Handbook of Materials Failure Analysis: With Case Studies from the Electronic and Textile Industries pdf by Abdel Salam Hamdy Makhlouf and Mahmood Aliofkhazraei

10:48 PM
Handbook of Materials Failure Analysis: With Case Studies from the Electronic and Textile Industries
By Abdel Salam Hamdy Makhlouf and Mahmood Aliofkhazraei
Handbook of Materials Failure Analysis: With Case Studies from the Electronic and Textile Industries

Contents
List of contributors ................................................................................................ xiii
About the editors .................................................................................................. xvii
Preface ....................................................................................................................xix
Part 1 Electronics industries ............................................. 1
CHAPTER 1 Failures of electronic devices: solder joints failure
modes, causes and detection methods........................3
Mohammad A. Gharaibeh and
Abdel Salam Hamdy Makhlouf
1.1 Introduction ....................................................................................3
1.2 Thermal cycling..............................................................................4
1.3 Shock and vibration .......................................................................8
1.4 Failure detection methods in electronics industry.......................12
1.5 Conclusion....................................................................................14
1.6 Recommendations ........................................................................15
References.................................................................................... 16
CHAPTER 2 Electron beam radiation and its impacts to failure
analysis in semiconductor industry ........................... 19
Binghai Liu, Xiaoming Li, Younan Hua, Nan Cho,
Zhili Dong, Yuzhe Zhao, Kenny Ong and Zhiqiang Mo
2.1 Introduction ..................................................................................19
2.2 Impact of electron beam radiation damage during
SEM failure analysis ....................................................................22
2.2.1 SEM physical FA and low-k/ultralow-k dielectrics ......... 22
2.2.2 Electron beam radiation damage to low-k and
ultralow-k dielectric materials .......................................... 25
2.2.3 Control of electron beam radiation damage to
low-k and ultralow-k dielectric materials ......................... 30
2.3 Impact of electron beam radiation during FIB and TEM
failure analysis: radiation damage to LK and ULK dielectrics ....35
2.3.1 Electron beam radiation damage during electron
beam survey before focus ion beam milling.................... 36
2.3.2 Electron beam radiation damage during electron
beam coating before focus ion beam milling................... 37
2.3.3 Electron beam radiation damage during focus ion
beam milling for transmission electron microscopy
sample preparation ............................................................ 38
2.3.4 Electron beam radiation damage during transmission
electron microscope analysis ............................................ 40
2.4 Impact of electron beam radiation damage during TEM
failure analysis: radiation damage to silicon nitride ...................45
2.5 Impact of electron beam radiation damage during TEM FA:
boron diffusion and segregation induced phase and
microstructure changes in CoFeB material .................................55
2.5.1 Stage-I: The electron radiation_induced unilateral
amorphization of Co3Fe thin film .................................... 57
2.5.2 Stage-II: The electron radiation_induced
recrystallization in the amorphized Co3Fe thin film........ 60
2.6 Conclusion ....................................................................................65
References.................................................................................... 66
CHAPTER 3 Failure of intermetallic solder ball due to stress
shielding and amplification effects ........................... 71
E.P. Ooi, R. Daud, N.A.M. Amin, M.S. Abdul Majid,
M. Afendi, A. Mohamad and A.K. Ariffin
3.1 Introduction ..................................................................................71
3.2 Methodology.................................................................................72
3.2.1 Finite element modeling ................................................... 72
3.3 Results and discussion..................................................................77
3.3.1 The effect of distance (B) between two parallel
edge cracks........................................................................ 77
3.3.2 Multiple crack analysis—coplanar cracks........................ 78
3.4 Conclusion ....................................................................................82
Acknowledgment ......................................................................... 83
References.................................................................................... 83
Further reading ............................................................................ 84
CHAPTER 4 Assessment of failure of consumer electronics
due to indoor corrosion in subtropical climates....... 87
Armando Ortiz, V´ıctor Hugo Jacobo
and Rafael Schouwenaars
4.1 Introduction ..................................................................................87
4.2 Methods ........................................................................................89
4.3 Damage analysis...........................................................................90
4.4 Discussion.....................................................................................98
4.5 Conclusion ..................................................................................103
Acknowledgments ..................................................................... 103
References.................................................................................. 103
CHAPTER 5 Pb-free solder—microstructural, material
reliability, and failure relationships ........................ 107
Guang Ren, Maurice N. Collins, Jeff Punch,
Eric Dalton and Richard Coyle
5.1 Introduction ................................................................................107
5.1.1 Development of Pb-free solder alloys ............................ 107
5.1.2 Failure and microstructure .............................................. 108
5.1.3 An overview of the chapter ............................................ 109
5.2 Case study I—Pb-doped solder alloys.......................................113
5.2.1 Forward compatible mixing............................................ 113
5.2.2 Backward compatible mixing ......................................... 115
5.2.3 Lessons learnt from case study I .................................... 126
5.3 Case study II—First- and second-generation
Sn_Ag_Cu solder alloys ..........................................................128
5.3.1 Effect of ball grid array component ............................... 130
5.3.2 Effect of Ag content ....................................................... 130
5.3.3 Effect of dwell time ........................................................ 131
5.3.4 Effect of accelerated temperature cycling profile .......... 131
5.3.5 Microstructural evolution and failure mechanisms........ 131
5.3.6 Lessons learnt from case study II ................................... 135
5.4 Case study III—High-performance solders
(third generation)........................................................................135
5.4.1 Effect of micro-alloying on Sn_Ag_Cu....................... 136
5.4.2 Two commercialized alloys ............................................ 136
5.4.3 Lessons learnt from case study III ................................. 141
5.5 Case study IV—Low-temperature solders.................................141
5.5.1 Effect of substrate ........................................................... 142
5.5.2 Effect of micro-alloying ................................................. 142
5.5.3 Lessons learnt from case study IV ................................. 145
5.6 Conclusion..................................................................................145
References.................................................................................. 145
CHAPTER 6 The role of contamination in the failure of
electronics—case studies........................................ 153
W. John Wolfgong, Joseph Colangelo
and Jason Wheeler
6.1 Introduction ................................................................................153
6.2 Case studies ................................................................................154
6.2.1 Example 1—Contamination as a primary
cause of motor failures ................................................... 154
6.2.2 Example 2—Electrolyte contamination.......................... 165
6.3 Discussion...................................................................................175
References.................................................................................. 177
CHAPTER 7 Analytical solutions for electronic assemblies
subjected to shock and vibration loadings ............. 179
Mohammad A. Gharaibeh
7.1 Introduction ................................................................................179
7.2 Test assembly details .................................................................180
7.3 Experimental modal analysis .....................................................180
7.4 Finite element modeling ............................................................180
7.5 Analytical solution details..........................................................182
7.5.1 Free vibration .................................................................. 182
7.5.2 Forced vibration: harmonic loading ............................... 185
7.5.3 Forced vibration: shock loading ..................................... 187
7.6 Results and discussions ..............................................................190
7.6.1 Free vibration: natural frequencies and mode shapes .... 190
7.6.2 Forced vibration: harmonic loading ............................... 190
7.6.3 Forced vibration: impact loading.................................... 195
7.7 Conclusion ..................................................................................200
Nomenclature............................................................................. 201
References.................................................................................. 201
CHAPTER 8 Stress analysis of stretchable conductive
polymer for electronics circuit application............. 205
N.A. Aziz, A.A. Saad, Z. Ahmad, S. Zulfiqar,
F.C. Ani and Z. Samsudin
8.1 Introduction ................................................................................205
8.2 Experimental procedure .............................................................206
8.2.1 Sample preparation ......................................................... 206
8.2.2 Printing process of circuits ............................................. 207
8.2.3 Universal tensile testing.................................................. 207
8.3 Stress_strain analysis of substrate and conductive ink ............208
8.3.1 Neo-Hookean model ....................................................... 209
8.3.2 Multilinear plastic model ................................................ 209
8.4 Finite element analysis...............................................................209
8.4.1 Modeling and meshing of different printing
shapes models ................................................................. 210
8.4.2 Boundary conditions ....................................................... 212
8.4.3 Analysis using the simulation process............................ 214
8.5 Results and discussion................................................................215
8.5.1 Material properties of stretchable electronic
circuit material ................................................................ 215
8.5.2 Deformation behavior of stretchable
electronics circuit ............................................................ 216
8.5.3 Equivalent stress analysis of a thermal
sensor circuit design up to 10% strain ........................... 219
8.5.4 Effect of width in reducing the equivalent
stress in a thermal sensor circuit .................................... 220
8.5.5 Equivalent stress limitation when the load
is applied up to 10% strain ............................................. 221
8.6 Future recommendations ............................................................222
8.7 Conclusion..................................................................................222
Acknowledgments ..................................................................... 223
References.................................................................................. 223
CHAPTER 9 New methodology for qualification,
prediction, and lifetime assessment of
electronic systems.................................................... 225
Bey Temsamani Abdellatif
9.1 Introduction ................................................................................225
9.2 Improved reliability assessment method ...................................226
9.2.1 Prediction handbooks...................................................... 227
9.2.2 Life data analysis ............................................................ 228
9.2.3 Accelerated life testing ................................................... 228
9.2.4 Improved reliability estimation methods........................ 229
9.2.5 Prediction handbooks: FIDES rather than
MIL-217F ........................................................................ 229
9.2.6 Intelligent life data analysis rather than real
life data averaging........................................................... 232
9.2.7 [HALT1ALT] rather than ALT ................................... 234
9.2.8 Reliability block diagram tools and fault tree
analysis for complex systems ......................................... 236
9.3 Application examples.................................................................239
9.3.1 Electrolytic capacitors reliability analysis...................... 239
9.3.2 Demonstration of the combined methodology
on front light module ...................................................... 244
9.3.3 Supercapacitors reliability analysis ................................ 245
9.4 New trends to improve reliability analysis................................259
9.4.1 Mission profile ................................................................ 259
9.4.2 Online condition monitoring—case study...................... 260
9.5 Summary.....................................................................................267
9.6 General observations and conclusion ........................................269
Acknowledgments ..................................................................... 270
References.................................................................................. 270
Part 2 Textiles industries ................................................ 275
CHAPTER 10 Failure of yarns in different textile
applications............................................................... 277
Radostina A. Angelova
10.1 Introduction ................................................................................277
10.2 Staple yarn failure depending on the spinning method.............281
10.3 Yarn failure depending on the gauge length .............................285
10.4 Yarn failure depending on the strain rate ..................................286
10.5 Modeling of the yarn failure ......................................................287
10.6 Yarn failure in fabrics and composite structures.......................288
10.6.1 Yarn failure in fabrics................................................... 288
10.6.2 Yarn failure in composite structures ............................ 290
10.6.3 High-strength yarn failure............................................. 293
10.6.4 Failure of yarns from brittle
high-performance fibers................................................ 294
10.6.5 Carbon nanotubes yarn failure...................................... 295
10.6.6 Yarn failure in electronic textiles ................................. 296
10.7 Conclusion and future trends .....................................................297
References.................................................................................. 298
CHAPTER 11 Textile failure analysis and mechanical
characterization using acoustic emission
technique................................................................... 303
Carlos Rolando Rios-Soberanis
11.1 Introduction ................................................................................303
11.1.1 Textiles architecture...................................................... 304
11.1.2 Textiles-reinforced composites ..................................... 306
11.1.3 Acoustic emission technique ........................................ 307
11.1.4 Textiles mechanical and damage characterization....... 309
11.2 Conclusion ..................................................................................324
11.3 Future trends...............................................................................325
References.................................................................................. 326
Further reading .......................................................................... 327
CHAPTER 12 Treatment effect on failure mode of industrial
carbon textile at elevated temperature ................... 329
Manh Tien Tran, Xuan Hong Vu and Emmanuel Ferrier
12.1 Introduction ................................................................................329
12.2 Experimental work .....................................................................332
12.2.1 Equipment used............................................................. 332
12.2.2 Specimens...................................................................... 334
12.2.3 Loading paths................................................................ 335
12.3 Results ........................................................................................337
12.3.1 Elevated temperature behavior of
industrial textiles ........................................................... 337
12.3.2 Evolution of the thermomechanical
properties as a function of temperature........................ 340
12.3.3 Discussion ..................................................................... 342
12.4 Conclusions ................................................................................350
12.5 Future trends...............................................................................350
References.................................................................................. 351
Index ......................................................................................................................355

Preface
This handbook provides a thorough understanding of the reasons materials fail in certain situations, covering important scenarios, including material defects, mechanical failure as a result of improper design, corrosion, surface fracture, and other environmental causes. The handbook was divided into two main parts. Part I covers the failure analysis in electronics industries and contains nine chapters. Part II explores the failure analysis in textile industries and contains three chapters.

Part I begins with a general overview of the main failure modes of electronic devices and focusing on three main parts of the electronic packages, printed circuit board, integrated circuit, and solder interconnects. A full discussion on solder failure modes and causes was presented as well as common solder crack failure detection approaches were presented. Then, the handbook proceeds from a discussion of the failure analysis process, types of failure analysis, and specific tools and techniques, to chapters on analysis of materials failure from various causes.

In Chapter 2, Electron beam radiation and its impacts to semiconductor failure analysis by SEM, FIB, and TEM, the issues of the electron-beam radiation damage that are commonly encountered during physical failure analysis in the modern semiconductor industry by SEM, FIB, and TEM were discussed. The effects of electron-beam radiation on the phase, microstructure, and compositions of some typical electron-beam sensitive materials utilized in semiconductor devices, such as low κ and ultra-low k dielectrics, silicon nitrides and CoFeB ferromagnetic materials were discussed. Comprehensive technical solutions were proposed in order to minimize the electron-beam radiation damages during the physical failure analysis of these special types of materials.

Chapter 3, Stress shielding and amplification effect on intermetallic solder ball, discusses the stress shielding and amplification effect on intermetallic solder ball. Shielding and amplification effect between microcracks have been the unsolved problem in intermetallic solder ball failure. The interaction between multiple edge cracks in solder ball was investigated to quantify the effect of shielding and amplification on the crack driving force based on stress singularity approach. The effect of crack length between two parallel edge cracks on stress intensity factor was evaluated. The distance between the two parallel edge cracks plays an important role to reduce the shielding effect. It is concluded that when compare both shielding and amplification, the distance between the two crack-tip must be shorter to give better effect.

In Chapter 4, Assessment of failure of consumer electronics due to indoor corrosion in subtropical climates, the failure of electronics due to indoor corrosion in telephones subject to normal use in various climate zones was studied. High humidity combined with strong day_night variations in temperature was the most important factor in promoting corrosion, together with the presence of urban and industrial air pollution. Materials selection, with an abundance of galvanic cells in the electronic assembly, also promote rapid deterioration.

Chapter 5, Pb-free solder—microstructural, material reliability, and failure relationships, introduces Pb-free solder and the relationship between its microstructural, material reliability, and failure for electronic packaging applications. The establishment of near-eutectic Sn_Ag_Cu (SAC) alloys as replacements for eutectic Sn_Pb marked the beginning of lead-free solder alloy development in electronic packaging industry. Second generation lead-free alloys with lower Ag content were introduced to address the shortcomings such as poor mechanical shock performance and higher cost. Yet the evolution has not stopped. In response to higher reliability requirements, third generation lead-free alloys are being developed to serve the applications operated in increasingly aggressive environments. In this chapter, case studies on thermal fatigue performance of various SAC-based lead-free solders and Sn_Zn-based low-temperature solders have been made. The effect of solder size, solder composition, Sn grain morphology, PCB surface finish, and thermal cycling profile on solder joint microstructure and reliability was evaluated. The relationship between microstructural evolution and thermal fatigue failure mechanism was discussed.

Chapter 6, The role of contamination in the failure of electronics—case studies, provides several case studies about the role of contamination such as water, dust, or metallic debris in failures of electronics. Some examples were given which highlight the role of electrolyte contamination (ionic salts and related chemicals) leading to electronics failures. Remediation was also discussed with regards to resolution of the cited examples.

Chapter 7, Analytical solutions for electronic assemblies subjected to shock and vibration loadings, introduces an analytical solution to solve for the dynamic problem of electronic assemblies subjected to shock and vibration loadings. The solution was first formulated to obtain the free vibration characteristics, that is, first natural frequency and mode shape, of the electronic assembly. Consequently, it was used to solve for the forced vibration problems of shock/impact and harmonic base excitations. The results of this analytical model were correlated with experimentally measured and finite element analysis data. Finally, the results of this solution were employed to examine the effect of the geometric and material configurations of the electronic structure on the fatigue performance of electronic products subjected to mechanical shock and harmonic vibrations.

Because of the lack of information regarding the reliability of stretchable electronic circuits, Chapter 8, Stress analysis of stretchable conductive polymer for electronics circuit application, presents the stress analysis of these circuits using a polymer material of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as the substrate and a new formulated Ag flakes blends with PDMS (Ag_PDMS) conductive ink. The mechanical properties were characterized using Neo_Hookean model for substrate and multilinear plastic model for conductive ink. Different geometries of stretchable electronic circuit were modeled and analyzed under static structural analysis in simulation. The structural analyses were conducted on a real prototype of thermal sensor circuit application. The structural integrity of the circuit under different geometries, loadings, and materials was assessed by investigating the deformation behavior of the circuit. The obtained results show that the critical area for stress concentration depends on the loading direction to the circuit printing.

Chapter 9, New methodology for qualification, prediction, and lifetime assessment of electronic systems, introduces new methodology for qualification, prediction, and lifetime assessment of electronic systems. The chapter addresses the physics of failure of some critical electronic components in modern industrial systems and assess their effects on system’s reliability. A new methodology combining “conventional” reliability analysis and physics of failure analysis was illustrated for overall reliability and lifetime analysis in components and system level. Some examples of how such analysis could be used by industries to optimize a design or select optimal components maximizing system’s reliability was provided. The new trends to improve reliability analysis, such as online mission profile measurements, online condition monitoring were discussed.

Part II is dedicated to discussing the failure analysis in textiles industries. Chapter 10, Failure of yarns in different textile applications, provides a comprehensive discussion about the failure of yarns in different textile applications. The yarns made of fibers or filaments can be subject of different bending forces, extreme load or dynamic elongation stress. Thus the failure of the yarns can influence the reliability of the textile macrostructures. The chapter presents state of the art in research in yarn failure. The problems of the spinning method applied to consolidate the fiber bundle, the gauge length, and the strain rate on the yarn failure were discussed. Problems of the yarn failure in different types of textile macrostructures, applied as technical textiles, composites, e-textiles, were also discussed.

In Chapter 11, Textile failure analysis and mechanical behavior characterization by using acoustic emission technique, damage mechanisms and mechanical performance in structural applications textiles have been a major concern in textiles industry. The chapter presents deep discussion about the use of acoustic emission technique for textile failure analysis and characterization of their mechanical behavior. This chapter discussed the actual cases in which textiles of different architecture were used to manufacture epoxy-based composites in order to study failure events under different external load such as tension and bending. The effects of the textile architecture/geometry on the mechanical behavior and damage process were discussed.

Chapter 12, Treatment effect on failure mode of industrial carbon textile at elevated temperature, provides a detailed study on the effect of treatment using epoxy resin and amorphous silica on the failure mode of industrial carbon textile at high temperature. The chapter presents an experimental study on the thermomechanical tensile behavior of three different industrial carbon textiles at high temperatures ranging from 25_C to 600_C. Three industrial carbon textiles were treated in manufacturing chain with different products in nature as coating (epoxy resin with different ratios and amorphous silica).

This handbook explores many real-world failure cases and case studies covering a wide spectrum of materials failure in electronics and textiles applications. The editors thank all the contributors for their excellent chapter contributions to this handbook, their hard work and patience during preparation and production of the book. We sincerely hope that the publication of this handbook will help people from industry and academia to get the maximum benefits from the experience contained in the published chapters.

It is US$10. To get this book send email: textileebooks@gmail.com

Share This

Related Posts

Previous
Next Post »