Engineering Textiles: Research Methodologies, Concepts, and Modern Applications by Alexandr A. Berlin, Roman Joswik, Vatin Nikolai Ivanovich

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Engineering Textiles: Research Methodologies, Concepts, and Modern Applications
By Alexandr A. Berlin, Roman Joswik, Vatin Nikolai Ivanovich
Engineering Textiles: Research Methodologies, Concepts, and Modern Applications

Contents
List of Contributors...................................................................................................ix
List of Abbreviations.................................................................................................xi
List of Symbols......................................................................................................... xv
Preface...................................................................................................................xvii
1. Understanding Nonwovens: Concepts and Applications.........................1
M. Kanafchian and A. K. Haghi
2. Cellulose-Based Textile Waste Treatment into Powder-Like Fillers
for Emulsion Rubbers...........................................59
V. M. Misin, S. S. Nikulin, and I. N. Pugacheva
3. Structure and Parameters of Polyhydroxybutyrate Nanofibers................79
A. A. Olkhov, O. V. Staroverova, A. L. Iordanskii, and G. E. Zaikov
4. Preparation of Amines Including Cycloacetalic and
Gem-Dichlorocyclopropane Fragments.......................................................89
A. N. Kazakova, G. Z. Raskildina, N. N. Mikhailova, T. P. Mudrik, S. S. Zlotsky, and
G. E. Zaikov
5. Progress in Photovoltaic Textiles: A Comprehensive Review..................101
M. Kanafchian
6. Modern Applications of Nanoengineered Materials in
Textile Industries.........................................................137
Shima Maghsoodlou and Arezoo Afzali
Index.......................................................357

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
a-Si amorphous silicon
AFM atomic force microscopy
APC acid powder-like cellulose
BSA bovine serum albumin
CB conduction band
CD cross direction
CdTe cadmium telluride
CFM chloroform
CIGS copper indium selenide
COFs covalent organic frameworks
CPCs conductive polymer composites
CRDCSC Canadian Research and Development Center of Sciences and Cultures
CRE constant rate of extension
CS chemical shift
CV coefficient of variation
CVD chemical vapor deposition
DMF N, N-dimethylformamide
DMSO methyl sulfoxide
DSC differential scanning calorimetry
DSCs dye-sensitized cells
DSSC dye-sensitized solar cell
EAGLE easily applicable graphical summary layout editor
ECN Energy Research Centre of the Netherland
EDA ethylenediamine
EDANA European Disposables and Nonwovens Association
EDOT 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene
EG ethylene glycol
ESCs embryonic stem cells
ESR electron spin resonance
FCC face-centered cubic
FOD fiber orientation distribution
FT Fourier transform method
HCP hexagonal close-packed
HOMO highest occupied molecular orbital
HT Hough transform method
INDA Association of the Nonwovens Fabrics Industry
ITO indium tin oxide
IUPAC International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
LUMO lowest unoccupied molecular orbital
LVDT linear variable differential transformers
MCC microcrystalline cellulose
MD machine direction
MePRN methoxypropionitrile
MOFs metal organic frameworks
MOPs microporous organic polymers
MPP maximum power point
MRA mechanical rubber articles
MWCO molecular weight cut-off
OPV optical photovoltaic
PAN polyacrylonitrile
PANCMPC polyacrylonitriles-2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphoryl choline
PANI polyaniline
PBI polybenzimidazole
PBS poly butylene succinate
PCM phase change materials
PE polyethylene
PEK-C polyetherketone cardo
PET polyethylene terephthalate
PGD pores geometry distribution
PHB polyhydroxybutyrate
PIMs polymers of intrinsic microporosity
PL photoluminescence
PMMA polymethylmethacrylate
PP polypropylene
PPy polypyrrole
PRINT particle repulsion in non wetting templates
PS polystyrene
PSD pore size distribution
PSS polystyrene sulfonic acid
PTh polythiophenes
PV photovoltaic devices
PVD pore volume distributions
PVDE-HFP polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoro-propylene
PVDF poly(vinylidene fluoride)
PZT lead-zirconate-titanate
R2R roll-to-roll processing technology
R2RNIL roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography
SEM scanning electron microscope
SIT solar integrated technologies
SSCCs spin-spin coupling constants
TCO transparent conducting oxide
UPF UV protective factor
UV ultraviolet
VB valence band
WVP water vapor permeability

PREFACE
This volume provides the textile science community with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in many areas of the discipline. This book reports recent advances with significant, up-to-date chapters by internationally recognized researchers. This book highlights applications of chemical physics to subjects that textile engineering students will see in graduate courses.

The book presents biochemical examples and applications focuses on concepts above formal experimental techniques and theoretical methods. By providing an applied and modern approach, this volume helps students see the value and relevance of studying textile science and technology to all areas of applied engineering, and gives them the depth of coverage they need to develop a solid understanding of the key principles in the field.

The book assumes a working knowledge of calculus, physics, and chemistry, but no prior knowledge of polymers. It is valuable for researchers and for upper-level research students in chemistry, textile engineering and polymers.

Understanding Nonwovens: Concepts and Applications

ABSTRACT

Nonwovens are a distinct class of textile materials made directly from fibers, thus avoiding the intermediate step of yarn production. The nonwoven industry as we know it today has grown from developments in the textile, paper and polymer processing industries. Nonwoven manufacturers operate in a highly competitive environment, where the reduction of production costs is of strategic imperative to stay in business. While the understanding and estimation of the production costs of nonwovens are very important, the literature review reveals a lack of research in this field, in the public domain. To fill the gap, this study is designed to lay the foundation for modeling and analysis of nonwoven structures.

1.1 INTRODUCTION
1.1.1 DEFINITION OF NONWOVEN
Nonwoven is a term used to describe a type of material made from textile fibers, which is not produced on conventional, looms or knitting machines. They combine features from the textile, paper and plastic industries and an early description was ‘web textiles’ because this term reflects the essential nature of many of these products. The yarn spinning stage is omitted in the nonwoven processing of staple fibers, while bonding of the web by various methods, chemical, mechanical or thermal, replaces the weaving (or knitting) of yarns in traditional textiles. However, even in the early days of the industry, the process of stitch bonding, which originated in Eastern Europe in the 1950s, employed both layered and consolidating yarns, and the parallel developments in the paper and synthetic polymer fields, which have been crucial in shaping today’s multibillion dollar nonwovens industry, had only tenuous links with textiles in the first place. But now the precise meaning of the term is somewhat clearer to the experts. According to the experts, Nonwovens is a class of textiles/ sheet products, unique in industry, which is defined in the negative; that is, they are defined in what they are not.

Nonwovens are different than paper in that nonwovens usually consist entirely or at least contain a sizeable proportion of long fibers and/or they are bonded intermittently along the length of the fibers. Although paper consists of fiber webs, the fibers are bonded to each other so completely that the entire sheet comprises one unit. In nonwovens we have webs of fibers where fibers are not as rigidly bonded and to a large degree act as individuals [1].

The definitions of the nonwovens most commonly used nowadays are those by the Association of the Nonwovens Fabrics Industry (INDA) and the European Disposables and Nonwovens Association (EDANA).


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