, in which the forces acting in the process can be controlled on-line through external means. These processes are useful for complicated 3D, complex and freeform surfaces. The last process of this category, known as magnetic float polishing, is mainly useful for nanofinishing spherical components, while others cannot finish spherical components efficiently.

Most of these previously mentioned processes come under the category of independent processes, which have some merits and some weaknesses as well. To minimise the effects of weaknesses and to exploit the effects of their merits, many times, two or more processes (two finishing or finishing and machining processes) are combined together, and such processes are known as hybrid processes. Section V deals with hybrid finishing/machining processes, which include the following processes: chemomechanical magnetorheological finishing, electrochemical grinding, electrochemical magnetic abrasive finishing (ECMAF), electric-discharge diamond grinding (EDDG) and electrochemical honing. The first is a combination of chemomechanical polishing and MRF, while the second combines electrochemical machining (ECM) and grinding to take advantage of the merits of the constituent processes. ECMAF combines ECM and MAF, while EDDG combines electric discharge machining (EDM) and diamond grinding. The last process of this section combines the ECM and honing processes. The main motive of all these hybrid processes is to enhance the finishing rate through enhancing material removal rate and to minimise the achievable final surface roughness value. Most of these processes have been able to attain their intended objective. Section VI deals with the miscellaneous but important areas related to nanofinishing processes. Some of the chapters, which are the requirements of any nanofinishing technologies for their evaluation and performance enhancements, are as follows: measurement systems for characterisation of micro/nano-level finished surfaces, optimisation of nanofinishing processes for better output, molecular dynamic simulation to understand the science of nanoscale cutting processes and applications of nanofinishing processes in various fields such as biomedical implants.

I would definitely like to thank all the contributors for their efforts in writing their chapters. I will definitely like to put on record my sincere thanks to Taylor & Francis (CRC Press) in general and Cindy Carelli, in particular, who has helped in getting this book processed through different stages. I will appreciate receiving suggestions from the readers of the book.


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