Green Fashion Retail Edited by Jochen Strähle

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Green Fashion Retail
Edited by Jochen Strähle
Green Fashion Retail

Contents
1 Green Fashion Retail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Jochen Strähle
2 Key Aspects of Sustainability in Fashion Retail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Jochen Strähle and Viola Müller
3 Closed-Loop Production: A Literature Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Jochen Strähle and Franziska Philipsen
4 Impact on Sustainability: Production Versus Consumption . . . . . . . 49
Jochen Strähle and Katharina Hauk
5 Impact of Sustainable Manufacturing Standards for Retail
Brands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Jochen Strähle and Sarah Kreuzhermes
6 The Prosumer Concept in Fashion Retail: Potentials and
Limitations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Jochen Strähle and Anna-Katharina Grünewald
7 The Second Hand Market for Fashion Products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Jochen Strähle and Linda Maria Klatt
8 Collaborative Consumption 2.0: An Alternative to Fast
Fashion Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Jochen Strähle and Carina Erhard
9 Cross-Industry Learnings: What Fashion Retail Can Learn
from the Used-Car Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Jochen Strähle and Maria Höhn
10 The Value Chain of a Branded Second Hand Store—Possible
Activities to Be Integrated by a Conventional Fashion Brand . . . . . 175
Jochen Strähle and Franziska Sophie Matthaei
11 Case Study: Loop Extension of Filippa K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Jochen Strähle and Alexander Schnaidt
12 The Role of Social Media for a Sustainable Consumption . . . . . . . . 225
Jochen Strähle and Chantal Gräff
13 Potentials of a Fashion fTRACE App . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Jochen Strähle and Marie Caterina Sfameni
14 Case Study: Total Transparency at Honestby.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
Jochen Strähle and Laura Merz

List of Figures
Figure 2.1 Clothing supply chain. Adapted from Gwilt (2014). . . . . . . . . 8
Figure 2.2 5R’s of sustainability. Own figure based on Esty
and Winston (2006). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Figure 2.3 Sustainability and energy management system
implementation. Adapted from Jamieson
and Hughes (2013) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Figure 3.1 Forward and reverse supply chain. Adapted
from Talbot et al. (2007) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Figure 3.2 Closed-loop supply chain. Adapted from Li (2013). . . . . . . . . 31
Figure 3.3 ECOLOG closed-loop supply chain. Adapted
from Morana and Seuring (2007) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Figure 3.4 Collection options Nike. Adapted from Kumar
and Malegeant (2006) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Figure 3.5 Product development process in remanufacturing.
Own figure based on Dissanayake and Sinha (2015). . . . . . . . 41
Figure 3.6 Competition versus cooperation mode. Adapted
from Wang et al. (2014) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Figure 3.7 Three types of constraints. Adapted from Geyer
and Van Wassenhove (2005). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Figure 4.1 3P’s: people, planet and profit. Based on Slaper
and Hall (2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Figure 4.2 Complexity of the fashion supply chain.
Adapted from Kogg (2009) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Figure 4.3 World demand for natural and man-made fibres.
Adopted from Allwood et al. (2006) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Figure 4.4 Hourly wages in the fashion industry.
Adopted from Allwood et al. (2006) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Figure 4.5 Attitude–behaviour gap in fashion consumption.
Based on Antonetti and Maklan (2015)
and Laitala et al. (2015) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Figure 4.6 Impact on sustainability in percentages
of the different fashion lifecycle stages.
Adapted from Beton et al. (2014) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Figure 4.7 Coherence of fashion production and consumption.
Own illustration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Figure 4.8 Responsibility among fashion production
and consumption. Own illustration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Figure 5.1 Forms of communication. Adapted from Bruhn (2015) . . . . . . 84
Figure 6.1 Betabrand—the crowdfunding platform. Adapted
from Betabrand—Crowdfunded Clothing (2016) . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Figure 6.2 3D printing fashion items. Adapted from 3D
Fashion (2016) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Figure 6.3 NikeID—the online co-creation. Adapted
from Co-creation (2016) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Figure 8.1 Consumption process. Adapted from Solomon (2011). . . . . . . 137
Figure 8.2 Consumption of the world’s natural resources.
Own illustration adapted from Friends of the Earth
Europe (2009) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Figure 8.3 Sustainable consumption along the process
of consumption. Adapted from Solomon (2011)
and Schulz (2013) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Figure 8.4 Alternative forms of consumption. Adapted
from Botsman and Rogers (2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Figure 8.5 Sharing and renting willingness of consumers.
Own illustration adopted from Nielsen (2014). . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Figure 8.6 Classification of sharing economy, collaborative
economy and collaborative consumption.
Own illustration adopted from Botsman (2013). . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Figure 8.7 Collaborative consumption models. Botsman
and Rogers (2011). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Figure 8.8 Point system of the fashion library Lena.
Adapted from Lena-library (2015). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Figure 9.1 The extended supply chain. Adapted
from Beamon (1999) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Figure 9.2 Negative and positive transfer between used clothing
and consumer self-concept. Adapted from Roux
and Korchia (2006) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Figure 9.3 Four-pillar template for business models.
Adapted from Osterwalder (2004) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Figure 10.1 The generic value chain and an exemplary subdivision.
Adapted from Porter (1998). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Figure 10.2 Activities to be integrated in the value chain
of a branded second hand store. Own visualization
based on Chan et al. (2015), Choi et al. (2015),
Connell and Kozar (2014), Kate Fletcher
and Grose (2012), Kant Hvass (2014), Pal (2015),
Porter (1998), and WRAP (2013) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
Figure 11.1 The process of a closed-loop supply chain.
Adapted from Bloemhof et al. (2012) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Figure 11.2 Nine planetary boundaries. Adapted from Steffen et al.
(2015) and Rockström et’al. (2009). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
Figure 11.3 Filippa K front runners. Own illustration adapted
from Filippa (2015c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
Figure 11.4 Fiber percentage share from 2012 to 2014.
Adapted from Filippa (2014) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Figure 11.5 Filippa K’s production per country and continent in 2014.
Adapted from Filippa (2014) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Figure 11.6 Numbers of filippa K’s profit level.
Adapted from Filippa (2014) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Figure 12.1 Examples of social network platforms.
Adapted from Tan (2015) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Figure 12.2 The influence of E-WOM on young consumers’
disposal behaviour. Adapted
from Ka-Yan Ng et al. (2015) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Figure 12.3 Structure of the app “Free2Work”.
Adapted from Mustafa (2013) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Figure 12.4 An example of the blog “Eco Fashion Talk”.
Adapted from Brown (2016) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
Figure 12.5 An example of the blog “The Guardian”.
Adapted from Cadwell and Cadwell (2015) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Figure 12.6 The roles of social media for a sustainable consumption.
Own illustration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
Figure 13.1 Consumer decision making process. Adapted from
Kroeber-Riel and Gröppel-Klein (2013) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
Figure 13.2 Tangibles for purchasing more sustainable products.
Adapted from Accenture (2014) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
Figure 13.3 Exemplary fashion supply chain including sustainability
issues. Adapted from Gardetti and Torres (2013) . . . . . . . . . . 257
Figure 13.4 Smartphone subscriptions per region 2014–2020.
Adapted from Scholz (2015) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
Figure 13.5 Information searched for online.
Adapted from AGOF e.V. (2015) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Figure 14.1 Sustainability and the triple bottom line.
Adapted from Carter and Rogers (2008) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
Figure 14.2 Material information. Adapted from Honest by—Material
information (2015). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
Figure 14.3 Manufacturing details. Adapted from Honest
by—Manufacturing details (2015) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
Figure 14.4 Price calculation. Adapted from Honest by—Price
calculation (2015) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
Figure 14.5 Filter by. Adapted from Honest by—Filter by (2015) . . . . . . . 285

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