Applications of Heat, Mass and Fluid Boundary Layers PDF by R.O. Fagbenle, O.M. Amoo, S. Aliu and A. Falana

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Applications of Heat, Mass and Fluid Boundary Layers
Edited by R.O. Fagbenle, O.M. Amoo, S. Aliu and A. Falana
Applications of Heat, Mass and Fluid Boundary Layers

Contents
List of contributors xiii
Preface xvii
Acknowledgments xix
1 Physics of fluid motion 1
O.C. Okoye, B.O. Bolaji
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 The basic equations of viscous flow 2
1.3 Momentum equation 6
1.4 Velocity slip and temperature jump 19
References 20

2 Mechanisms of heat transfer and boundary layers 23
Sufianu Aliu, O.M. Amoo, Felix Ilesanmi Alao, S.O. Ajadi
2.1 Introduction 23
2.2 Heat transfer 23
2.3 Modes of heat transfer 24
2.4 The boundary layer equations 29
2.5 Internal boundary layer flows 40
2.6 External boundary layer flows 40
2.7 Wake and jet boundary layers 42
2.8 Hydrodynamic boundary layer stability 43
2.9 Practical applications of boundary layer flow 48
2.10 Conclusions 52
References 52

3 On some basics of compressible fluid flows 55
Felix Ilesanmi Alao, Samson Babatunde
Nomenclature 55
3.1 Introduction 56
3.2 Fundamental assumption 57
3.3 Basic equations of compressible fluid flow 58
3.4 Entropy factors 63
3.5 A note on applications of compressible fluid flow 65
References 65

4 Boundary layer equations in fluid dynamics 67
Hafeez Y. Hafeez, Chifu E. Ndikilar
4.1 The continuity equation 67
4.2 The momentum equations 68
4.3 Coutte flow 70
4.4 Plane Poiseuille flow 71
4.5 Hagen Poiseuille flow (pipe flow) 72
4.6 Flow over porous wall 74
4.7 Flow between plates with bottom injection and top suction 75
4.8 Flow in a porous duct 78
4.9 Approximate analytic solution (perturbation) 81
4.10 Numerical solution 84
4.11 The boundary-layer equations 85
4.12 Influence of boundary layer on external flow 87
4.13 The flat-plate boundary layer 91
References 94

5 The Merk–Chao–Fagbenle method for laminar boundary layer analysis 95
R. Layi Fagbenle, Leye M. Amoo, S. Aliu, A. Falana
5.1 Introduction 95
5.2 Historical perspectives of series-based methods and the
Merk–Chao–Fagbenle (MCF) procedure 97
5.3 Mathematical formulations of the Merk–Chao–Fagbenle method 101
5.4 Forced convection flow over a sphere 119
5.5 Forced convection over sears’ airfoils 121
5.6 Consideration in forced convection (nonisothermal) boundary layer transfer 124
5.7 Consideration in mixed convection boundary layer transfer 127
5.8 Consideration for nanofluids and other extensions of the methodology 127
5.9 Conclusion 128
References 128

6 The spectral-homotopy analysis method (SHAM) for solutions of
boundary layer problems 133
S.S. Motsa, Z.G. Makukula
6.1 Introduction 133
6.2 The spectral-homotopy analysis method (SHAM) 133
6.3 Examples 137
6.4 Pros and Cons of the SHAM 146
6.5 Conclusion 147
References 147
7 On a new numerical approach of MHD mixed convection flow with
heat and mass transfer of a micropolar fluid over an unsteady
stretching sheet in the presence of viscous dissipation and thermal
radiation 149
S. Shateyi, G.T. Marewo
Nomenclature 149
7.1 Introduction 150
7.2 Mathematical formulation 152
7.3 Similarity analysis 153
7.4 Methods of solution 155
7.5 Results and discussion 159
7.6 Conclusion 172
Acknowledgment 175
References 175
8 On the bivariate spectral quasilinearization method for nonlinear
boundary layer partial differential equations 177
Vusi M. Magagula, Sandile S. Motsa, Precious Sibanda
8.1 Introduction 177
8.2 Bivariate interpolated spectral quasilinearization method 179
8.3 Results and discussion 183
8.4 Conclusion 188
Acknowledgments 189
References 189
9 Mixed convection heat transfer in rotating elliptic coolant channels 191
Olumuyiwa Ajani Lasode
9.1 Introduction 191
9.2 Governing equations for horizontal elliptic duct rotating in
parallel mode 194
9.3 Governing equations for vertical elliptic duct rotating in parallel
mode 199
9.4 Parameter perturbation analysis for horizontal elliptic ducts in
parallel mode rotation 201
9.5 Parameter perturbation analysis for vertical elliptic ducts in
parallel mode rotation 221
9.6 Discussion and conclusions of the effects of the variables on fluid
flow and heat transfer 225
References 230
10 Numerical techniques for the solution of the laminar boundary layer
equations 233
O.M. Amoo, A. Falana
10.1 Introduction – laminar boundary layer equations 233
10.2 Numerical methods – general background and the most important
techniques in the context of the laminar boundary layer ODEs 235
10.3 Application of different numerical methods for the solution of the
Blasius equation 241
10.4 Implementation of the shooting method for the solution of the
Blasius equation 249
10.5 Application of the finite-element method for one-dimensional
unsteady heat equation 253
10.6 Practical implementation of the finite-element method for
one-dimensional unsteady heat equation 254
10.7 Summary and outlook 256
References 258
11 On a selection of convective boundary layer transfer problems 259
Anselm Oyem
11.1 Introduction 259
11.2 Viscous dissipation and magnetic field effects on convection flow
over a vertical plate 259
11.3 Free convection mhd flow past a semiinfinite flat plate 263
11.4 Convection of non-darcy flow, Dufour and Soret effects past a
porous medium 265
11.5 Unsteady mhd convective flow with thermophoresis of particles
past a vertical surface 268
11.6 Thermal conductivity effects on compressible boundary layer flow
over a vertical plate 274
11.7 Conclusion 278
References 278
12 Advanced fluids – a review of nanofluid transport and its
applications 281
Leye M. Amoo, R. Layi Fagbenle
12.1 Introduction 281
12.2 Current understanding of nanofluids 285
12.3 Classes of nanofluids 289
12.4 Thermophysical properties of nanofluids 324
12.5 Convective heat transfer of nanofluids 332
12.6 Global nanofluid research – developments, policy perspectives,
and patents 344
12.7 Applications of nanofluids 345
12.8 Research gaps and outlook 354
12.9 Conclusion 355
References 357

13 On a selection of the applications of thermodynamics 383
L.M. Amoo
13.1 Introduction 383
13.2 Internal combustion engines – Otto and Diesel cycles 383
13.3 Electrical power generation – ideal basic Rankine cycle 388
13.4 Refrigeration systems – ideal vapor compression refrigeration cycle 391
13.5 Gas turbine systems – ideal air-standard Brayton cycle 394
13.6 Desiccant and subcooling dehumidification 398
13.7 Evaporative cooling 402
13.8 Entropy generation in boundary layer flow and heat transfer 406
13.9 Conclusions 410
References 410

14 Overview of non-Newtonian boundary layer flows and heat transfer 413
Leye M. Amoo, R. Layi Fagbenle
14.1 Introduction 413
14.2 Background 413
14.3 A note on current research status and applications of
non-Newtonian fluids 428
14.4 Future directions 432
References 432

15 Climate change in developing nations of the world 437
Leye M. Amoo, R. Layi Fagbenle
15.1 Introduction 437
15.2 Climate change 438
15.3 Anthropogenic influences on climate change 440
15.4 Greenhouse gases (GHGs) 442
15.5 Earth’s energy budget 444
15.6 Some climate change trends 444
15.7 Climate change and the transport sector 446
15.8 Climate change and the industrial sector 447
15.9 Climate change mitigation and adaptation 447
15.10 Climate change and conflict 449
15.11 Climate change and agriculture 449
15.12 The role and integration of renewable energy technologies 451
15.13 Climate changes in China 453
15.14 Climate changes in Malaysia 454
15.15 Climate changes in Nigeria 457
15.16 Climate changes in Brazil 459
15.17 Climate changes in India 460
15.18 Climate changes in South Africa 462
15.19 Climate changes in Ecuador 464
15.20 Conclusion 465
References 466

A Some mathematical background of fluid mechanics 473
Felix Ilesanmi Alao, Samson Babatunde, Zounaki Ongodiebi
References 488
B Some fundamentals of fluid mechanics 491
Zounaki Ongodiebi
B.1 Types of fluid flow 491
B.2 Flow visualization 493
References 495
Index 497

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