Gardner’s Art Through the Ages: A Global History PDF by Fred S. Kleiner

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Gardner’s Art Through the Ages: A Global History
By Fred S. Kleiner
Gardner’s Art Through the Ages: A Global History

Contents
PREFACE xi
INTRODUCTION
WHAT IS ART HISTORY? 1
Art History in the 21st Century 2
Different Ways of Seeing 12
CHAPTER 1
ART BEFORE HISTORY 15
Paleolithic Art 15
Neolithic Art 24
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Paleolithic Cave Painting 20
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Art in the Old Stone Age 21
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: The World’s Oldest
Paintings? 22
THE BIG PICTURE 29
CHAPTER 2
THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST 31
Sumer 32
Akkad and the Third Dynasty of Ur 39
Second Millennium BCE 43
Assyria 45
Neo-Babylonia and Persia 47
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY: The Gods and Goddesses
of Mesopotamia 33
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Mesopotamian Seals 39
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Enheduanna, Priestess and Poet 41
❚ WRITTEN SOURCES: The Piety of Gudea 42
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Hammurabi’s Law Code 43
❚ WRITTEN SOURCES: Babylon, City of Wonders 48
THE BIG PICTURE 51
CHAPTER 3
EGYPT UNDER
THE PHARAOHS 53
The Predynastic and Early Dynastic Periods 54
The Old Kingdom 59
The Middle Kingdom 64
The New Kingdom 67
First Millennium BCE 77
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY: The Gods and Goddesses of Egypt 54
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Mummification and Immortality 57
❚ ARCHITECTURAL BASICS: Building the Great Pyramids 60
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Hatshepsut, the Woman Who Would Be King 68
THE BIG PICTURE 79
CHAPTER 4
THE PREHISTORIC AEGEAN 81
Cycladic Art 82
Minoan Art 84
Mycenaean Art 90
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Archaeology, Art History, and the Art
Market 83
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: The Theran Eruption and the Chronology
of Aegean Art 87
THE BIG PICTURE 97
CHAPTER 5
ANCIENT GREECE 99
Geometric and Orientalizing Periods 100
Archaic Period 105
Early and High Classical Periods 118
Late Classical Period 137
Hellenistic Period 145
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY: The Gods and Goddesses
of Mount Olympus 101
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Greek Vase Painting 104
❚ ARCHITECTURAL BASICS: Greek Temple Plans 109
❚ ARCHITECTURAL BASICS: Doric and Ionic Orders 110
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY: Herakles, Greatest of Greek
Heroes 120
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Hollow-Casting Life-Size
Bronze Statues 122
❚ WRITTEN SOURCES: Polykleitos’s Prescription for the Perfect
Statue 124
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: The Hegeso Stele 134
❚ ARCHITECTURAL BASICS: The Corinthian Capital 144
THE BIG PICTURE 155
CHAPTER 6
SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIA
BEFORE 1200 157
India and Pakistan 157
Southeast Asia 174
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY: Buddhism and Buddhist
Iconography 161
❚ WRITTEN SOURCES: Ashoka’s Conversion to Buddhism 162
❚ ARCHITECTURAL BASICS: The Stupa 163
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: The Painted Caves
of Ajanta 167
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY: Hinduism and Hindu
Iconography 168
❚ ARCHITECTURAL BASICS: Hindu Temples 172
THE BIG PICTURE 179
CHAPTER 7
CHINA AND KOREA TO 1279 181
China 181
Korea 202
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Shang Bronze-Casting 183
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Chinese Jade 185
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY: Daoism and Confucianism 186
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Silk and the Silk Road 188
❚ ARCHITECTURAL BASICS: Chinese Wooden Construction 189
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Chinese Painting Materials
and Formats 190
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Xie He’s Six Canons 191
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Chinese Earthenwares
and Stonewares 196
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY Chan Buddhism 201
THE BIG PICTURE 205
CHAPTER 8
JAPAN BEFORE 1333 207
Japan before Buddhism 207
Buddhist Japan 210
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY: Shinto 211
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Heian Court Culture 217
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Heian and Kamakura Artistic
Workshops 219
THE BIG PICTURE 221
CHAPTER 9
THE ETRUSCANS 223
Early Etruscan Art 224
Later Etruscan Art 231
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY: Etruscan Counterparts
of Greco-Roman Gods and Heroes 225
❚ WRITTEN SOURCES: Etruscan Artists in Rome 226
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: The “Audacity” of Etruscan Women 227
THE BIG PICTURE 235
CHAPTER 10
THE ROMAN EMPIRE 237
Republic 239
Pompeii and the Cities of Vesuvius 244
Early Empire 254
High Empire 263
Late Empire 276
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: An Outline of Roman History 239
❚ ARCHITECTURAL BASICS: Roman Concrete Construction 241
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Art for Former Slaves 243
❚ WRITTEN SOURCES: An Eyewitness Account of the Eruption
of Mount Vesuvius 245
❚ ARCHITECTURAL BASICS: The Roman House 247
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Role Playing in Roman Portraiture 254
❚ WRITTEN SOURCES: The Golden House of Nero 259
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Spectacles in the Colosseum 260
❚ WRITTEN SOURCES: Hadrian and Apollodorus of
Damascus 269
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Iaia of Cyzicus and the Art
of Encaustic Painting 275
THE BIG PICTURE 287
CHAPTER 11
LATE ANTIQUITY 289
Dura-Europos 289
The Catacombs and Funerary Art 291
Architecture and Mosaics 295
Luxury Arts 304
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY: Jewish Subjects in Christian
Art 293
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY: The Life of Jesus in Art 296
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Mosaics 303
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Medieval Manuscript
Illumination 305
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Ivory Carving 307
THE BIG PICTURE 309
CHAPTER 12
BYZANTIUM 311
Early Byzantine Art 312
Middle Byzantine Art 327
Late Byzantine Art 335
❚ ARCHITECTURAL BASICS: Pendentives and Squinches 315
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Theodora, a Most Unusual Empress 320
❚ WRITTEN SOURCES: The Emperors of New Rome 323
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Icons and Iconoclasm 326
THE BIG PICTURE 339
CHAPTER 13
THE ISLAMIC WORLD 341
Early Islamic Art 342
Later Islamic Art 352
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY: Muhammad and Islam 343
❚ ARCHITECTURAL BASICS: The Mosque 345
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Sinan the Great and the Mosque of
Selim II 354
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Islamic Tilework 357
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Christian Patronage of Islamic Art 362
THE BIG PICTURE 363
CHAPTER 14
NATIVE ARTS OF THE AMERICAS
BEFORE 1300 365
Mesoamerica 366
Intermediate Area 379
South America 380
North America 387
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: The Mesoamerican Ball Game 372
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Andean Weaving 382
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Serpent Mound 389
THE BIG PICTURE 391
CHAPTER 15
AFRICA BEFORE 1800 393
Prehistory and Early Cultures 394
11th to 18th Centuries 399
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Dating African Art and Identifying African
Artists 395
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Art and Leadership in Africa 397
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Idealized Naturalism at Ile-Ife 398
THE BIG PICTURE 405
CHAPTER 16
EARLY MEDIEVAL EUROPE 407
Art of the Warrior Lords 407
Christian Art: Scandinavia, British Isles, Spain 410
Carolingian Art 415
Ottonian Art 422
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Medieval Books 411
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY: The Four Evangelists 412
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Charlemagne’s Renovatio Imperii
Romani 416
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY: Medieval Monasteries
and Benedictine Rule 420
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Theophanu, a Byzantine Princess
in Ottonian Germany 428
THE BIG PICTURE 429
CHAPTER 17
ROMANESQUE EUROPE 431
France and Northern Spain 433
Holy Roman Empire 445
Italy 450
Normandy and England 453
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Pilgrimages and the Cult of Relics 432
❚ WRITTEN SOURCES: Timber Roofs and Stone Vaults 435
❚ WRITTEN SOURCES: Bernard of Clairvaux on Cloister
Sculpture 438
❚ ARCHITECTURAL BASICS: The Romanesque Church Portal 439
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY: The Crusades 442
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Romanesque Countesses, Queens,
and Nuns 448
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Embroidery
and Tapestry 456
THE BIG PICTURE 459
CHAPTER 18
GOTHIC EUROPE 461
French Gothic 462
Gothic outside of France 486
❚ WRITTEN SOURCES: Abbot Suger and the Rebuilding
of Saint-Denis 463
❚ ARCHITECTURAL BASICS: The Gothic Rib Vault 464
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Scholasticism and Gothic Art
and Architecture 466
❚ ARCHITECTURAL BASICS: The Gothic Cathedral 469
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Stained-Glass Windows 472
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Louis IX, the Saintly King 482
THE BIG PICTURE 495
CHAPTER 19
ITALY, 1200 TO 1400 497
The 13th Century 497
The 14th Century 502
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Italian Artists’ Names 498
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY: The Great Schism, Mendicant
Orders, and Confraternities 501
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Fresco Painting 504
❚ WRITTEN SOURCES: Artists’ Guilds, Commissions,
and Contracts 506
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Artistic Training in Renaissance Italy 510
THE BIG PICTURE 517
CHAPTER 20
NORTHERN EUROPE,
1400 TO 1500 519
Burgundy and Flanders 519
France 532
Holy Roman Empire 534
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Tempera and Oil
Painting 523
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Framed Paintings 526
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: The Artist’s Profession in Flanders 528
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Woodcuts, Engravings,
and Etchings 537
THE BIG PICTURE 539
CHAPTER 21
ITALY, 1400 TO 1500 541
Florence 542
The Princely Courts 568
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Renaissance Perspectival
Systems 547
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Cennino Cennini on Imitation and
Emulation in Renaissance Art 553
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Renaissance Family Chapel
Endowments 564
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Italian Princely Courts and Artistic
Patronage 569
THE BIG PICTURE 577
CHAPTER 22
ITALY, 1500 TO 1600 579
High and Late Renaissance 579
Mannerism 612
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Renaissance Drawings 581
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Leonardo and Michelangelo
on Painting versus Sculpture 588
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Restoring Renaissance
Paintings 595
❚ WRITTEN SOURCES: Religious Art in Counter-Reformation
Italy 596
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Palma il Giovane on Titian 609
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Women in the Renaissance Art World 611
THE BIG PICTURE 623
CHAPTER 23
NORTHERN EUROPE AND SPAIN,
1500 TO 1600 625
Holy Roman Empire 626
France 634
The Netherlands 637
Spain 643
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY: Catholic and Protestant Views
of Salvation 631
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Protestantism and Iconoclasm 632
THE BIG PICTURE 647
CHAPTER 24
ITALY AND SPAIN,
1600 TO 1700 649
Italy 649
Spain 665
❚ WRITTEN SOURCES: Giovanni Pietro Bellori on Annibale
Carracci and Caravaggio 660
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: The Letters of Artemisia Gentileschi 662
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Velázquez and Philip IV 668
THE BIG PICTURE 671
CHAPTER 25
NORTHERN EUROPE,
1600 TO 1700 673
Flanders 674
Dutch Republic 679
France 691
England 701
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Rubens on Consequences of War 677
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Middle-Class Patronage and the Art Market
in the Dutch Republic 680
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Poussin’s Notes for a Treatise
on Painting 692
THE BIG PICTURE 703
CHAPTER 26
SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIA
AFTER 1200 705
India 705
Southeast Asia 713
Contemporary Art 716
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Indian Miniature
Painting 708
THE BIG PICTURE 717
CHAPTER 27
CHINA AND KOREA
AFTER 1279 719
China 719
Korea 730
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Chinese Porcelain 722
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Lacquered Wood 724
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Calligraphy and Inscriptions
on Chinese Paintings 726
THE BIG PICTURE 733
CHAPTER 28
JAPAN AFTER 1336 735
Japan, 1336 to 1868 735
Modern Japan 746
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY: Zen Buddhism 736
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: The Japanese Tea Ceremony 740
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Japanese Woodblock
Prints 744
THE BIG PICTURE 749
CHAPTER 29
EUROPE AND AMERICA,
1700 TO 1800 751
Rococo 751
The Enlightenment 757
Neoclassicism 766
❚ WRITTEN SOURCES: Femmes Savantes and
Salon Culture 753
❚ WRITTEN SOURCES: Diderot on Chardin 760
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: The Grand Tour and Veduta Painting 765
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: The Excavations of Herculaneum
and Pompeii 766
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: David on Greek Style and Public Art 768
THE BIG PICTURE 775
CHAPTER 30
EUROPE AND AMERICA,
1800 TO 1870 777
Art under Napoleon 777
Romanticism 784
Realism 798
Architecture 810
Photography 815
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: The Romantic Spirit in Art, Music,
and Literature 790
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Delacroix in Morocco 792
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Courbet on Realism 799
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Lithography 801
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Daguerreotype, Calotype,
and Wet-Plate Photography 814
THE BIG PICTURE 819
CHAPTER 31
EUROPE AND AMERICA,
1870 TO 1900 821
Impressionism 822
Post-Impressionism 831
Symbolism 838
Sculpture 843
Architecture and Decorative Arts 846
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Academic Salons and Independent
Art Exhibitions 823
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Renoir on the Art of Painting 827
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Japonisme 829
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: 19th-Century Color
Theory 832
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: The Letters of Vincent van Gogh 834
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Rodin on Movement in Art
and Photography 845
THE BIG PICTURE 851
CHAPTER 32
NATIVE ARTS OF THE AMERICAS
AFTER 1300 853
Mesoamerica 853
South America 858
North America 860
❚ RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY: Aztec Religion 856
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Gender Roles in Native American Art 863
THE BIG PICTURE 869
CHAPTER 33
OCEANIA 871
Australia and Melanesia 872
Micronesia 878
Polynesia 880
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Women’s Roles in Oceania 879
❚ MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES: Tongan Barkcloth 881
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Tattoo in Polynesia 883
THE BIG PICTURE 887
CHAPTER 34
AFRICA AFTER 1800 889
19th Century 889
20th Century 895
Contemporary Art 904
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Gender Roles in African Art Production 896
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: African Artists and Apprentices 897
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: African Masquerades 899
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Mende Women as Maskers 901
THE BIG PICTURE 907
CHAPTER 35
EUROPE AND AMERICA,
1900 TO 1945 909
Europe, 1900 to 1920 910
America, 1900 to 1930 932
Europe, 1920 to 1945 940
America, 1930 to 1945 953
Architecture 960
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Matisse on Color 912
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Science and Art in the Early
20th Century 915
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Gertrude and Leo Stein
and the Avant-Garde 918
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Primitivism and Colonialism 920
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Picasso on Cubism 924
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Futurist Manifestos 927
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Art “Matronage” in America 933
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: The Armory Show 934
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Degenerate Art 945
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Brancusi, Hepworth, and Moore
on Abstract Sculpture 951
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: The Museum of Modern Art
and the Avant-Garde 954
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Rivera on Art for the People 959
THE BIG PICTURE 967
CHAPTER 36
EUROPE AND AMERICA
AFTER 1945 969
Painting and Sculpture, 1945 to 1970 970
Painting and Sculpture since 1970 987
Architecture and Site-Specific Art 1002
Performance and Conceptual Art and New Media 1017
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Jackson Pollock on Easel
and Mural Painting 973
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Helen Frankenthaler on Color-Field
Painting 977
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: David Smith on Outdoor Sculpture 978
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Donald Judd on Sculpture and Industrial Materials 979
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Roy Lichtenstein on Pop Art 983
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Chuck Close on Portrait Painting and Photography 986
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Judy Chicago on The Dinner Party 990
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Public Funding of Controversial Art 996
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Maya Lin’s Vietnam Veterans Memorial 1007
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Philip Johnson on Postmodern
Architecture 1009
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Frank Gehry on Architectural Design
and Materials 1012
❚ ART AND SOCIETY: Richard Serra’s Tilted Arc 1016
❚ ARTISTS ON ART: Carolee Schneemann on Painting,
Performance Art, and Art History 1018
THE BIG PICTURE 1025
NOTES 1026
GLOSSARY 1030
BIBLIOGRAPHY 1046
CREDITS 1059
INDEX 1066

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