Recycled Polyester: Manufacturing, Properties, Test Methods, and Identification PDF | Edited by Subramanian Senthilkannan Muthu

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Recycled Polyester: Manufacturing, Properties, Test Methods, and Identification
Edited by Subramanian Senthilkannan Muthu
Recycled Polyester: Manufacturing, Properties, Test Methods, and Identification

Contents
Properties of Recycled Polyester . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
P. Senthil Kumar and G. Janet Joshiba
Effects of Gamma Radiation on the Physicochemical Properties
of Polyester Resin and Its Use in Composite Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Gonzalo Martínez-Barrera, Angel Martínez-López,
Enrique Vigueras-Santiago and Miguel Martínez-López
Studies on Recycled Polyester . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Yijing Qin, Muchao Qu, Joachim Kaschta, Vincent Allen
and Dirk W. Schubert
Test Methods and Identification of Recycled Polyester . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
P. Senthil Kumar and S. Suganya

Properties of Recycled Polyester
P. Senthil Kumar and G. Janet Joshiba

Abstract 
Recycled polyesters are basically derived from the used and waste polyester bottles, old garments and industrial polyester waste, subsequently these recycled polyesters are prepared using two various methodologies such as Chemical and mechanical recycling methods. There is no much difference between virgin polyesters and recycled polyesters in terms of high strength, durability, versatility, and performance. As theCo2 emission is less in the production of recycled polyesters, it does not pose any threat to the environment. This polyester also reduces thewastage of petroleum fuelswhich is amajor constituent in the production of polyesters,Moreover, it leads to a reduction of overall carbon foot print of the polyester production.

The recycled polyesters possess outstanding and enhanced mechanical and thermal properties. This chapter depicts the various fantabulous properties and characteristics of recycled polyesters in detail.

Keywords Recycled polyesters · Mechanical · Thermal · Durability · Strength

1 Introduction
The augmenting surge of industrialization and population has contributed to the elevated disposal of non-degradable plastic waste. Plastic pollution is one of the major alarming issues faced all over the universe [1]. Due to the toxic and non-degradable nature of plastics, it is considered as one of the major pollutant damaging the living organisms and ecosystem. Plastic pollution has elevated its harmful consequences across the marginal and seaside ecosystem universally, it is reported that around 4.8–12.7million tons of plastics are released into themarine environment [2]. Several researchers have investigated the negative impacts of plastics on aquatic and earth bound ecosystem to reduce its hazardous environmental ill effects. Furthermore, many studies have conducted to monitor the disposal, effect, and transfiguration of plastics on the surroundings [1]. Plastics are one of the leading pollutants present in higher amount in the marine environment; furthermore, this plastic pollution has become one of the greatest hindrances for the tourist sectors of the coastal regions [2]. Plastics, when disposed of, are not only a worry (or opportunity) for the industry but at the same time is aworry for the legislature that needs to deal with theMunicipal StrongWaste [3]. Although plastic has numerous profitable uses in society, it is preferred only for single time usage or as expendable plastic. Around the globe, nearly one million plastic drinking water bottles are utilized everymoment, at the same time up to 5 trillion single usage plastic packs are utilized worldwide consistently (www. unenvironment.org). The high strength, less density, wear resistance, abrasion resistance and corrosion resistance are some of the unique properties of the plastic which makes it available for versatile application [4]. The plastic waste found in the land background is due to the floods, over discharge of drainage, an increase of dumpsites, improperly maintained landfills and sudden natural disasters. The plastic pollution in the aquatic systems is due to the discharge of wastes from ships, dumping of nondegradable wastes under the sea and other commercial sources [5]. 
The waste plastic released from the industries, commercial and domestic sources are distinguished into macro plastics and micro plastics based upon the size of the plastic. Usually, the macroplastics are larger plastic compounds which are of the size range greater than 25 mm, in addition, consumption of these macroplastics causes damage to the living organisms present in the aquatic ecosystem. Microplasticsarethe plastic compounds which are of the size range less than 5 mm, moreover, it is primarily utilized as raw materials in the cosmetic industry, pharmaceutical industry, and textile industry. As these plastics are complex to degrade, they easily enter the food chain of the living organisms which further results in bio accumulation and bio magnification [2, 6].

In order to combat all the deleterious effects of the plastics, effective measures for plastic waste management have been carried out. As the plastic stake a large span of time for degradation the complete degradation of plastics is not possible. In addition, the disposal of plastics through pyrolysis and landfills also aggravate several harmful consequences in the environment [7]. Further, to reduce the ill effects of the waste generated, the industries are insisted to follow environmental friendlymanufacturing practices.Many environmental and governmental organizations have made attempts to publicize the green industries and its application to conceive consciousness about the difficulty in waste disposal. The 3R concept was seemed to be one of the efficient ways of Reducing and managing industrialwaste. The recyclingmethod is a classical technique used for a longer time period to reduce the environmental ill effects caused due to the accumulation of hazardous nondegradable waste products [8].

The textile business is of incredible significance to the economies of each nation. In addition, it occupies a major place in elevating the venture, income, business, and exchange. In 2015, the span of the worldwide clothing market came to USD 1685 billion [9]. Textile waste is seemed to be one of the leading industry utilizing polyester fibers for garment manufacturing. While washing the garments, the polyester fibers release microplastics as the major contaminants into the aquatic systems.

It is reported that the laundering of about 5 kg of polyester materials emits about 6,000,000 microplastic fibers into the nearby marine sources [2]. In order to compensate all the deleterious effects of the polyesters on the environment, the polyester recycling is considered as one of the promising approaches. This chapter elaborates about the recycled polyesters and also the various unique properties of the recycled polyesters.

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