Waterproof and Water Repellent Textiles and Clothing Edited by John Williams

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Waterproof and Water Repellent Textiles and Clothing
Edited by John Williams
Waterproof and Water Repellent Textiles and Clothing

Contents
Contributors xi
Part One Principles of waterproofing and water repellency in textiles 1
1 Introduction to waterproof and water repellent textiles 3
Carmen Loghin, Lumint¸a Ciobanu, Dorin Ionesi, Emil Loghin,
Irina Cristian
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Areas of application of waterproof and water repellent textiles 4
1.3 Basic aspects regarding waterproof and water repellent textiles 11
1.4 Conclusions 22
References 22
Further reading 24
2 Development of waterproof breathable coatings and laminates 25
Hikmet Ziya O€zek
2.1 Introduction 25
2.2 History of waterproof and breathable fabrics 27
2.3 Basics of waterproof breathable fabrics for comfort 30
2.4 Behaviour of waterproof breathable fabrics 35
2.5 Classification of waterproof breathable fabrics 44
2.6 Waterproof breathable fabric structures 47
2.7 Methods of developing waterproof breathable fabrics 58
2.8 Arrangements of layers at waterproof breathable clothing
construction and review of commercial products 61
2.9 Conclusions and future trends 65
References 67
Further reading 72
3 Soil repellency and stain resistance through hydrophobic and
oleophobic treatments 73
Silvia Pavlidou, Roshan Paul
3.1 Introduction 73
3.2 Soil repellency and stain-resistance mechanism 74
3.3 Treatments to develop soil-repellent and stain-resistant textiles 76
3.4 Assessment of textile soil repellency and stain resistance 85
3.5 Future trends and challenges 86
3.6 Conclusion 87
References 87
4 Toxicological and environmental issues associated with
waterproofing and water repellent formulations 89
Margaret H. Whittaker, Lauren Heine
4.1 Introduction 89
4.2 Properties of chemicals used in water repellents and
waterproofing formulations 90
4.3 Toxicological and ecotoxicological concerns associated with
chemicals in waterproofing and water repellent agents 93
4.4 Green chemistry: Developing safer waterproofing and
water repellent agents 109
4.5 Conclusion 113
References 114
5 Biomimetic principles for design of water repellent surfaces 121
Veronika Kapsali
5.1 Introduction: Biomimetic design relevance to textile technology 121
5.2 Biomimetic principles in structural hydrophobicity 124
5.3 Brief overview of current industrial durable hydrophobic
textile finishes 128
5.4 Opportunities for novel biomimetic industrial approaches to
engineered textile hydrophobic micro-textures 129
5.5 Future applications 132
5.6 References, other sources of information 133
References 133
Further reading 134
Part Two Types of water repellent textile finishes 137
6 Finishing of textiles with fluorocarbons 139
Usha Sayed, Prince Dabhi
6.1 Introduction 139
6.2 Fluorochemical finishes 140
6.3 Techniques for the formation of fluorochemicals 140
6.4 Effect of fluorochemical chain length 145
6.5 Evaluation 146
6.6 Recent development 149
6.7 Conclusion 150
References 150
Further reading 152
7 Silicone-based water repellents 153
Hikmet Ziya O€zek
7.1 Introduction 153
7.2 Characteristics of silicone water repellents 155
7.3 Methods of silicone applications for developing water repellent
fabrics 161
7.4 Durable water repellents and silicone 163
7.5 Performance of silicone-treated water repellent fabrics 167
7.6 Environmental and health aspects of silicone water repellent 169
7.7 Review of commercial products and future trends 171
7.8 Conclusions 184
References 185
Further reading 189
8 Dendritic molecules and their use in water repellency
treatments of textile materials 191
Riza Atav
8.1 Introduction 191
8.2 Historical background of dendritic molecules 194
8.3 Classification of dendritic molecules 194
8.4 Structure of dendrimers 195
8.5 Synthesis of dendrimers 197
8.6 Types of dendrimers 200
8.7 Properties of dendrimers 205
8.8 The use of dendrimers in water repellency treatments of textile
materials 207
8.9 Conclusion 211
References 211
9 Plasma-based treatments of textiles for water repellency 215
Nicholas W.M. Edward, Parikshit Goswami
9.1 Plasma treatments 215
9.2 Plasma treatment for materials 216
9.3 Surface modification with plasma 218
9.4 Hydrophobic and hydrophilic materials 219
9.5 Water and oil repellency 221
9.6 Plasma treatment of textiles to confer hydrophobicity 223
9.7 Nanoparticle deposition via plasma treatment 225
9.8 Plasma treatment and fibre surface nano-roughness 226
9.9 Silicon chemistry in plasma 227
9.10 Multifunctional plasma treatments 228
9.11 Summary 228
9.12 Sources of further information and advice 229
References 229
10 Sol–gel-based treatments of textiles for water repellence 233
Ningtao Mao, Miyu Du
10.1 Fundamentals of hydrophobicity and superhydrophobicity 233
10.2 Sol–gel process 237
10.3 The influence of sol–gel processing parameters on the
structure of resultant nanoparticles and nanoporous
aerogels/xerogels 242
10.4 Applications of sol–gel treatment on textiles for water repellence 249
10.5 Summary 256
References 257
11 Superhydrophobicity 267
Jooyoun Kim, Seong-O Choi
11.1 Introduction 267
11.2 Wetting theories 268
11.3 Fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces 275
11.4 Characterization of superhydrophobicity 288
11.5 Applications 290
11.6 Summary 292
References 293
Further reading 297
Part Three Water repellent textiles in practice:
Performance, testing and applications 299
12 Designing waterproof and water repellent clothing for wearer
comfort—A paradigm shift 301
Jeni Bougourd, Jane McCann
12.1 Introduction 301
12.2 The circular economy: Avoiding waste and damage 302
12.3 Design of waterproof and water repellent clothing within
a circular economy 305
12.4 Policies and goals for designing sustainable waterproof
clothing 306
12.5 The design concept 307
12.6 Co-design 308
12.7 Product ranges and the design brief 320
12.8 Design of waterproof and water repellent clothing 328
12.9 Preparation for production, labelling and point of sale 338
12.10 Looking ahead 339
Acknowledgments 340
References 341
Sources of further information 344
Further reading 345
13 Performance evaluation and testing of water repellent textiles 347
Alice J. Davies
13.1 Introduction 347
13.2 Static test methods 347
13.3 Dynamic test methods 351
13.4 Methods for assessing durability of performance 356
13.5 Assessing restoration of performance 361
13.6 Performance comparison of available types of water repellent
textile finishes 362
13.7 Recent developments 364
References 364
14 Sportswear 367
Zehra Evrim Kanat
14.1 Introduction 367
14.2 Sportswear and its functional requirements 368
14.3 The growing market 369
14.4 Waterproof breathable and water repellent sportswear 371
14.5 Comfort in sportswear 378
14.6 Layering system and soft shell 381
14.7 Designing requirements 385
14.8 Conclusion 386
References 387
15 Protective clothing 391
Jan Marek, Lenka Martinkova´
15.1 PPE: A strategic commodity of the market 391
15.2 Fluorocarbons and environmental issues 396
15.3 Repellent finishing systems; C8 Fluorocarbons alternatives 398
15.4 Protective clothing with multi-barrier properties 409
15.5 Standards 427
15.6 Conclusions 434
References 435
Further reading 444
16 Healthcare textiles 447
Angela Davies
16.1 Introduction: Key applications in healthcare textiles 447
16.2 Water repellent and waterproof healthcare textiles 451
16.3 Exploring specific properties in waterproof and repellent
healthcare textiles 455
16.4 Finishes and materials with specialist features 461
16.5 Future trends 467
References 468
Further reading 471
17 Military applications: Development of superomniphobic
coatings, textiles and surfaces 473
Quoc T. Truong, Natalie Pomerantz
17.1 Introduction 473
17.2 Material concept 486
17.3 Impact of surface chemistry, structures and polarity on liquid
repellency 489
17.4 Performance goals 498
17.5 Test methods and assessment 508
17.6 Limited field demonstration 514
17.7 Omniphobic coating technologies investigated 514
17.8 Benefits to military textiles 518
17.9 Future civilian applications 523
17.10 Summary 524
17.11 Follow-up work and remaining challenges 524
Acknowledgments 527
References 528
Further reading 531
18 Footwear 533
Ameersing Luximon, Asimananda Khandual
18.1 Introduction 533
18.2 Major raw materials and their constitution for shoe components 534
18.3 Upper shoe material processing and finishing 546
18.4 Manufacturing comfortable waterproof/water repellent shoes 547
18.5 Conclusion 555
References 555
Further reading 558
Index 559


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