Proceedings of the International Colloquium in Textile Engineering, Fashion, Apparel and Design Edited by Mohd Rozi Ahmad and Mohamad Faizul Yahya

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Proceedings of the International Colloquium in Textile Engineering, Fashion, Apparel and Design 2014
Edited by Mohd Rozi Ahmad and Mohamad Faizul Yahya
Proceedings of the International Colloquium in Textile Engineering, Fashion, Apparel and Design

Contents
Production of Bicomponent Polymer Droplets by Electrospraying . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
A. Jadhav, L. Wang, and R. Padhye
Characteristics of Electrospun PVA-Aloe vera Nanofibres Produced via
Electrospinning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
N.A. Abdullah@Shukry, K. Ahmad Sekak, M.R. Ahmad, and T.J. Bustami Effendi
Puncture Strength of Natural Rubber Latex Coated Unidirectional Fabric
After Heat Ageing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
M.R. Ahmad, A.L. Anisah, N.V. David, and W.Y.W. Ahmad
Modeling Plain Woven Composite Model with Isotropic Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
M.F. Yahya, S.A. Ghani, and J. Salleh
The Effect of Fabric Weave on the Tensile Strength of Woven Kenaf
Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Composite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
M.P. Saiman, M.S. Wahab, and M.U. Wahit
Yarn Pull-Out and Shear Behaviour of Kevlar 29 Fabrics Coated with
Natural Rubber Latex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
N.A. Ahmad, M.R. Ahmad, and W.Y.W. Ahmad
Tensile Strength and Evenness of Kenaf/Polyester Blended Rotor-Spun Yarn . . . 37
N.H.A. Hayam, M.R. Ahmad, W.Y.W. Ahmad, M.F. Yahya, and M.I.A. Kadir
SMART Textiles: The Use of Embedded Technology on Tactile Textiles as
Therapy for the Elderly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
K. Hong
Thermal Energy Storage of Polyester Fabric Coated with Paraffin Liquid as
Microencapsulated Phase Change Material (PCM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
A.B.M. Dom, A.F. Mohd, N. Tulos, E. Nasir, and W.Y.W. Ahmad
Fabric Mechanical Properties: Human Versus Machine Interpretation . . . . . . . . 53
S.A. Ghani, M.F. Yahya, and S.N. Dahalan
Upper Fitness Personal Assistant: Body-Guts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
C.W. Tan, S.W. Chin, A.W.H. Teo, W.X. Lim, and D.W. Goh
Surface Appearance Changes of Bio-finished Knitted Fabric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
E. Nasir, M.S.R.M. Khair, N. Tulos, A. Musa, A. Baharudin, and S.A. Ghani
The Performance of Tenun Pahang Using Various Weft Yarn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
E.L.Z. Engku Mohd Suhaimi, J. Salleh, S.A.A. Ghani, M.F. Yahya,
and M.R. Ahmad
Utilization of Eco-Colourant from Green Seaweed on Textile Dyeing . . . . . . . . . . 79
M.I. Ab Kadir, W.Y. Wan Ahmad, M.R. Ahmad, M.I. Misnon, W.S. Ruznan,
H. Abdul Jabbar, K. Ngalib, and A. Ismail
Dyeing of Polyester Using Natural Colorant from Melastoma
malabathricum L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Wan Yunus Wan Ahmad, Tengku Muna Shaheera Tuan Zainal Abidin, Mohd Rozi Ahmad,
Muhammad Ismail Ab Kadir, and Nor Juliana Mohd Yusof
Microwave-Enzyme-Assisted Extraction and Dyeing of Lichen Species:
Parmotrema praesorediosum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
N.A. Mohamed, W.Y. Wan Ahmad, K. Ngalib, M.R. Ahmad, M.I. Ab Kadir, and A. Ismail
Microwave-Assisted Extraction as a Rapid Extraction to Produce
Natural Dyes from Pycnoporus sanguineus Mushroom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
W.Y. Wan Ahmad, N. Md Noor, M.R. Ahmad, and M.I. Ab Kadir
Dyeing Properties and Absorption Study of Natural Dyes from
Seaweeds, Kappaphycus alvarezii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
M.I. Ab Kadir, W.Y. Wan Ahmad, M.R. Ahmad, H. Abdul Jabbar, K. Ngalib,
and A. Ismail
Reducing the Effluent Pollution by Using Trisodium Nitrilotriacetate in
Batch Process of Dyeing Cotton Fabric with Fiber-Reactive Dyes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Awais Khatri, Hafeezullah Memon, Zaib-un-Nisa Bhatti, Shakeela Qureshi,
and Faisal Zaib
Fastness Properties and Color Analysis of Natural Colorants from Actinomycetes
Isolates on Silk Fabric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
W.F. Wan Yusoff, S.A. Syed Mohamad, and W.Y. Wan Ahmad
Dyeing of Polyester and Polyester Microfibre with Natural Dye from
Bacteria Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
W.Y. Wan Ahmad, M.R. Ahmad, and M.I. Ab Kadir

Production of Bicomponent Polymer Droplets by Electrospraying
A. Jadhav, L. Wang, and R. Padhye

Abstract Electrospraying is a method of generating a fine mist through electrostatic charging. It is used for producing polymer droplets at submicron range, which enhances functional properties of the substrate after deposition by providing thin level coating and larger surface area. In this research, in order to impart multifunctionality to substrate, the two distinct polymers thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and poly vinyl chloride (PVC) are electrosprayed simultaneously by specially designed nozzle. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used to confirm the bicomponent droplet fabrication. The results show that new electrospraying system demonstrated the feasibility of producing bicomponent TPU/PVC polymer droplets.

Keywords Electrospraying _ Bicomponent droplets _ Thin-film deposition _ Thermoplastic polyurethane _ Polyvinyl chloride

Introduction
Electrospraying is a method of generating a fine mist through electrostatic charging. As the liquid passes through a nozzle, fine droplets are generated by electrically charging the liquid to a very high voltage [1]. Charged droplets are self-dispersing in space, resulting in the absence of droplet coagulation. The deposition efficiency of a charged spray on an object is higher than for an uncharged spray. This feature can be advantageous, for example, in surface coating, thinfilm production and electroscrubbing. Electrospraying can be widely applied to both industrial processes and scientific instrumentation [2]. Electrospraying is used for micro- and nano-thin-film deposition [3], micro- or nanoparticle production and micro- or nano-capsule formation. Thin films and fine powders are (or potentially could be) used in modern material technologies, microelectronics and medical technology. The effects of several process parameters, such as the applied voltage, electric field strength, flow rate, concentration and distance between the nozzle and collector, have been explored in great detail for thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) [4–6].

Many researchers have reported the feasibility of bicomponent electrospinning systems. Blends of polyaniline, a conducting polymer, with polyethylene oxide (PEO) dissolved in chloroform were electrospun to produce filaments in the range of 5–30 nm [7, 8]. Regenerated silk was blended with PEO to eliminate the expansion of brittle β-sheets of silk fibroin [9]. Hence, utility of the resulting electrospun mats was improved in vitro and in vivo conditions. There have been no reported studies regarding bicomponent droplet fabrication by electrospraying. Hence, an attempt has been made to design and develop bicomponent electrospraying system. Some unique characteristics must be considered when electrospraying was performed from blends of polymer solutions. For a blend of two polymers (in the same solvent or different solvents), the mixture should be homogenous so that the resultant droplets possess a uniform spatial configuration. In addition to being thermodynamically miscible, the interactions between the polymer and the solvent of the opposing pair are of critical importance when two polymers are dissolved in two solvents respectively. Hence, during electrospraying of two polymers, the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of solution need to be considered. Another way to produce electrosprayed droplets from two polymers is by electrospraying two polymers simultaneously in a side-by-side arrangement.

In this research, the developed bicomponent system utilised was such that the two polymer solutions do not come into physical contact until they reached the end of the nozzle, where the process of droplet formation began. The electrospraying device was designed in such way that two polymer solutions were electrosprayed simultaneously in a side-by-side manner. This allows for a bicomponent electrospray coating that possesses properties from each of the polymeric components. For instance, one of the polymers could contribute to mechanical strength, while the other could impart hydrophobic properties to the resulting textile substrate. This could be useful for a protective textile application. In fact by suitably choosing the constituent components based on their respective properties, the potential of these bicomponent droplets to be utilised in various applications becomes enhanced. These applications could include medical, protective and technical textiles. The prime objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of this new methodology to produce bicomponent droplets via electrospraying at submicron range. In this study, the new bicomponent electrospraying device is described. Preliminary results on TPU/polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bicomponent droplets are presented. It is important to note here that TPU/PVC is a miscible system. PVC has a glass transition temperature of 85 _C and is therefore a glassy and stiff material at room temperature. The mechanical properties of PVC, especially toughness, can be enhanced by suitable plasticisation [10]. When blended with a thermoplastic urethane polymer, it was expected that the resulting mechanical toughness and hydrophobicity would be improved without sacrificing original property, depending on the composition ratio. It was expected that the resultant coating on the substrate will possess characteristics of both the components. The main reason behind using such a technique is to enable easy identification of the two components in each polymer pair by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), thereby demonstrating the feasibility of electrospraying a bicomponent droplet coating. The EDS detector, which was a part of the scanning electron microscope (SEM), was utilised in this study to investigate the morphology of the droplets. This allowed characterisation of the local composition of the bicomponent droplets at the submicron level.


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