Laser Printing of Functional Materials: 3D Microfabrication, Electronics and Biomedicine Edited by Alberto Piqué and Pere Serra

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Laser Printing of Functional Materials: 3D Microfabrication, Electronics and Biomedicine
Edited by Alberto Piqué and Pere Serra
Laser Printing of Functional Materials: 3D Microfabrication, Electronics and Biomedicine

Contents
Preface xv
Part I Fundamentals 1
1 Introduction to Laser-Induced Transfer and Other Associated Processes 3
Pere Serra and Alberto Piqué
1.1 LIFT and Its Derivatives 3
1.2 The Laser Transfer Universe 5
1.3 Book Organization and Chapter Overview 8
1.4 Looking Ahead 12
Acknowledgments 13
References 13
2 Origins of Laser-Induced Transfer Processes 17
Christina Kryou and Ioanna Zergioti
2.1 Introduction 17
2.2 EarlyWork in Laser-Induced Transfer 17
2.3 Overview of Laser-Induced Forward Transfer 19
2.3.1 Transferring Metals and Other Materials with Laser-Induced Forward
Transfer (LIFT) 21
2.3.2 Limitations of the Basic LIFT Technique 22
2.3.3 The Role of the Donor Substrate 22
2.3.4 Use of a Dynamic Release Layer (DRL)-LIFT 24
2.3.5 LIFT with Ultrashort Laser Pulses 25
2.4 Other Laser-Based Transfer Techniques Inspired by LIFT 27
2.4.1 Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation-DirectWrite
(MAPLE-DW) Technique 27
2.4.2 LIFT of Composite Matrix-Based Materials 27
2.4.3 Hydrogen-Assisted LIFT 28
2.4.4 Long-Pulsed LIFT 28
2.4.5 Laser Molecular Implantation 29
2.4.6 Laser-Induced Thermal Imaging 30
2.5 Other Studies on LIFT 31
2.6 Conclusions 31
References 32
3 LIFT Using a Dynamic Release Layer 37
Alexandra Palla Papavlu and Thomas Lippert
3.1 Introduction 37
3.2 Absorbing Release Layer – Triazene Polymer 40
3.3 Front- and Backside Ablation of the Triazene Polymer 42
3.4 Examples of Materials Transferred by TP-LIFT 43
3.5 First Demonstration of Devices: OLEDs and Sensors 47
3.5.1 Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLEDs) 47
3.5.2 Sensors 49
3.6 Variation of the DRL Approach: Reactive LIFT 52
3.7 Conclusions and Perspectives 54
Acknowledgments 55
Conflict of Interest 55
References 55
4 Laser-Induced Forward Transfer of Fluids 63
Juan M. Fernández-Pradas, Pol Sopeña, and Pere Serra
4.1 Introduction to the LIFT of Fluids 63
4.1.1 Origin 64
4.1.2 Principle of Operation 65
4.1.3 Developments 66
4.2 Mechanisms of Fluid Ejection and Deposition 67
4.2.1 Jet Formation 67
4.2.2 Droplet Deposition 69
4.3 Printing Droplets through LIFT 72
4.3.1 Role of the Laser Parameters 72
4.3.2 Role of the Fluid Properties 76
4.3.3 Setup Parameters 76
4.4 Printing Lines and Patterns with LIFT 78
4.5 Summary 81
Acknowledgments 82
References 82
5 Advances in Blister-Actuated Laser-Induced Forward Transfer
(BA-LIFT) 91
Emre Turkoz, Romain Fardel, and Craig B. Arnold
5.1 Introduction 91
5.2 BA-LIFT Basics 93
5.3 Why BA-LIFT? 94
5.4 Blister Formation 97
5.4.1 Dynamics of Blister Formation 97
5.4.2 Finite Element Modeling of Blister Formation 102
5.5 Jet Formation and Expansion 105
5.5.1 Computational Fluid Dynamics Model 106
5.5.2 Effect of the Laser Energy 108
5.5.3 Effect of the Ink Film Properties 111
5.6 Application to the Transfer of Delicate Materials 113
5.7 Conclusions 117
References 117
6 Film-Free LIFT (FF-LIFT) 123
Salvatore Surdo, Alberto Diaspro, andMartí Duocastella
6.1 Introduction 123
6.2 Rheological Considerations in Traditional LIFT of Liquids 125
6.2.1 The Challenges behind the Preparation of aThin Liquid Film 125
6.2.1.1 The Role of Spontaneous Instabilities 126
6.2.1.2 The Role of External Instabilities 128
6.2.2 Technologies for Thin-Film Preparation 129
6.2.3 Wetting of the Receiver Substrate 130
6.3 Fundamentals of Film-Free LIFT 131
6.3.1 Cavitation-Induced Phenomena for Printing 131
6.3.2 Jet Formation in Film-Free LIFT 132
6.3.3 Differences with LIFT of Liquids 134
6.4 Implementation and Optical Considerations 135
6.4.1 Laser Source 135
6.4.2 Forward (Inverted) versus Backward (Upright) Systems 136
6.4.3 Spherical Aberration and Chromatic Dispersion 137
6.5 Applications 138
6.5.1 Film-Free LIFT for Printing Biomaterials 139
6.5.2 Film-Free LIFT for Micro-Optical Element Fabrication 140
6.6 Conclusions and Future Outlook 141
References 142
Part II The Role of the Laser–Material Interaction
in LIFT 147
7 Laser-Induced Forward Transfer of Metals 149
David A.Willis
7.1 Introduction, Background, and Overview 149
7.2 Modeling, Simulation, and Experimental Studies of the Transfer
Process 151
7.2.1 Thermal Processes: Film Heating, Removal, Transfer, and
Deposition 151
7.2.2 Parametric Effects 153
7.2.2.1 Laser Fluence and Film Thickness 154
7.2.2.2 Donor-Film Gap Spacing 156
7.2.2.3 PulseWidth 157
7.2.3 Droplet-Mode Deposition 160
7.2.4 Characterization of Deposited Structures: Adhesion, Composition,
and Electrical Resistivity 163
7.3 Advanced Modeling of LIFT 165
7.4 Research Needs and Future Directions 167
7.5 Conclusions 169
References 170
8 LIFT of Solid Films (Ceramics and Polymers) 175
BenMills, Daniel J. Heath,Matthias Feinaeugle, and RobertW. Eason
8.1 Introduction 175
8.2 Assisted Release Processes 176
8.2.1 Optimization of LIFT Transfer of Ceramics via Laser Pulse
Interference 176
8.2.1.1 Standing-Wave Interference from Multiple Layers 176
8.2.1.2 Ballistic Laser-Assisted Solid Transfer (BLAST) 177
8.2.2 LIFT Printing of Premachined Ceramic Microdisks 180
8.2.3 Spatial Beam Shaping for Patterned LIFT of Polymer Films 181
8.3 Shadowgraphy Studies and Assisted Capture 184
8.3.1 Shadowgraphic Studies of the Transfer of CeramicThin Films 184
8.3.2 Application of Polymers as Compliant Receivers 186
8.4 Applications in Energy Harvesting 188
8.4.1 LIFT of Chalcogenide Thin Films 189
8.4.2 Fabrication of aThermoelectric Generator on a Polymer-Coated
Substrate 190
8.5 Laser-Induced Backward Transfer (LIBT) of Nanoimprinted
Polymer 193
8.5.1 Unstructured Carrier Substrate 195
8.5.2 Structured Carrier Substrate 195
8.6 Conclusions 197
Acknowledgments 197
References 197
9 Laser-Induced Forward Transfer of Soft Materials 199
Zhengyi Zhang, Ruitong Xiong, and Yong Huang
9.1 Introduction 199
9.2 Background 200
9.3 Jetting Dynamics during Laser Printing of Soft Materials 201
9.3.1 Jet Formation Dynamics during Laser Printing of Newtonian Glycerol
Solutions 202
9.3.1.1 Typical Jetting Regimes 202
9.3.1.2 Jetting Regime as Function of Fluid Properties and Laser Fluence 204
9.3.1.3 Jettability Phase Diagram 206
9.3.2 Jet Formation Dynamics during Laser Printing of Viscoelastic Alginate
Solutions 208
9.3.2.1 Ink Coating Preparation and Design of Experiments 208
9.3.2.2 Typical Jetting Regimes 209
9.3.2.3 General Observation of the Jetting Dynamics 212
9.3.2.4 Effects of Laser Fluence on Jetting Dynamics 212
9.3.2.5 Effects of Alginate Concentration on Jetting Dynamics 214
9.3.2.6 Jettability Phase Diagram 215
9.4 Laser Printing Applications Using Optimized Printing
Conditions 218
9.5 Conclusions and FutureWork 220
Acknowledgments 221
References 222
10 Congruent LIFT with High-Viscosity Nanopastes 227
Raymond C.Y. Auyeung, Heungsoo Kim, and Alberto Piqué
10.1 Introduction 227
10.2 Congruent LIFT (or LDT) 229
10.3 Applications 235
10.4 Achieving Congruent Laser Transfers 242
10.5 Issues and Challenges 245
10.6 Summary 246
Acknowledgment 247
References 247
11 Laser Printing of Nanoparticles 251
Urs Zywietz, Tim Fischer, Andrey Evlyukhin, Carsten Reinhardt,
and Boris Chichkov
11.1 Introduction, Setup, and Motivation 251
11.2 Laser-Induced Transfer 252
11.3 Materials for Laser Printing of Nanoparticles 254
11.4 Laser Printing from Bulk-Silicon and Silicon Films 254
11.5 Magnetic Resonances of Silicon Particles 261
11.6 Laser Printing from Prestructured Films 261
11.7 Applications: Sensing, Metasurfaces, and Additive Manufacturing 263
11.8 Outlook 266
References 266
Part III Applications 269
12 Laser Printing of ElectronicMaterials 271
Philippe Delaporte, Anne-Patricia Alloncle, and Thomas Lippert
12.1 Introduction and Context 271
12.2 Organic Thin-Film Transistor 272
12.2.1 Operation and Characteristics of OTFTs 272
12.2.2 Laser Printing of the Semiconductor Layer 275
12.2.3 Laser Printing of Dielectric Layers 277
12.2.4 Laser Printing of Conducting Layers 279
12.2.5 Single-Step Printing of Full OTFT Device 279
12.3 Organic Light-Emitting Diode 281
12.4 Passive Components 285
12.5 Interconnection and Heterogeneous Integration 287
12.6 Conclusion 290
References 291
13 Laser Printing of Chemical and Biological Sensors 299
Ioanna Zergioti
13.1 Introduction 299
13.2 Conventional PrintingMethods for the Fabrication of Chemical and
Biological Sensors 300
13.2.1 Contact PrintingMethods 301
13.2.1.1 Pin Printing Approach 301
13.2.1.2 Microcontact Printing (or Microstamping) Technique 302
13.2.1.3 Nanotip Printing 303
13.2.2 Noncontact Printing Methods 303
13.2.2.1 Photochemistry-Based Printing 303
13.2.2.2 Inkjet Printing Technique 304
13.2.2.3 Electrospray Deposition (ESD) 304
13.3 Laser-Based Printing Techniques: Introduction 305
13.3.1 Laser-Induced Forward Transfer 305
13.3.2 LIFT of Liquid Films 307
13.4 Applications of Direct Laser Printing 308
13.4.1 Biosensors 308
13.4.1.1 Background 308
13.4.1.2 Printing of Biological Materials for Biosensors 309
13.4.2 Chemical Sensors 316
13.5 Conclusions 319
List of Abbreviations 319
References 320
14 Laser Printing of Proteins and Biomaterials 329
Alexandra Palla Papavlu, Valentina Dinca, and Maria Dinescu
14.1 Introduction 329
14.2 LIFT of DNA in Solid and Liquid Phase 332
14.3 LIFT of Biomolecules 333
14.3.1 Streptavidin and Avidin–Biotin Complex 333
14.3.2 Amyloid Peptides 337
14.3.3 Odorant-Binding Proteins 339
14.3.4 Liposomes 340
14.4 Conclusions and Perspectives 343
Acknowledgments 343
Conflict of Interest 343
References 344
15 Laser-Assisted Bioprinting of Cells for Tissue Engineering 349
Olivia Kérourédan,Murielle Rémy, Hugo Oliveira, Fabien Guillemot, and
Raphaël Devillard
15.1 Laser-Assisted Bioprinting of Cells 349
15.1.1 The History of Cell Bioprinting and Advantages of Laser-Assisted
Bioprinting for Tissue Engineering 349
15.1.2 Technical Specifications of Laser-Assisted Bioprinting
of Cells 353
15.1.3 Effect of Laser Process and Printing Parameters on Cell Behavior 356
15.2 Laser-Assisted Bioprinting for Cell Biology Studies 358
15.2.1 Study of Cell–Cell and Cell–Microenvironment Interactions 358
15.2.2 Cancer Research 359
15.3 Laser-Assisted Bioprinting for Tissue-Engineering
Applications 359
15.3.1 Skin 360
15.3.2 Blood Vessels 362
15.3.3 Heart 364
15.3.4 Bone 365
15.3.5 Nervous System 367
15.4 Conclusion 368
References 369
16 Industrial, Large-Area, and High-Throughput LIFT/LIBT Digital Printing 375
Guido Hennig, Gerhard Hochstein, and Thomas Baldermann
16.1 Introduction 375
16.1.1 State of the Art in Digital Printing 376
16.1.2 History of LasersonicLIFT 376
16.2 Potential Markets and their Technical Demands on Lasersonic LIFT 377
16.2.1 Digital Printing Market Expectations and Challenges 377
16.2.2 Demands on a LIFT/LIBT Printing Unit for Special Printing Markets 378
16.3 LasersonicLIFT/LIBT PrintingMethod 379
16.3.1 LIFT for Absorbing and LIBT for Transparent Inks 379
16.4 Optical Concept and Pulse Control of the LasersonicPrinting Machine 382
16.4.1 Ultrafast Pulse Modulation at High Power Level 382
16.4.2 Time Schemes 383
16.4.3 Data Flow 385
16.4.4 Ultrafast Scan of the Laser Beam 385
16.5 The Four-Color Lasersonic Printing Machine 387
16.5.1 Large-Area, High-Throughput LIFT/LIBT Inline R2R Printing System 387
16.5.2 Printing Heads for Absorptive (Black) and for Transparent (Colored) Inks 388
16.5.3 Inking Units 390
16.5.4 Synthetic Approaches to the Absorption Layer of the LIBT Donor Surface 392
16.6 Print Experiments and Results 392
16.7 Discussion of Effects 397
16.7.1 LIFT Process with Continuous-Wave Laser Source and Fast Modulation 397
16.7.2 Special Test Pattern to Study the Transfer Behavior at High Pixel Rate 399
16.8 Future Directions 401
16.9 Summary 402
Acknowledgments 403
References 403
17 LIFT of 3D Metal Structures 405
Ralph Pohl, ClaasW. Visser, and Gert-willem Römer
17.1 Introduction 405
17.2 Basic Aspects of LIFT of Metals for 3D Structures 407
17.2.1 Ejection Regimes of Pure Metal Picosecond LIFT 408
17.2.1.1 Velocity of the Ejected Donor Material 409
17.2.1.2 Origin of Fragments in Cap-Ejection Regime 409
17.2.2 Droplet Impact and Solidification 411
17.3 Properties of LIFT-Printed FreestandingMetal Pillars 413
17.3.1 Reproducibility 414
17.3.2 Metallurgical Microstructure 416
17.3.3 Mechanical Properties 417
17.3.4 Electrical Properties 418
17.3.5 Inclined Pillars 420
17.4 Demonstrators and Potential Applications 420
17.5 Conclusions and Outlook 423
References 423
18 Laser Transfer of Entire Structures and Functional
Devices 427
Alberto Piqué, Nicholas A. Charipar, Raymond C. Y. Auyeung, Scott A. Mathews,
and Heungsoo Kim
18.1 Introduction 427
18.2 Early Demonstrations of LIFT of Entire Structures 428
18.3 Process Dynamics 431
18.3.1 Lase-and-Place 432
18.4 Laser Transfer of Intact Structures 435
18.4.1 Laser Transfer of Metal Foils for Electrical Interconnects 436
18.5 Laser Transfer of Components for Embedded Electronics 437
18.6 Outlook 438
18.7 Summary 440
Acknowledgments 441
References 441
Index 445


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