# Textile Mechanics and Calculations PDF by J. Hayavadana

Textile Mechanics and Calculations
Contents
Foreword xix
Preface xxi
Chapter 1 Introduction to mechanics of textile machineries 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Equations of motion 2
1.3 Introduction 2
1.3.1 Linear motion 3
1.3.2 Circular motion 6
Chapter 2 Transmission of motion by wheel gearing 59
2.1 What is a gear drive? 60
2.2 Classification of gear drives 63
2.3 Spur gears 63
2.3.1 Spur gear materials 66
2.4 Helical gears 67
2.4.1 Parallel helical gears 68
2.4.2 Double helical gears 69
2.4.3 Cross-helical gears 72
2.5 Bevel gears 73
2.6 Hypoid gears 75
2.7 Worm and worm wheel gears 77
2.7.1 Applications of worm and worm wheel in textile
industry 82
2.7.2 Rack and pinion gear 85
2.7.3 Types of rack and pinion gears 86
2.7.4 Applications 86
2.8 Geneva 88
2.8.1 Introduction 88
2.8.4 Types of Genevas 89
2.9 Ratchet and Pawl 90
2.9.1 General features 90
2.9.2 Applications of ratchet and pawl in textile industry 92
2.9.3 Compound gear train 93
2.9.4 Reverted gear train 102
2.10 Sun and Planet gear or epicyclic gear or planetary
gear – Special types of gear 102
2.10.1 Applications of epicyclic or planetary gears in
textile industry 124
Chapter 3 Belt, rope and chain drives 135
3.1 History of belt drives 135
3.2 Belt types 136
3.2.1 V-belts 137
3.2.2 Classical V-belts 137
3.2.3 Synchronous belts 138
3.3 Alignment 140
3.3.2 Disadvantages of belt drives 142
3.3.3 Belts used with gear drive 142
3.3.4 Belt tension 143
3.3.5 Materials of belt 145
3.4 Applications of belt drives in textile machineries 147
3.5 Reinforcements 149
3.5.1 Fabrics 149
3.5.2 Belt capacities 151
3.5.3 Capacity calculations 152
3.5.4 Properties of materials 153
3.6 Belt power and tensions 156
3.6.1 Belt power calculation formulae 156
3.6.2 Calculation of maximum tensions 160
3.6.4 Feeder belt calculations 161
3.7 Acceleration and deceleration 162
3.7.1 Accelerating belt conveyors 162
3.7.2 Decelerating belt conveyors 163
3.7.3 Hold back or anti-run devices 164
3.7.4 Counterweight reaction – Accelerating and braking 165
3.7.5 Accelerating and braking forces 166
3.7.6 Application of forces 167
3.7.7 Coasting 167
3.8 Belt carcass selection 168
3.8.1 Belt construction requirements 168
3.8.2 Considerations 169
3.9 Cover gauges and qualities 170
3.9.1 Considerations 170
3.9.2 Selection 171
3.10 Pulley side cover 171
3.10.1 Pulley diameters 171
3.10.2 Parallel face pulleys 173
3.10.3 Crown face pulleys 173
3.10.4 Pulley face width 173
3.11 Design considerations 174
3.11.1 Multiple slope and vertical curve conveyors 174
3.12 Terminal troughing idler arrangements 177
3.13 Take-up arrangements 178
3.14 General data 179
3.14.1 Belt mass and thickness 179
3.14.2 Shipping dimensions and roll sizes 180
3.15 Solid woven belting 180
3.15.1 Belt construction 180
3.15.2 The textile solid woven carcass 180
3.15.3 PVC impregnation 181
3.15.4 Cover material 181
3.16 Belt joints 182
3.16.1 Vulcanised spliced joint 182
3.16.2 Mechanical fasteners 182
3.17 Operating conditions 183
3.17.1 Allowable working tension 183
3.17.2 Pulley diameters 183
3.17.3 Transition lengths 183
3.17.4 Load support and troughability 184
3.17.5 Take-up travel 184
3.18 Belt covers 185
3.18.1 Cover types 185
3.18.2 Cover thickness 185
3.19 Belt protection 185
3.19.1 Transverse reinforcement 185
3.19.2 Rip detection 185
3.20 Effect of centrifugal tension (TC) 215
3.21 Rope drives 220
3.21.1 Material of construction 220
3.21.2 Advantages of rope drive 227
3.21.3 Demerits of rope drives 227
3.21.4 Material of construction 227
3.22 Chain drive 232
3.22.1 Textile applications of chain drive 233
3.22.2 Merits of chain drive 234
3.22.3 Chain drives compared 235
3.22.4 Roller chains 235
3.23 Roller chains: Nomenclature and dimensions 238
3.23.1 Standard roller – chain nomenclature 238
3.23.2 Selection of roller-chain drives 238
3.23.3 Drive arrangements 240
3.24 Lubrication and wear 241
3.24.1 Purpose of chain lubrication 241
3.24.2 Lubricant properties 241
3.24.3 Types of chain lubrication 242
3.25 Stepped pulleys and their construction 244
3.25.1 Cone pulley drive for lathe machine 244
3.25.2 Applications of stepped pulley in textile industry 246
Chapter 4 Feed regulation motion in scutcher and simplex 257
4.1 Significance of feed regulation in scutcher 257
4.2 Significance of knock-off motions in scutcher 258
4.3 Types of Knock-off motion in scutcher 259
4.3.1 Worm and Worm wheel knock-off motion 259
4.3.2 Hunting cog 263
4.3.3 Ratchet and Pawl type knock-off motion 266
4.4 Design of cone drums for scutcher 268
4.4.1 Design of profile of cone drum used for simplex 275
4.4.2 Speed frame – Cone drum design illustrations 277
Chapter 5 Mechanics of warp winding, warping and
warp sizing 293
5.1 Kinetics of winding 293
5.2 General methods of driving the package 294
5.2.1 General methods of yarn traversing 295
5.2.2 Mechanics of winding in general (inclusive
of winding concept in spinning and weaving) 297
5.3 Package build in precision winding machines 301
5.4 Uniform package build in drum winding 303
5.4.1 Cone/cheese winding 303
5.5 Calculations of spindle speed, traverse speed, number
of coils/double traverse in precision winder 304
5.5.1 Speed calculations in precision winder 304
5.5.2 Relation between package diameter, coil angle
and number of coils per double traverse in
winding machines 306
5.5.3 Relation between angle of wind and package
diameter in winders 314
5.6 Yarn clearing and clearing efficiency 316
5.6.1 Optimum yarn clearing 316
5.7 Gain mechanism 332
5.8 Theory of yarn unwinding 335
5.8.1 Short-term variations 338
5.8.2 Long-term variations 338
5.8.3 Unwinding tension 339
5.9 Warping 341
5.9.1 Beam warping 341
5.9.2 Sectional warping 341
5.9.3 Calculations in sectional warping machine 342
5.9.4 Sectional warping 346
5.10 Mechanics of weft winding 356
5.10.1 Indirect system (or) rewinding of weft 356
5.10.2 Classification of pirn winding 357
5.10.3 A review on passage of material through pirn
winder of conventional type 360
5.11 Mechanics of sizing 365
5.11.1 Beam winding by PIV gear 365
5.11.2 Regulation with PIV winders 367
5.11.3 Mode of operation of the PIV winder 368
5.11.4 The winding procedure 368
5.11.5 Mode of operation of control head on PIV winder 369
Chapter 6 Construction of displacement, velocity and
acceleration diagrams 383
6.1 Introduction – Significance 383
6.2 Construction of displacement, velocity, and acceleration
diagrams 384
6.3 Displacement diagram of Moscrop thread testing machine 387
Chapter 7 Role of clutches and breaks in textile production 403
7.1 What are clutches? 403
7.2 Types of clutches 403
7.3 Materials of construction 404
7.4 Simple plate clutch 405
7.4.1 Need for clutch 405
7.5 Friction clutch 406
7.5.1 Single disc or plate clutch 407
7.5.2 Cone clutches 409
7.5.3 Centrifugal clutch 410
7.6 Commercial clutches 411
7.7 Electromagnetic clutch 413
7.7.1 Working principle 413
7.7.2 Hysteresis clutch 414
7.8 Diehl motor clutch 415
7.8.1 Construction of the Diehl motor clutch 415
7.8.2 Working 415
7.9 Multiple plate clutch 416
7.9.1 Construction 416
7.9.2 Working 418
7.10 Applications of clutch in textile production 419
7.10.1 Application of clutch in warping 419
7.10.2 Application of clutch in spinning machines 423
7.10.3 Clutch systems in loom (weaving machine drives) 423
7.10.4 Cone clutch drive in Northrop automatic looms 427
7.11 Brakes 442
7.11.1 Machine brakes 442
7.11.2 Characteristics of brakes 443
7.11.3 Classification of brakes – Case I 444
7.11.4 Classification of brakes – Case II 445
7.11.5 Mechanical brake 446
7.11.6 Block brake 446
7.11.7 Band brake 447
7.11.8 Internal expanding shoe brake 447
7.11.9 Disc brakes 448
7.11.10 Drum brakes 449
7.11.11 Crash stop or emergency brakes 451
7.11.12 Hydraulic brakes 451
7.12 Applications of brakes in various industries 453
7.12.1 Anti-lock brakes 453
7.12.2 Brakes in textile industry 453
7.12.3 Textile machinery brake 454
7.12.4 Clutch brake unit/clutch brake combinations
on textile machinery 454
7.12.5 Brakes in weaving preparatory – Sizing 455
Chapter 8 Kinetics of shedding, picking and beat-up 459
8.1 Introduction 459
8.2 Shed opening diagram and an expression for shed depth 459
8.2.1 Numerical example on shed angle 463
8.2.2 Geometry of shed 464
8.2.3 Bending factor and its significance in loom 467
8.2.4 Method to increase the cover factor of the grey
fabric in a loom 469
8.2.5 Numerical example on warp strain 470
8.3 Heald movement and displacement diagrams 471
8.3.1 Staggering of healds in weaving 472
8.3.2 Numerical example on heald staggering in loom 474
8.4 Kinetics of tappet shedding, dobby shedding and
Jacquard shedding mechanisms 475
8.4.1 Heald reversing 480
8.4.2 Kenyons under motion 482
8.4.3 Quadrat spring over motion 483
8.5 Tappet drive in a loom 484
8.5.1 Drive without idler wheel 489
8.6 Kinematics of shuttle picking 490
8.6.1 Relationship between loom speed and weft
carrier velocity and picking angle 491
8.6.2 Loom speed and weft carrier velocity 491
8.7 Shuttle acceleration 492
8.7.1 Shuttle acceleration in projectile loom 495
8.7.2 Elastic properties of picking mechanism 497
8.7.3 Initial and average shuttle speed during traverse 498
8.7.4 Factors affecting initial shuttle speed 499
8.7.5 Shuttle mass and checking 507
8.7.6 Ideal checking conditions 508
8.7.7 Checking limits 509
8.7.8 Weft behaviour during unwinding from shuttle 509
8.8 Mechanics of picking 513
8.8.1 Mechanics of cone over pick mechanism 516
8.8.2 Example of a cone under pick mechanism 519
8.8.3 Picking mechanism as an elastic mechanism 524
8.8.4 Power required for picking 527
8.8.5 Mechanics of torsion bar picking (Sulzer) 528
8.8.6 The picking mechanism – The torsion bar picking
system of the machine 529
8.9 Kinetics of beat-up or sley 532
8.9.1 Significance of reed and its selection 532
8.9.2 Expression for sley displacement, velocity and
acceleration 536
8.9.3 Length of the crank and crank arm 540
8.10 Eccentricity of sley – Significance 540
8.10.1 Count of weft processed 541
8.10.2 High wear and tear of the loom 541
8.10.3 Beat-up force and effective beat-up 541
8.10.4 Mass of the loom in relation to “e” 542
8.10.5 Force, torque and power needed to drive sley 550
8.10.6 Analysis of motion of various points on the sley 551
8.10.7 A special discussion on sley as four bar linkage
mechanism 553
Chapter 9 Kinetics of take-up and let-off motions 557
9.1 Role of fabric take-up and Warp let-off in loom 557
9.2 Mechanics of take-up motion 557
9.3 Beat-up force vs weaving resistance – The cloth fell position 557
9.4 Kinetics of take-up motion – Warp tension and cloth control 558
9.4.1 Pick spacing 559
9.4.2 Bumping condition 563
9.4.3 Disturbed weaving conditions 567
9.4.4 Causes of pick spacing variation 568
9.4.5 Stress relaxation in warp and woven fabric 568
9.4.6 Tension control 570
9.4.7 Variation in warp tension 571
9.4.8 7 wheel take-up motion 571
9.5 Kinetics of let-off 575
9.5.1 Mechanics of length of yarn delivered during let-off 575
9.5.2 Effect of beam diameter in let-off 577
9.5.3 Forces acting at a floating back roller 578
9.5.4 Mechanism of negative let-off (F a X) 580
Chapter 10 Construction of cams and tappets 589
10.1 Introduction 589
10.2 Applications of cams in textile industry 592
10.3 Types of cams 592
10.3.1 According to shape 593
10.3.2 According to follower movement 595
10.3.3 According to manner of constraint of the follower 596
10.4 Types of followers 597
10.4.1 According to shape 597
10.4.2 According to movement 597
10.4.3 According to location of line of movement 597
10.5 Cam nomenclature 598
10.6 Follower displacement programming 599
10.7 Motions of the follower 600
10.7.1 Simple harmonic motion (SHM) 600
10.7.2 Constant acceleration and deceleration 601
10.7.3 Constant velocity 603
10.7.4 Cycloidal 604
10.8 Illustrative examples on cam construction 605
10.9 Construction of textile cams and tappets 663
10.9.1 Generation of tappet profile through CAD software 664
10.9.2 Construction of shedding tappet 664
10.9.3 General procedure for all twill tappets 665
10.9.4 Construction of three-leaved cam for cop
build in ring spinning 668
Chapter 11 Power required to drive spinning and
weaving machines 669
11.1 Introduction 669
11.2 Power for a carding engine 672
11.3 Mechanics at flyer frame and ring spinning 674
11.3.1 Flyer frame winding 674
11.3.2 Ring frame winding 679
11.4 Winding mechanics at modern ring frame 688
11.4.1 Formation of cop 688
11.4.2 Formation of the base 691
11.4.3 The formation of the conical layers 691
11.5 The winding principle 692
11.5.1 Variation in the speed of the traveller 693
11.5.2 Force and tension relationships during winding
by using travellers 694
11.5.3 Conditions at the traveller in the plane of the ring 695
11.6 Changes in the force conditions 696
11.7 Arrangements at modern ring frame 697
11.8 Power required for the loom 698
Index 707

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