Textile and Clothing Design Technology Edited by Tom Cassidy and Parikshit Goswami

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Textile and Clothing Design Technology
Edited by Tom Cassidy and Parikshit Goswami
Textile and Clothing Design Technology

Contents
Editors .................................................................................................... vii
Contributors ...............................................................................................ix
1. Introduction .................................................................................................1
Tom Cassidy and Parikshit Goswami
2. Fibers and Filaments .....................................................................................5
Tom O’Haire and Parikshit Goswami
3. Staple Yarns ..............................................................................................27
Tom Cassidy and Dian Li
4. Continuous Filament and Texturized Synthetic Yarns ................................................ 57
Arobindo Chatterjee
5. Fancy Yarns ............................................................................................................................ 87
Hugh Gong
6. Fiber and Filament Dyeing ............................................................................................... 109
Asim Kumar Roy Choudhury
7. Woven Fabrics ...................................................................................................................... 143
Lindsey Waterton Taylor
8. Weft-Knitted Fabrics .......................................................................................................... 195
Sandip Mukherjee
9. Warp-Knitted Fabrics ........................................................................................................227
Sadhan Chandra Ray and Mirela Blaga
10. Nonwoven Fabrics .............................................................................................................. 259
Muhammad Tausif and Parikshit Goswami
11. Fabric Dyeing and Printing .............................................................................................. 281
Asim Kumar Roy Choudhury
12. Color Knowledge ................................................................................................................333
Tracy Cassidy
13. Textile Finishing ................................................................................................................. 357
Andrew J Hebden and Parikshit Goswami
14. Clothing Technology ......................................................................................................... 375
Aileen Jefferson
15. Stitches and Seams ............................................................................................................. 401
John McLoughlin
16. Knitwear Design Technology .......................................................................................... 441
Tracy Cassidy
17. The Measurement of Textile Material Properties ........................................................463
Riikka Räisänen
18. Textile and Clothing Consultancy .................................................................................. 479
Tom Cassidy and Dian Li
Index ..............................................................................................499

2
Fibers and Filaments

2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................5
2.2 Fundamental Fiber Properties .............................................................................................6
2.2.1 Fiber Structure ............................................................................................................6
2.2.2 Fiber Dimensions .......................................................................................................7
2.2.3 Shape and Cross Section ...........................................................................................8
2.2.4 Mechanical Properties ..............................................................................................8
2.2.5 Optical and Aesthetic Properties of Fibers ............................................................8
2.3 Natural Fibers .........................................................................................................................9
2.3.1 Cotton ........................................................................................................................ 10
2.3.2 Bast Fibers ................................................................................................................. 12
2.3.3 Wool, Cashmere, and Other Mammalian Fiber .................................................. 12
2.3.4 Silk .............................................................................................................................. 14
2.4 Synthetic and Regenerated Fibers ..................................................................................... 15
2.4.1 History and Background ........................................................................................ 15
2.4.2 Manufacturing Process ........................................................................................... 16
2.4.2.1 Melt Spinning ............................................................................................ 16
2.4.2.2 Wet Spinning ............................................................................................. 17
2.4.3 Commodity Polymers ............................................................................................. 18
2.4.4 Regenerated Cellulose ............................................................................................. 19
2.4.5 Other Regenerated Materials ................................................................................. 19
2.4.6 Elastomeric Fibers ....................................................................................................20
2.4.7 High Modulus Fibers ..............................................................................................20
2.4.8 Bicomponent and Ultrafine Fibers ........................................................................ 21
2.5 Fiber Quality .........................................................................................................................22
2.6 Economics and Sustainability ............................................................................................22
2.6.1 Recycling ...................................................................................................................23
2.7 Future Trends ....................................................................................................................... 24
References .............................................................................................................. 24

3
Staple Yarns

Tom Cassidy and Dian Li
CONTENTS
3.1 Introduction ..........................................................................................................................28
3.2 The Conventional/Traditional Staple Spinning Systems ...............................................29
3.2.1 Cotton/Short-Staple System ...................................................................................29
3.2.1.1 Fiber Length.............................................................................................33
3.2.1.2 Fiber Fineness ..........................................................................................34
3.2.1.3 Yarn Structure ..........................................................................................34
3.2.1.4 Color .........................................................................................................35
3.2.1.5 Linear Density .........................................................................................36
3.2.1.6 Single Yarn Twist Content and Direction ............................................38
3.2.1.7 Folding Twist (Multi Ply) Content and Direction ..............................39
3.2.1.8 Symmetry/Asymmetry ...........................................................................39
3.2.1.9 Evenness/Regularity ..............................................................................40
3.2.2 Worsted/Roller-Drafted Spinning ........................................................................40
3.2.2.1 Blending ...................................................................................................41
3.2.2.2 Carding .....................................................................................................42
3.2.2.3 Drawing ...................................................................................................43
3.2.2.4 Combing ...................................................................................................43
3.2.2.5 Top Making ..............................................................................................43
3.2.2.6 Drawing ...................................................................................................44
3.2.2.7 Roving ......................................................................................................44
3.2.2.8 Spinning ...................................................................................................44
3.2.2.9 Introduction of Man-Made and Synthetic Fibers into
Worsted/Roller Drafted Yarns..............................................................44
3.2.2.10 Design Elements and Principles of Worsted/Roller
Drafted Yarns .................................................................................... 45
3.2.3 Woolen/Condenser Spinning ................................................................................45
3.2.3.1 Blending ...................................................................................................45
3.2.3.2 Carding .....................................................................................................46
3.2.3.3 Spinning ...................................................................................................47
3.2.3.4 Woolen Ring Frame ................................................................................48
3.2.3.5 Design Elements and Principles ...........................................................49
3.2.3.6 What Have You Learned about Conventional Yarn
Production? .................................................................................. 50
3.3 Unconventional and New Spinning Technologies .........................................................50
3.3.1 Rotor/Open-End Spinning .....................................................................................50
3.3.2 Air Jet/Fasciated Yarn Spinning............................................................................ 51
3.3.3 Friction Spinning .....................................................................................................53
3.3.4 Compact Spinning ...................................................................................................53
3.3.5 Siro-Spinning ...........................................................................................................54
Bibliography ...........................................................................................55

4
Continuous Filament and Texturized Synthetic Yarns

CONTENTS
4.1 Preamble ................................................................................................................................ 57
4.2 Introduction ..........................................................................................................................58
4.3 Fiber Formation Process .....................................................................................................60
4.3.1 Spinning/Extrusion ................................................................................................60
4.3.1.1 Melt Spinning ............................................................................................ 61
4.3.1.2 Various Components of Melt Spinning Systems ..................................63
4.3.1.3 Structure Development During Spinning ............................................. 67
4.3.2 Textured Yarns ......................................................................................................... 69
4.3.2.1 Brief Overview of Texturizing Processes .............................................. 69
4.3.2.2 False Twist Texturing ...............................................................................71
4.3.2.3 Process Variables .......................................................................................75
4.3.2.4 Material Variables ..................................................................................... 78
4.4 Bulked Continuous Filament Yarn ....................................................................................82
4.5 Influence of Yarn on Qualities of Apparel Fabric............................................................85
4.6 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................86
Bibliography .................................................................................................86

5
Fancy Yarns

CONTENTS
5.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 87
5.2 Fancy Yarn Types .............................................................................................88
5.2.1 Fiber Effects ..............................................................................................................88
5.2.1.1 Nepp Yarns ................................................................................................88
5.2.1.2 Slub Yarns ...................................................................................................90
5.2.1.3 Flake Yarns .................................................................................................90
5.2.2 Yarn Effects ...............................................................................................................90
5.2.2.1 Marl Yarn .................................................................................................... 91
5.2.2.2 Spiral Yarn .................................................................................................. 91
5.2.2.3 Gimp Yarn ..................................................................................................93
5.2.2.4 Boucle Yarn ................................................................................................93
5.2.2.5 Loop Yarn ...................................................................................................94
5.2.2.6 Snarl Yarn ...................................................................................................95
5.2.2.7 Knop Yarn ..................................................................................................95
5.2.2.8 Chenille Yarn .............................................................................................96
5.2.3 Metallic Yarns ...........................................................................................................98
5.3 Spinning Systems ..............................................................................................98
5.3.1 Ring Spinning ..........................................................................................................98
5.3.2 Hollow Spindle System ......................................................................................... 101
5.3.3 Open End Spinning ............................................................................................... 103
5.3.4 Chenille Machine ................................................................................................... 104
5.3.5 Texturing ................................................................................................................. 104
5.4 Use of Fancy Yarns .................................................................................... 106

1
Introduction

Tom Cassidy and Parikshit Goswami

Technology, before the word was hijacked by the computer community in the 1970s, was defined as the science of the useful arts. This definition is particularly relevant to what this book is about. In the past, the education of textile technologists tended to be process oriented. The technologist today is better prepared for the textile and related industries by being product oriented and by being more able to work closely with and facilitate the ideas of designers. Designers use elements like color, shape, form, silhouette, fabric, and so on combined with principles such as harmony, rhythm, symmetry, balance, to create new and exciting products (garments, fabrics, yarns, fibers, etc.) for the market. In this book, we will learn about different product types as perceived and understood by the design technologist.

In the textile industry, there is a pressing need for people who can enable the creative solutions of designers to be interpreted into manufacturing language and data. The design technologist has to understand the elements and principles employed by designers and how these change for various textile media. He or she also has to have a good understanding of the processes, materials, and products for which the textile designer is required to produce creative solutions. The reader will find occasional overlaps between various chapters, this is beneficial because it reflects the nature of the textile and clothing industries and it will be advantageous for the reader to appreciate more than one approach to some areas. This book will suit designers wishing to improve their technological knowledge, technologists wishing to understand the design process, and to anyone who wants to work at this design/technology interface or to go on to R&D study in this field.

In Chapter 2, Goswami and O’Haire discuss the various natural and synthetic fibers and what are the implications of their shapes, surface characteristics, and mechanical properties on their use as design elements. These implications will include cost, handle, yarn spinnability, coloration, availability, and sustainability.

Chapter 3 is written by Cassidy, T and Li and describes the characteristics of the conventional/traditional staple yarns and how these are influenced by the technologies used to produce them. The chapter explains how the components of the yarns and their structural values (e.g., fiber type, fineness and length, twist content, and direction yarn count and structure) can be considered as design elements and thus manipulated to produce the design principles desired such as balance, symmetry/asymmetry, rhythm, and harmony. This chapter will also discuss new and alternative staple yarn spinning methods, some of which have become established, whereas others are striving to establish their place in the market. Gong has contributed Chapter 5, which builds on the foundations laid by Chapters 3 and 4 and provides the reader with descriptions of various techniques and equipment used to produce fancy yarns, sometimes also called effect yarns. The market for these yarns tends to be subject to cyclic trends, but the handknitting yarn market provides a stable demand for fancy yarns. It is important that the textile and clothing design technologist is aware of the different types of yarn available and what possible innovations can be brought about by using or developing this technology. The field of textile dyeing is a constantly evolving area and presents opportunities that can be addressed through innovative thinking. The primary objective of textile dyeing is to improve the aesthetic properties of textiles. In Chapter 6, Choudhury discusses different methods of dyeing fibers and filaments and different methods of quantifying the measured color.

In Chapter 7, Taylor describes how the interlacement patterns for warp and weft yarns can be controlled by manipulating the loom operations, which include shedding, picking, beating up, and taking up. The classification of weave designs and applications are discussed in detail. A particularly attractive feature of this chapter is the learning activities, which will be extremely valuable for a budding design technologist.

Chapter 8 on weft knitting technology by Mukherjee explains how the adjustable moving cams are used on weft knitting machines to control the movement of beard, latch, or compound needles to form normal stitches, tuck stitches, and floats. The various knit structures and their applications are described and circular knitting including sock making. The developing technology of whole garment knitting is also explained.

In Chapter 9, Ray discusses the development of warp knitting and the differences between raschel and tricot machines and their resultant fabric structures. He goes on to show how these fabrics tend to be much stiffer than weft knits and how they were originally intended for upholstery but are now used quite extensively in apparels, particularly for children’s wear often in conjunction with fibers and yarns having elastic properties. In Chapter 10, Tausif and Goswami discuss nonwoven fabric and how they are produced. They discuss key methods for web formation and web bonding to produce a myriad of nonwoven structures. The web formation methods include dry-, wet-, and polymer-laid methods, and web bonding methods cover chemical, thermal, and mechanical means to provide structural integrity to webs. They discuss the applications of nonwoven fabrics and potential for nonwovens to be used for apparel and fashion applications. In Chapter 11, Choudhury discusses different methods for dyeing and printing fabrics. Chapter 12 on color knowledge by Cassidy, T.D. discusses and develops the use of the 12-hue color wheel. It will facilitate a good understanding of color terminology, color composition, and color schemes essential for the compilation of color stories. An understanding of color mixing, both additive and subtractive, is also provided. Color is arguably the most important design element and, therefore, the knowledge provided by this chapter is essential for a textile and clothing design technologist.

Hebden and Goswami in Chapter 13 discuss textile finishing and how it can be used as a valuable tool to significantly enhance the value of finished textile products. Jefferson, in her Chapter 14 on clothing technology, tackles the other important aspects of the clothing industry such as pattern construction, cutting and grading, and lay planning. She explains how modern technology has been applied to problem areas such as body sizing and the design process and then goes onto show examples of how new designers are making use of new technologies.

In Chapter 15, McLoughlin explains various types of seams and stitches used to join various sections of a garment and where and when they should be used. He also goes on to describe the sewing machines used to form the different stitch types. This is an area that has often been neglected in the textile and clothing technology, engineering, and design literature, but which is essential for a well-rounded design technologist. In Chapter 16 on knitwear technology, Cassidy, T.D. discusses the differences between cut and sewn and fully fashioned garments and hybrids using techniques from both. There is a valuable section on knitted patterns and structures. In particular, attention is paid to linking, mocklinking, overlocking, and so on and how to recognize how a knitwear garment has been styled and formed. The importance of choosing the right style dependent on the value of the materials used (e.g., Cashmere versus acrylic) to provide the optimum quality and value for money is explained.

Raisenan, in her Chapter 17 on the measurement of textile material properties, concentrates on the practical reasons for testing rather than getting the reader lost in mathematical considerations. It is a holistic approach that is long overdue. The reader is invited to learn about the various standards that are applied to the many aspects of the textile and clothing supply chain by the international standards bodies. The importance of standard conditions and sampling methods is also discussed, but with reference given to pragmatic issues. The reader will still have to go to other publications to get details of the test methods outlined in this chapter, but the importance of this chapter is that at least the reader will now understand clearly what they are looking for and why.

Chapter 18 on how to become a textile consultant by Tom Cassidy describes some of the skills and experience required and discusses how the choice of appropriate technology is important. He discusses this with relation to case studies carried out, which involved remote, rural communities. It must, however, be emphasized that appropriate technology or perhaps the choice of appropriate levels of technology is important in much larger scale projects. For example, automatic doffing systems for spinning equipment is impressive and works very well but may not be appropriate if part of a company’s and country’s aims is to employ more people.

Before you set off to read, learn from, and enjoy this book, the editors would like you to consider the words of Aldred Barker, who was an early professor in the Department of Textile Industries at the University of Leeds: “If someone wishes to learn a new language they will only be successful when they learn to think in that language. If someone wants to learn about textiles they should think in fabric.”


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