Smart Textiles: Wearable Nanotechnology PDF Edited by Nazire D. Yilmaz

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Smart Textiles: Wearable Nanotechnology
Edited by Nazire D. Yilmaz
Smart Textiles: Wearable Nanotechnology

Contents
Preface xv
Acknowledgments xvii
Section 1: Introduction 1
1 Introduction to Smart Nanotextiles 3
Nazire Deniz Yilmaz
1.1 Introduction 3
1.1.1 Application Areas of Smart Nanotextiles 7
1.1.2 Incorporating Smartness into Textiles 8
1.1.3 Properties of Smart Nanotextiles 9
1.1.4 Nanotechnology 9
1.1.5 Nanomaterials 10
1.2 Nanofibers 11
1.2.1 Moisture Management 12
1.2.2 Thermoregulation 13
1.2.3 Personal Protection 13
1.2.4 Biomedicine 14
1.3 Nanosols 14
1.3.1 Applications of Nanosols 15
1.4 Responsive Polymers 16
1.5 Nanowires 18
1.6 Nanogenerators 19
1.7 Nanocomposites 21
1.8 Nanocoating 23
1.9 Nanofiber Formation 24
1.10 Nanotechnology Characterization Methods 26
1.11 Challenges and Future Studies 27
1.12 Conclusion 29
References 29
Section 2: Materials for Smart Nanotextiles 39
2 Nanofibers for Smart Textiles 41
Lynn Yuqin Wan
2.1 Introduction 41
2.2 Nanofibers and Their Advantages 42
2.3 Nanofiber Fabrication Technologies and Electrospinning 46
2.4 Smart Nanofibers and Their Applications in Textiles 48
2.4.1 Moisture Management and Waterproof 49
2.4.2 Thermoregulation 52
2.4.3 Personal Protection 54
2.4.4 Wearables and Sensors 57
2.4.5 Medical Care 59
2.5 Challenges Facing Electrospinning 60
2.5.1 Enhancement of Mechanical Properties 60
2.5.2 Large-Scale Production 61
2.5.3 Formation of Nanofiber-Based Yarn and Fabric 63
2.5.2 Other Issues 64
2.6 Future Outlook 65
2.6.1 Fabrication Technology 65
2.6.2 Applications Meet the Needs 67
2.7 Conclusion 68
References 69
3 Nanosols for Smart Textiles 91
Boris Mahltig
3.1 Introduction 91
3.2 Preparation of Nanosols as Coating Agents 93
3.3 Application on Textiles 95
3.4 Nanosols and Smart Textiles 96
3.4.1 Photocatalytic and Light Responsive Materials 96
3.4.2 Antimicrobial and Bioactive Systems 101
3.4.3 Controlled Release Systems 103
3.5 Summary 103
Acknowledgements 104
References 104
4 Responsive Polymers for Smart Textiles 111
Eri Niiyama, Ailifeire Fulati and Mitsuhiro Ebara
4.1 Classification of Stimuli-Responsive Polymers 111
4.2 Fiber Fabrication 113
4.3 Biomedical Application 116
4.3.1 Sensors 116
4.3.2 Drug Delivery Systems (DDSs) 117
4.3.3 Cell Application 120
4.4 Filters 122
4.5 Conclusion 123
References 124
5 Nanowires for Smart Textiles 127
Jizhong Song
5.1 Introduction 127
5.2 Advantages of Nanowires to Smart Textiles 130
5.2.1 Balance between Transparency and Conductivity 130
5.2.2 High Specific Surface Area 131
5.2.3 Direct Charge Transport Path 131
5.2.4 Oriented Assembly 132
5.3 Various Nanowires for Smart Textiles 132
5.3.1 Conductive Nanowires for Smart Textiles 132
5.3.1.1 Metal Nanowires for Smart Textiles 133
5.3.1.2 Polymer Nanowires for Smart Textiles 138
5.3.2 Semiconducting Nanowires for Smart Textiles 141
5.3.2.1 Oxide Nanowires for Smart Textiles 141
5.3.2.2 Sulfide Nanowires for Smart Textiles 147
5.3.2.3 Other Nanowires for Smart Textiles 150
5.4 Perspectives on Future Research 152
References 164
6 Nanogenerators for Smart Textiles 177
Xiong Pu, Weiguo Hu and Zhong Lin Wang
6.1 Introduction 177
6.2 Working Mechanisms of Nanogenerators 179
6.2.1 Piezoelectric Nanogenerators 179
6.2.2 Triboelectric Nanogenerators 181
6.2.3 Theoretical Origin of Nanogenerators – Maxwell’s
Displacement Current 184
6.3 Progresses of Nanogenerators for Smart Textiles 186
6.3.1 Piezoelectric Nanogenerators for Smart Textiles 187
6.3.1.1 Fiber-Based PENGs 187
6.3.1.2 Textile-Based PENGs 189
6.3.2 Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Smart Textiles 192
6.3.2.1 Fiber-Based TENGs 192
6.3.2.2 Textile-Based TENGs Starting from
1D Yarns/Fibers 194
6.3.2.3 Textile-Based TENGs Starting from
2D Fabrics 197
6.3.3 Hybrid Nanogenerators for Smart Textiles 200
6.3.3.1 Integrating with Energy-Storage Devices 200
6.3.3.2 Integrating with Energy-Harvesting Devices 201
6.4 Conclusions and Prospects 204
References 205
7 Nanocomposites for Smart Textiles 211
Nazire Deniz Yilmaz
7.1 Introduction 211
7.2 Classification of Nanocomposites 213
7.2.1 Nanocomposites Based on Matrix Types 214
7.3 Structure and Properties of Nanocomposites 215
7.4 Production Methods of Nanocomposites 216
7.5 Nanocomposite Components 218
7.5.1 Carbon Nanotubes 218
7.5.2 Carbon Nanofiber 220
7.5.3 Nanocellulose 221
7.5.4 Conducting Polymers 223
7.5.5 Nanoparticles 224
7.5.6 Nanoclays 225
7.5.7 Nanowires 226
7.5.8 Others 227
7.6 Nanocomposite Forms 231
7.6.1 Laminated Nanocomposites 231
7.6.2 Nanocomposite Fibers 231
7.6.3 Nanocomposite Membranes 232
7.6.4 Nanocomposite Coatings 233
7.6.5 Nanocomposite Hydrogels 233
7.7 Functions of Nanocomposites in Smart Textiles 234
7.7.1 Sensors 234
7.7.2 Antibacterial Activity 236
7.7.3 Defense Applications 236
7.7.4 Fire Protection 236
7.7.5 Actuators 236
7.7.6 Self-Cleaning 237
7.7.7 Energy Harvesting 237
7.8 Future Outlook 238
7.9 Conclusion 239
References 239
8 Nanocoatings for Smart Textiles 247
Esfandiar Pakdel, Jian Fang, Lu Sun and Xungai Wang
8.1 Introduction 247
8.2 Fabrication Methods of Nanocoatings 249
8.2.1 Sol–Gel 249
8.3 Sol–Gel Coatings on Textiles 252
8.3.1 Self-Cleaning Coatings 252
8.3.1.1 Photocatalytic Self-Cleaning Nanocoatings 252
8.3.1.2 Self-Cleaning Surface Based on
Superhydrophobic Coatings 259
8.3.2 Antimicrobial Sol–Gel Nanocoatings 263
8.3.3 UV-Protective Nanocoatings 266
8.4 Impregnation and Cross-Linking Method 268
8.5 Plasma Surface Activation 271
8.6 Polymer Nanocomposite Coatings 274
8.6.1 Flame-Retardant Coatings 276
8.6.2 Thermal Regulating Coatings 279
8.6.2.1 Phase Change Materials (PCMs) 279
8.6.2.2 Nanowire Composite Coatings 282
8.6.3 Conductive Coatings 286
8.6.3.1 Carbon-Based Conductive Coating 287
8.6.3.2 Metal-Based Conductive Coating 288
8.7 Conclusion and Future Prospect 291
Acknowledgements 291
References 291
Section 3: Production Technologies for Smart
Nanotextiles 301
9 Production Methods of Nanofibers for Smart Textiles 303
Rajkishore Nayak
9.1 Introduction 303
9.2 Electrospinning 305
9.2.1 Types of Electrospinning 306
9.2.1.1 Solution Electrospinning 306
9.2.1.2 Melt Electrospinning 308
9.2.2 Use of Electrospinning for Smart Textiles 313
9.2.3 Multijets from Single Needle 317
9.2.4 Multijets from Multiple Needles 317
9.2.5 Multijets from Needleless Systems 318
9.2.6 Other Potential Approaches in Electrospinning 319
9.2.7 Bubble Electrospinning 319
9.2.8 Electroblowing 320
9.2.9 Electrospinning by Porous Hollow Tube 321
9.2.10 Electrospinning by Microfluidic Manifold 321
9.2.11 Roller Electrospinning 322
9.3 Other Techniques without Electrostatic Force 324
9.3.1 Melt Blowing 324
9.3.2 Wet Spinning 326
9.3.3 Melt Spinning 327
9.3.4 Template Melt Extrusion 328
9.3.5 Flash Spinning 328
9.3.6 Bicomponent Spinning 330
9.3.7 Other Approaches 331
9.4 Comparisons of Different Processes 333
9.5 Conclusions 337
References 337
10 Characterization Methods of Nanotechnology-Based
Smart Textiles 347
Mamatha M. Pillai, R. Senthilkumar, R. Selvakumar and
Amitava Bhattacharyya
10.1 Introduction 348
10.2 Nanomaterial Characterization Using Spectroscopy 351
10.2.1 Raman Spectroscopy 351
10.2.1.1 Principle 351
10.2.1.2 Applications 352
10.2.2 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy 353
10.2.2.1 Principle 353
10.2.2.2 Applications 354
10.2.3 Ultraviolet UV–Vis Spectroscopy 356
10.2.3.1 Principle 356
10.2.3.2 Applications 357
10.3 Nanomaterial Characterization Using Microscopy 358
10.3.1 Scanning Electron Microscopy 358
10.3.1.1 Principle 359
10.3.1.2 Sample Preparation 359
10.3.1.3 Applications 360
10.3.2 Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis 361
10.3.2.1 Principle 361
10.3.2.2 Applications 361
10.3.3 Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) 362
10.3.3.1 Principle 362
10.3.3.2 Sample Preparation 362
10.3.3.3 Applications 363
10.3.4 Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) 364
10.3.4.1 Principle 365
10.3.4.2 Applications 366
10.4 Characterization Using X-Ray 367
10.4.1 X-Ray Diffraction 367
10.4.1.1 Principle 367
10.4.1.2 Applications 368
10.4.2 X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) 368
10.4.2.1 Principle 369
10.4.2.2 Applications 369
10.5 Particle Size and Zeta Potential Analysis 369
10.5.1 Principle 370
10.5.2 Applications 370
10.6 Biological Characterizations 371
10.7 Other Characterization Techniques 371
10.8 Conclusions 374
References 374
Index 379

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