Flexible and Wearable Electronics for Smart Clothing pdf Edited by GangWang, Chengyi Hou and HongzhiWang

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Flexible and Wearable Electronics for Smart Clothing
Edited by GangWang, Chengyi Hou and HongzhiWang
Flexible andWearable Electronics for Smart Clothing

Contents
Preface xiii
Part I Sensing 1
1 Wearable Organic Nano-sensors 3
Wei Huang, Liangwen Feng, GangWang, and Elsa Reichmanis
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Wearable Organic Sensors Based on Different Device Architectures 4
1.2.1 Resistor-Based Sensors 5
1.2.1.1 Definitions and Important Parameters 5
1.2.1.2 Materials and Applications 5
1.2.2 Organic Field-Effect Transistor Based Sensors 11
1.2.2.1 Definitions and Important Parameters 11
1.2.2.2 Strategy and Applications 11
1.2.3 Electrochemical Sensors 17
1.2.3.1 Definitions and Important Parameters 17
1.2.3.2 Strategy and Applications 17
1.2.4 Diode-Based Sensors 20
1.2.4.1 Definitions and Important Parameters 20
1.2.4.2 Strategy and Applications 20
1.2.5 Other Devices and System Integration 21
1.3 Summary and Perspective 24
References 25

2 Stimuli-Responsive Electronic Skins 29
Zhouyue Lei and PeiyiWu
2.1 Introduction 29
2.2 Materials for Electronic Skins 29
2.2.1 Liquid Metals 30
2.2.2 Hydrogels 30
2.2.3 Ionogels 33
2.2.4 Elastomers 33
2.2.5 Conductive Polymers 34
2.2.6 Inorganic Materials 34
2.3 Stimuli-Responsive Behaviors 35
2.3.1 Electrical Signals in Response to Environmental Stimuli 35
2.3.2 Stimuli-Responsive Self-healing 37
2.3.3 Stimuli-Responsive Optical Appearances 38
2.3.4 Stimuli-Responsive Actuations 40
2.3.5 Improved Processability Based on Stimuli-Responsive Behaviors 40
2.4 Understanding the Mechanism of Stimuli-Responsive Materials
Applied for Electronic Skins 41
2.5 Conclusion 44
References 45

3 Flexible Thermoelectrics and Thermoelectric Textiles 49
Fei Jiao
3.1 Introduction 49
3.2 Thermoelectricity and Thermoelectric Materials 49
3.3 Thermoelectric Generators 51
3.4 WearableThermoelectric Generators for Smart Clothing 53
3.4.1 FlexibleThermoelectrics 54
3.4.1.1 Inorganic Thermoelectric Materials Related 54
3.4.1.2 Organic Thermoelectric Materials Related 56
3.4.1.3 Carbon-BasedThermoelectric Materials Related 58
3.4.2 Fiber and Textile RelatedThermoelectrics 60
3.5 Prospects and Challenges 63
References 64

Part II Energy 67
4 Textile Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Energy
Harvesting 69
Xiong Pu
4.1 Introduction 69
4.2 Fundamentals of Triboelectric Nanogenerators (TENGs) 70
4.2.1 Theoretical Origin of TENGs 70
4.2.2 FourWorking Modes 71
4.2.3 Materials for TENGs 72
4.3 Progresses in Textile TENGs 73
4.3.1 Materials for Textile TENGs 74
4.3.2 Fabrication Processes for Textile TENGs 74
4.3.3 Structures of Textile TENGs 75
4.3.3.1 1D Fiber TENGs 75
4.3.3.2 2D Fabric TENGs 77
4.3.3.3 3D Fabric TENGs 80
4.3.4 Washing Capability 81
4.3.5 Self-charging Power Textiles 83
4.4 Conclusions and Perspectives 83
References 85

5 Flexible andWearable Solar Cells and Supercapacitors 87
Kai Yuan, Ting Hu, and Yiwang Chen
5.1 Introduction 87
5.2 Flexible andWearable Solar Cells 88
5.2.1 Flexible andWearable Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 88
5.2.2 Flexible andWearable Polymer Solar Cells 93
5.2.3 Flexible andWearable Perovskite Solar Cells 98
5.2.4 Flexible andWearable Supercapacitors 104
5.2.5 Flexible andWearable Electric Double-Layer Capacitors
(EDLCs) 108
5.2.6 Flexible andWearable Pseudocapacitor 111
5.2.7 Integrated Solar Cells and Supercapacitors 115
5.3 Conclusions and Outlook 118
Acknowledgments 119
References 120
6 Flexible andWearable Lithium-Ion Batteries 131
Zhiwei Zhang, PengWang, XianguangMiao, Peng Zhang, and Longwei Yin
6.1 Introduction 131
6.2 Typical Lithium-Ion Batteries 131
6.3 Electrode Materials for Flexible Lithium-Ion Batteries 133
6.3.1 Three-Dimensional (3D) Electrodes 133
6.3.2 Two-Dimensional (2D) Electrodes 134
6.3.2.1 Conductive Substrate-Based Electrodes 134
6.3.2.2 Freestanding Film-Based Electrodes 136
6.3.2.3 Graphene Papers 136
6.3.2.4 CNT Papers 137
6.3.2.5 Fabrication of Carbon Films by Vacuum Filtration Process 138
6.3.2.6 Fabrication of Carbon Nanofiber Films by Electrospinning 140
6.3.2.7 Fabrication of Carbon Films by Vapor-Phase Polymerization 141
6.3.3 One-Dimensional (1D) Electrodes 141
6.4 Flexible Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Electrolytes 143
6.4.1 Liquid-State Electrolytes 143
6.4.1.1 Aprotic Organic Solvent 143
6.4.1.2 Lithium Salts 144
6.4.1.3 Additives 144
6.4.2 Solid-State Electrolytes 144
6.4.2.1 Inorganic Electrolytes 145
6.4.2.2 Organic Electrolytes 145
6.4.2.3 Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Electrolytes 146
6.5 Inactive Materials and Components of Flexible LIBs 148
6.5.1 Separators 148
6.5.1.1 Types of Separators 148
6.5.1.2 Physical and Chemical Properties of Separators 149
6.5.1.3 Manufacture of Separators 150
6.5.2 Casing/Packaging 151
6.5.2.1 Casing/Package Components 152
6.5.2.2 Casing/Packaging Structure 152
6.5.3 Current Collectors 152
6.5.4 Electrode AdditiveMaterials 153
6.5.4.1 Binders 153
6.5.4.2 Conductive Additives 155
6.6 Conclusions and Prospects 155
References 156
Part III Interacting 163
7 Thermal and Humidity Management for Next-Generation
Textiles 165
JunxingMeng, Chengyi Hou, Chenhong Zhang, Qinghong Zhang, Yaogang Li,
and HongzhiWang
7.1 Introduction 165
7.2 Passive Smart Materials 166
7.3 Energy-Harvesting Materials 171
7.4 Active Smart Materials 177
7.5 Conclusion 180
References 180
8 Functionalization of Fiber Materials forWashable Smart
Wearable Textiles 183
Yunjie Yin, Yan Xu, and ChaoxiaWang
8.1 Introduction 183
8.1.1 Conductive Textiles 183
8.1.2 Waterproof Conductive Textiles 184
8.1.3 Washable Conductive Textiles 184
8.1.4 Evaluation ofWashable Conductive Textiles 184
8.2 Fiber Materials Functionalization for Conductivity 185
8.2.1 Conductive Fiber Substrates Based on Polymer Materials 185
8.2.1.1 Dip Coating 185
8.2.1.2 Graft Modification 186
8.2.1.3 In Situ Chemical Polymerization 188
8.2.1.4 Electrochemical Polymerization 190
8.2.1.5 In Situ Vapor Phase Polymerization 190
8.2.2 Conductive Fiber Substrates Based on Metal Materials 191
8.2.2.1 Electroless Plating 191
8.2.2.2 Metal Conductive Ink Printing 196
8.2.3 Conductive Fiber Substrates Based on Carbon Material 197
8.2.3.1 Vacuum Filtration 197
8.2.3.2 Dip Coating 197
8.2.3.3 Printing 201
8.2.3.4 Dyeing 202
8.2.3.5 Ultrasonic Depositing 202
8.2.3.6 Brushing Coating 203
8.2.4 Conductive Fiber Substrates Based on Graphene Composite
Materials 203
8.2.4.1 Dip Coating 203
8.2.4.2 In Situ Polymerization 204
8.3 Waterproof Modification for Conductive Fiber Substrates 204
8.3.1 Dip-CoatingMethod 205
8.3.2 Sol–Gel Method 205
8.3.3 Chemical Vapor Deposition 206
8.4 Washing Evaluations of Conductive Textiles 206
8.5 Conclusions 208
References 209
9 Flexible Microfluidics forWearable Electronics 213
Dachao Li, Haixia Yu, Zhihua Pu, Xiaochen Lai, Chengtao Sun, HaoWu,
and Xingguo Zhang
9.1 Introduction 213
9.2 Materials 213
9.3 Fabrication Technologies 215
9.3.1 Layer Transfer and Lamination 215
9.3.2 Soft Lithography 217
9.3.3 Inkjet Printing 218
9.3.4 3D Printing 218
9.3.4.1 3D Printing Sacrificial Structures 219
9.3.4.2 3D Printing Templates 220
9.3.5 Fabrication of Open-Surface Microfluidics 220
9.3.5.1 Fabrication of Paper-Based Microfluidic Device 220
9.3.5.2 Fabrication of Textile-Based Microfluidic Device 223
9.4 Applications 223
9.4.1 Wearable Microfluidics for Sweat-Based Biosensing 224
9.4.2 Wearable Microfluidics for ISF-Based Biosensing 226
9.4.3 Wearable Microfluidics for Motion Sensing 228
9.4.4 Other Flexible Microfluidics 229
9.4.4.1 Soft Robotics 229
9.4.4.2 Drug Delivery 229
9.4.4.3 Implantable Devices 231
9.4.4.4 Flexible Display 232
9.5 Challenges 234
References 234
Part IV Integrating and Connecting 237
10 Piezoelectric Materials and Devices Based Flexible
Bio-integrated Electronics 239
Xinge Yu
10.1 Introduction 239
10.2 Piezoelectric Materials 240
10.3 Piezoelectric Devices for Biomedical Applications 242
10.4 Conclusion 247
References 247
11 Flexible and Printed Electronics for Smart Clothes 253
Yu Jiang and Nan Zhu
11.1 Introduction 253
11.2 Printing Technology 253
11.2.1 Non-template Printing 253
11.2.2 Template-Based Printing 256
11.3 Flexible Substrates 257
11.3.1 Commercially Available Polymers 257
11.3.1.1 Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) 257
11.3.1.2 Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) 258
11.3.1.3 Polyimide (PI) 260
11.3.1.4 Polyurethane (PU) 261
11.3.1.5 Others 262
11.3.2 Printing Papers 262
11.3.3 Tattoo Papers 265
11.3.4 Fiber Textiles 265
11.3.5 Others 268
11.4 Application 268
11.4.1 Wearable Sensors/Biosensors 269
11.4.2 Noninvasive Biofuel Cells 272
11.4.3 Wearable Energy Storage Devices 275
11.5 Prospects 281
References 281
12 Flexible andWearable Electronics: fromLab to Fab 285
Yuanyuan Bai, Xianqing Yang, Lianhui Li, Tie Li, and Ting Zhang
12.1 Introduction 285
12.2 Materials 286
12.2.1 Substrates 286
12.2.2 FunctionalMaterials 286
12.3 Printing Technologies 287
12.3.1 Jet Printing 287
12.3.1.1 Inkjet Printing 288
12.3.1.2 Aerosol Jet Printing 288
12.3.1.3 Electrohydrodynamic Jet (e-Jet) Printing 289
12.3.2 Screen Printing 290
12.3.3 Other Printing Techniques 291
12.4 Flexible andWearable Electronic Products 292
12.4.1 Flexible Force Sensors 292
12.4.2 Paper Battery 294
12.4.3 Flexible Solar Cell 295
12.4.4 Flexible Display 298
12.5 Strategy Toward Smart Clothing 299
12.6 Summary and Perspective 300
References 300
13 Materials and Processes for Stretchable and Wearable e-Textile
Devices 305
BinghaoWang and Antonio Facchetti
13.1 Introduction 305
13.2 Materials for e-Textiles 306
13.2.1 Conducting Materials 306
13.2.1.1 Metal Nanomaterials 306
13.2.1.2 Carbon Nanomaterials 307
13.2.1.3 Conducting Polymers 307
13.2.2 Passive Textile Materials 308
13.3 Device Applications 309
13.3.1 Interconnects and Electrodes 309
13.3.2 Strain Sensors 312
13.3.3 Heaters 318
13.3.4 Supercapacitors 319
13.3.5 Energy Generators 322
13.3.5.1 Thermoelectric Generators 322
13.3.5.2 Triboelectric Generators 323
13.4 Summary and Perspectives 325
References 327
Index 335

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