Textile Engineering - An Introduction Edited by Yasir Nawab

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Textile Engineering - An Introduction
Edited by Yasir Nawab
Textile Engineering - An Introduction

Contents
1 Introduction 1
1.1 What is Textile? 1
1.2 History of Textiles 1
1.3 Status of Textiles in World Exports 3
2 Textile Raw Materials 7
2.1 Classification 7
2.2 Natural Fibers 7
2.2.1 Cotton Fibers 8
2.2.2 Flax 10
2.2.3 Jute 12
2.2.4 Other Vegetable Fibers 13
2.2.5 Wool 14
2.2.6 Silk 15
2.3 Man-made Fibers 16
2.3.1 Spinning of Man-made Fibers 16
2.4 Regenerated Fibers 17
2.4.1 Viscose Fiber 17
2.4.2 Acetate Fiber 18
2.5 Synthetic Fibers 18
2.5.1 Nylon 19
2.5.2 Polyester 20
2.5.3 Other Synthetic Fibers 20
2.5.4 Glass Fiber 21
2.5.5 Carbon Fiber 22
3 Yarn Manufacturing 25
3.1 Introduction 25
3.1.1 Yarn 25
3.1.2 Spun Yarn 25
3.1.3 Yarn Number 25
3.2 Yarn Production 27 

3.2.1 Lap 28
3.2.2 Sliver 28
3.2.3 Roving 28
3.3 Basic Preparatory Processes for Spinning Operations 28
3.3.1 Preparation of Cotton to Feed the Blow Room 28
3.3.2 Blow Room 29
3.3.3 Card 31
3.3.4 Difference Between Blow Room and Card Cleaning 33
3.3.5 Drawing 33
3.3.6 Lap Former 35
3.3.7 Comber 35
3.3.8 Roving Machine 37
3.4 Spinning Operations 39
3.4.1 Ring Spinning 39
3.4.2 Winding 40
3.4.3 Open End Rotor Spinning 41
3.4.4 Air Jet Spinning 42
3.5 Types of Yarns 44
3.5.1 Staple Spun Yarn 44
3.5.2 Monofilament Yarn 45
3.5.3 Multifilament Yarn 45
4 Fabric Manufacturing 47
4.1 Weaving 47
4.2 Warp Preparation Steps 48
4.2.1 Winding 48
4.2.2 Warping 49
4.2.3 Sizing 50
4.2.4 Drawing In 52
4.3 Weaving Mechanisms 53
4.3.1 Primary Motions 53
4.3.2 Secondary Motions 53
4.3.3 Stop Motions 53
4.4 Types of Shedding Mechanism 53
4.4.1 Tappet Shedding 54
4.4.2 Dobby Shedding 54
4.4.3 Jacquard Shedding 54
4.5 Types of Picking Mechanism 54
4.5.1 Shuttle Picking 54
4.5.2 Projectile Picking 55
4.5.3 Rapier Picking 55
4.5.4 Water Jet Picking 55
4.5.5 Air Jet Picking 55
4.6 Weave Design 56
4.6.1 Plain 56
4.6.2 Twill 56
4.6.3 Satin / Sateen 57
4.7 Specialty Weaving 57
4.8 Knitting 58
4.9 Comparison of Woven and Knitted Fabrics 59
4.10 Types of Knitting 60
4.10.1 Weft Knitting 60
4.10.2 Weft Knitting Machine Elements 61
4.11 Loop Formation Cycle with Latch Needle 63
4.12 Principle Stitches in Weft Knitting 64
4.13 Knitting Terms and Definition 65
4.13.1 Loop Parts 65
4.13.2 Technical Face and Back 65
4.13.3 Wales and Courses 66
4.13.4 Stitch Density 66
4.13.5 Stitch Length 67
4.14 Warp Knitting 67
4.14.1 Classification of Warp Knitting Machine 68
4.15 Applications of Knitted Fabrics 69
4.16 Nonwoven 69
4.16.1 Definitions 71
4.16.2 Nonwoven Products 71
4.16.3 Raw Materials for Nonwovens 72
4.17 Manufacturing of Nonwoven 73
4.17.1 Web Formation 74
4.17.2 Dry Laid Web 74
4.17.3 Wet Laid Web 76
4.17.4 Polymer Laid Web 76
4.18 Web Bonding 77
4.18.1 Thermal Bonding 78
4.18.2 Chemical Bonding 78
4.18.3 Mechanical Bonding 78
4.19 Finishing 80
4.20 Characterization of Nonwoven 80
5 Textile Processing 83
5.1 Introduction 83
5.2 Textile Pre-treatments 83
5.3 Singeing 84
5.4 Desizing 84
5.5 Scouring 85
5.6 Bleaching 86
5.7 Mercerizing 86
5.8 Heat-setting 86
5.9 Textile Dyeing 87
5.10 Dyes and Pigments 87
5.10.1 Acid Dyes 88
5.10.2 Azoic Dyes 89
5.10.3 Basic Dyes 89
5.10.4 Direct Dyes 89
5.10.5 Disperse Dyes 90
5.10.6 Reactive Dyes 90
5.10.7 Sulphur Dyes 91
5.10.8 Vat Dyes 92
5.10.9 Pigments 93
5.11 Dyeing Methods 93
5.11.1 Exhaust Dyeing 93
5.11.2 Pad Dyeing 94
5.12 Dyeing Machinery 94
5.12.1 Exhaust Dyeing Machines 94
5.12.2 Pad Dyeing Machines 94
5.13 Blends Dyeing 95
5.14 Textile Printing 95
5.15 Common Styles of Textile Printing 95
5.15.1 Direct Printing 95
5.15.2 Transfer Printing 95
5.15.3 Discharge Printing 95
5.15.4 Resist Printing 96
5.16 Common Methods of Textile Printing 96
5.16.1 Block Printing 96
5.16.2 Screen Printing 96
5.16.3 Roller Printing 96
5.16.4 Digital Printing 96
5.17 Main Steps in Direct Printing 97
5.17.1 Fabric Preparation 97
5.17.2 Print-paste Preparation 97
5.17.3 Printing 97
5.17.4 Drying 98
5.17.5 Fixation 98
5.17.6 Washing-off 98
5.18 Textile Finishing 98
5.19 Chemical Finishing 100
5.19.1 Softening 100
5.19.2 Stiffening / Hand-building 101
5.19.3 Easy-care, Wrinkle Recovery and Durable Press Finishing 101
5.19.4 Water Repellent Finishing 102
5.19.5 Stain Resistance Finishing 103
5.19.6 Stain or Soil Release Finishing 103
5.19.7 Flame Retardant Finishing 104
5.19.8 Anti-microbial Finishing 105
5.19.9 Bio-polishing 105
5.19.10 Moisture Management Finishing 106
5.19.11 Anti-static Finishing 106
5.19.12 Optical Brightening 106
5.20 Mechanical Finishing 106
5.20.1 Napping 106
5.20.2 Shearing 107
5.20.3 Sueding / Emerising 107
5.20.4 Calendering 107
5.20.5 Compacting 108
5.20.6 Relaxation Drying 108
5.20.7 Decatising 108
6 Clothing 111
6.1 Introduction 111
6.2 What is Garment / Apparel / Clothing? 111
6.3 Types of Garments 111
6.4 Global Apparel Industry 113
6.5 Structure of an Apparel Firm 114
6.6 Marketing Division 115
6.7 Finance / Admin Division 116
6.8 Manufacturing Division 116
6.9 Operations Division 117
6.10 Clothing Production 119
6.11 Sampling 119
6.12 Order Planning 121
6.13 Lay Planning 123
6.14 Spreading 125
6.15 Cutting 127
6.16 Numbering and Bundling 128
6.17 Stitching 129
6.17.1 Interlacing 130
6.17.2 Intralooping 130
6.17.3 Interlooping 130
6.18 Finishing 131
6.19 Packing 131
7 Technical Textiles 133
7.1 Introduction 133
7.2 Functions of Technical Textile 133
7.3 Categories of Technical Textiles 133

7.3.1 Agrotech 134
7.3.2 Buildtech 135
7.3.3 Clothtech 135
7.3.4 Geotech 136
7.3.5 Hometech 137
7.3.6 Indutech 137
7.3.7 Medtech 137
7.3.8 Mobiltech 138
7.3.9 Oekotech 139
7.3.10 Packtech 139
7.3.11 Protech 140
7.3.12 Sporttech 140
8 Textile Testing 143
8.1 Introduction 143
8.2 Quality Control 143
8.3 Standardization of Testing 143
8.4 Repeatability and Reproducibility 144
8.5 Sampling 144
8.5.1 Consignment 144
8.5.2 Test Lot 144
8.5.3 Laboratory Sample 144
8.5.4 Test Specimen 145
8.5.5 Package 145
8.6 Moisture Content & Moisture Regain 145
8.7 Standard Atmospheric Conditions for Testing 145
8.8 Testing of Fibers 145
8.9 Testing of Yarn 148
8.9.1 Linear Density 148
8.9.2 Direct System 148
8.9.3 Indirect System 148
8.9.4 Evenness of Yarn 149
8.9.5 Visual Examination 149
8.9.6 Cut and Weigh Method 150
8.9.7 USTER Evenness Tester 151
8.9.8 Yarn Hairiness 151
8.9.9 Tensile Strength 151
8.10 Types of Tensile Strength Testing Machines 152
8.11 Fabric Tests 152
8.11.1 Strip Test 152
8.11.2 Grab Test 153
8.11.3 Tear Tests 153
8.11.4 Elmendorf Tear Tester 153
8.11.5 Bursting Strength of Fabric 154
8.11.6 Weight per Square Yard (GSM) 155
8.11.7 Color Fastness to Perspiration 155
8.11.8 Abrasion Resistance of Fabrics (Accelerator Method) 155
8.11.9 Water Repellency (Spray Test) 156
8.11.10 Water Resistance / Impact Penetration Test 156
8.11.11 Air Permeability 157
8.11.12 Moisture Management Test 157
8.11.13 Colour Fastness 157
8.11.14 Thermal Transmittance of Textile Materials 157
8.11.15 Effect of Repeated Home Laundering on Textiles 158
8.11.16 Colour Fastness to Perspiration 158
8.11.17 Seam Strength 158
9 Disposal and Recycling of Textiles 161
9.1 Introduction 161 

9.2 Environmental Impacts of Textiles 164
9.2.1 Impact of Laundering 164
9.2.2 Impact of Dry Cleaning 165
9.2.3 Maintenance Chemicals 165
9.2.4 Emissions 165
9.3 Ecologically Beneficial Practices 167
9.4 Textile Recycling 168
9.4.1 Conversion to New Products 169
9.4.2 Wiping and Polishing Cloths 170
9.4.3 Landfill and Incineration for Energy 170
9.5 Methods of Recycling 170
9.5.1 Easy Recyclable Textile Products 171
9.5.2 Single Polymer Design 173
9.6 Easily Separable Components 173
9.7 Solid Waste Management 174
10 Quality Control and Quality Assurance 177
10.1 Introduction 177

10.2 Transcendental View of Quality 177
10.3 Product-based View 177
10.4 User-based View 178
10.5 Manufacturing-based View 178
10.6 Value-based View 178
10.7 Quality Control 180
10.7.1 On-line Quality Control System 182
10.7.2 Off-line Quality Control System 182
10.8 Quality Assurance 183
10.9 Quality Assurance Policies and Records 185
10.10 Need of Quality Assurance in Textile Industry 187
10.10.1 Main Objective 187
10.10.2 Major Responsibilities 187
10.10.3 Stimulate Research Effort 187
10.10.4 Identify and Address the Various Problems 188
10.11 Difference between Quality Assurance and Quality Control 188
11 Computer Applications in Textiles 191
11.1 Introduction 191
11.2 Industrial Applications 192
11.3 Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) 192
11.3.1 CAD 192
11.3.2 CAM 194
11.3.3 Other Areas ERP Helping 195
11.3.4 Machine Monitoring 196
11.3.5 Report Generation 196
11.3.6 Production Plan 196
11.3.7 Inventory Management 197
11.3.8 Maintenance 197
11.3.9 Machine Setting 197
11.3.10 Quality Management 197
11.4 Image Analysis 198
11.5 Data Mining 198
Index 201

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