Organizational Behavior: Integrating Individuals, Groups, and Organizations by Joseph E. Champoux

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Organizational Behavior: Integrating Individuals, Groups, and Organizations
By Joseph E. Champoux
Organizational Behavior: Integrating Individuals, Groups, and Organizations

Table of Contents
in Detail
Preface xix
PART 1: INTRODUCTION: THE CONTEXT OF
MODERN ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
AND MANAGEMENT
Chapter 1: Introduction and Historical Background 4
What Is an Organization? 6
Organizational Behavior and Organizational Theory 6
Theories and Concepts 7
Theory 8
Theories and Concepts as Lenses 8
Functional Analysis 9
Historical Foundations 10
Division of Labor: Adam Smith (1776) 10
Scientific Management: Frederick W. Taylor (1911) 11
Toward a Theory of Administration: Henri
Fayol (1919) 12
Bureaucracy: Max Weber (1922) 13
Mary Parker Follett’s Observations on Organizations
and Management (1925) 14
The Functions of the Executive: Chester I.
Barnard (1938) 16
The Hawthorne Studies (1939) 17
Theory X and Theory Y: Douglas McGregor (1960) 18
Management Guru: Peter F. Drucker (1995) 19
Summary 21
Chapter 2: The Context of Modern Organizations (Diversity, Quality,
Technology, International) 27
Workforce Diversity 28
Quality Management 31
Technology, Organizations, and Management 35
The Global Environment of Organizations 38
Summary 41
Chapter 3: Ethics and Behavior in Organizations 50
Ethical and Unethical Behavior 52
“It’s Good Business” 53
Ethical Issues in Organizational Behavior 53
Ethics: The Study of Moral Philosophy 54
Ethical Values of Societies and Individuals 54
Ethical Values of Societies 54
Ethical Values of Individuals 55
Ethics Theories 57
Utilitarianism 57
Rights 59
Justice 60
Egoism 61
Managing for Ethical Behavior 61
International Aspects of Ethics 63
Legal Views 63
Ethical Views 64
Summary 65
Chapter 4: Organizational Culture 72
Dimensions of Organizational Culture 74
Levels of Organizational Culture 75
Perspectives on Organizational Culture 76
Cultural Symbolism 77
Functions of Organizational Culture 77
Dysfunctions of Organizational Culture 79
Diagnosing Organizational Culture 80
As an Outsider 80
As an Insider 82
Organizational Culture and Organizational Performance 83
Creating, Maintaining, and Changing
Organizational Culture 84
International Aspects of Organizational Culture 86
Ethical Issues in Organizational Culture 86
Summary 87
Part 1 Case: Does this Milkshake Taste Funny?
PART 2: INDIVIDUAL PROCESSES IN ORGANIZATIONS
Chapter 5: Perception, Attitudes, and Personality 100
Perception 101
Self-Perception: A View of Self 102
Social Perception: A View of Others 103
Attitudes 106
Attitude Formation 107
Attitude Change 107
Personality 108
Personality Theories 108
Emotions and Emotional Intelligence 110
The Big Five Personality Dimensions 112
Personality Types 113
International Aspects of Perception, Attitudes,
and Personality 114
Ethical Issues in Perception, Attitudes, and Personality 115
Summary 116
Chapter 6: Organizational Socialization 126
Roles and Role Behavior 128
Role Episodes 128
Boundary Transitions 130
Individual and Organizational Perspectives on Socialization 131
Stages of Organizational Socialization 132
Choice: Anticipatory Socialization (“Getting In”) 132
Entry/Encounter (“Breaking In”) 134
Change: Metamorphosis (“Settling In”) 137
Individual Differences and Socialization 139
International Aspects of Organizational Socialization 140
Issues in Expatriate Adjustment 140
Issues in Repatriate Adjustment 141
Ethical Issues in Organizational Socialization 142
Summary 143
Chapter 7: Motivation: Need Theories 151
Overview of Where We Are Headed 152
Murray’s Theory of Human Personality:
The Concept of Needs 153
Characteristics of Needs 154
Implications of Murray’s Theory for Behavior in
Organizations 155
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory 155
E.R.G. Theory 157
McClelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory 159
Herzberg’s Motivator–Hygiene Theory 162
International Aspects of the Need Theories of Motivation 163
Ethical Issues and the Need Theories of Motivation 164
Summary 165
Chapter 8: Motivation: Cognitive and Behavioral Theories
and Techniques 171
Expectancy Theory 172
Basic Concepts of Expectancy Theory 173
Relationships between Expectancies and Valences 174
Types of Outcomes 174
Individual and Organizational Blockages 175
Equity Theory 176
Goal-Setting Theory 179
Behavior Modification 181
A Method of Behavior Modification 181
Side Effects of Punishment 184
International Aspects of the Cognitive and Behavioral
Theories of Motivation 185
Ethical Issues and the Cognitive and Behavioral
Theories of Motivation 186
Summary 187
Chapter 9: Intrinsic Rewards and Job Design 196
Intrinsic Rewards and Job Design 197
The Job Characteristics Theory of Work Motivation 198
Affective and Behavioral Outcomes 198
Critical Psychological States 200
Perceived and Objective Job Characteristics 200
Relationships Predicted by the Theory 202
Contextual Factors in Job Design 204
Organizational Design and Job Design 204
Technical Process and Job Design 205
Management Behavior and Job Design 205
Diagnosing and Redesigning Jobs 206
Group-Based Job Design 206
Design of the Task and the Group 207
What Are the Expectations for Group-Based Jobs? 208
Individual and Contextual Considerations 208
Factors Affecting Perceptions of Objective
Job Characteristics 209
International Aspects of Job Design 209
Ethical Issues in Job Design 210
Summary 211
Part 2 Case: Nordstrom
PART 3: GROUP AND INTERPERSONAL
PROCESSES IN ORGANIZATIONS
Chapter 10: Groups and Intergroup Processes 232
Formal and Informal Groups 233
Basic Concepts for Understanding Groups in Organizations 234
Functions of Groups in Organizations 235
Dysfunctions of Groups in Organizations 235
Model of Cohesive Group Formation 236
Activities, Interactions, and Sentiments 237
Organizational Factors that Affect Cohesive
Group Formation 238
Bases of Attraction 239
Stages of Group Development 239
Social Structure of Groups 240
Factors that Affect Group Effectiveness 242
Virtual Groups 243
Self-Managing Teams 245
Workgroup Socialization 247
Majority and Minority Influences in Groups 248
Effects of Workforce Diversity 249
Intergroup Processes in Organizations 249
International Aspects of Groups in Organizations 250
Ethical Issues about Groups in Organizations 251
Summary 252
Chapter 11: Conflict in Organizations 264
Functional and Dysfunctional Conflict 266
Levels and Types of Conflict in Organizations 266
Intraorganization Conflict 267
Intrapersonal Conflict 267
Interorganization Conflict 268
Conflict Episodes 268
Latent Conflict 268
Perceived Conflict 269
Felt Conflict 269
Manifest Conflict 269
Conflict Aftermath 270
Relationships among Conflict Episodes 270
Conflict Frames and Orientations 271
Latent Conflict: Sources of Conflict in Organizations 272
Conflict Management 274
Reducing Conflict 275
Increasing Conflict 277
International Aspects of Conflict in Organizations 278
Ethical Issues about Conflict in Organizations 278
Summary 279
Chapter 12: Leadership and Management 286
Management and Leadership 287
Trait Approaches to Leadership 288
Behavioral Theories of Leadership 289
The University of Michigan Leadership Studies:
Production-Centered and Employee-Centered Behavior 290
The Ohio State University Leadership Studies:
Initiating Structure and Consideration 290
Contingency Theories of Leadership 291
Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership 291
House’s Path–Goal Theory of Leadership 293
Alternative Views of Leadership 295
The Leadership Mystique 295
Transformational Leadership 296
Charismatic Leadership Theories 297
Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) Theory 298
Leadership and Self-Managing Teams 298
Substitutes, Neutralizers, and Enhancers of
Leadership Behavior 299
Leadership Perceptions: “We Know a Leader
When We See One” 300
Leadership Categorization 300
Leadership Attributions 301
Women, Men, and Leadership 301
International Aspects of Leadership and Management 302
Ethical Issues in Leadership and Management 303
Summary 303
Part 3 Case: Contract Negotiations in
Western Africa: A Case of Mistaken Identity
PART 4: ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESSES
Chapter 13: Communication Processes 320
The Basic Communication Process 322
Types of Communication 323
Verbal Communication 323
Nonverbal Communication 324
Functions of Organizational Communication 326
Dysfunctions of Organizational Communication 327
Listening 329
Active Listening 330
Improving Communication Effectiveness 330
Sender 330
Receiver 331
Message 331
Medium 332
Technology and Communication 332
Communication Roles in Organizations 334
Communication Networks 334
International Aspects of Organizational Communication 336
Ethical Issues in Organizational Communication 337
Summary 338
Chapter 14: Decision-Making and Problem-Solving Processes 345
Decision Strategies 346
The Decision-Making Process 347
Decision-Making Models 349
The Rational Model 349
The Bounded Rationality Model 349
Unstructured Decision-Making Models 350
The Garbage Can Model of Decision Making 350
Political Decision-Making Models 351
Assets and Liabilities of Group Decision Making 352
Assets 352
Liabilities 352
Choosing between Individual and Group Decision Making 353
Alternative Social Processes for Decision Making 353
The Vroom–Yetton Model 354
Judgment Biases 354
Heuristics 355
Judgment Biases 355
Framing Effects 356
Escalation of Commitment 357
Groupthink 358
Improving Decision Making in Organizations 359
Human-Based Methods 359
Computer-Based Methods 361
International Aspects of Decision Making and
Problem Solving 361
Ethical Issues in Decision Making and Problem Solving 362
Summary 363
Chapter 15: Power and Political Behavior 371
Power 372
Bases of Power 373
Power, Leadership, and Management 375
Building Power 375
Attribution of Power 377
Political Behavior 377
Political Strategies 379
Political Tactics 379
Political Skill 381
Political Diagnosis 382
The Dark Side of Organizational Politics:
Deception, Lying, and Intimidation 384
International Aspects of Power and Political Behavior
in Organizations 386
Ethical Issues about Power and Political Behavior
in Organizations 387
Summary 388
Chapter 16: Stress in Organizations 394
The General Adaptation Syndrome: “Fight or Flight” 396
The Psychological Demands and Decision Latitude Model 397
An Integrated Model of Stress 398
Stressors 398
Stress Response 399
Behavioral Response 399
Distress and Eustress Results 399
Moderators 400
Burnout 403
Stress Management: Individual and Organizational Strategies 404
Individual Strategies 404
Organizational Strategies 406
International Aspects of Stress in Organizations 408
Ethical Issues about Stress in Organizations 409
Summary 410
Part 4 Case: Motor Parts Corporation
PART 5: ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN
AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE
Chapter 17: Organizational Design 430
The Contingency Factors of Organizational Design 432
Overview 432
Strategy 433
External Environment 434
Technical Process 434
Organization Size 435
Generic Forms of Organizational Design 436
Mechanistic and Organic Organizations 436
Defender, Prospector, Analyzer, and Reactor
Organizations 436
Specific Forms of Organizational Design 438
Organizational Design by Function 438
Organizational Design by Division 439
Hybrid Organizational Design 441
Matrix Organizational Design 442
Evolving Forms of Organizational Design 444
International Aspects of Organizational Design 446
Ethical Issues in Organizational Design 446
Summary 447
Chapter 18: Organizational Change and Development 454
Forces for and against Change 455
Unplanned and Planned Organizational Change 456
Targets of Planned Organizational Change 457
Models of Planned Organizational Change 457
Evolutionary Model of Organizational Change 457
Revolutionary Model of Organizational Change 458
Resistance to Change 459
Reasons for Resistance to Change 460
Managers’ Orientation to Resistance to Change 460
Managing the Change Process to Reduce Resistance 461
Leadership and Organizational Change 462
Organizational Development 462
Organizational Development Phases 463
Organizational Development Interventions 466
International Aspects of Organizational Change
and Development 467
Ethical Issues about Organizational Change and
Development 468
Summary 468
Part 5 Case: Using Leadership to Promote TQM
Index 483


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