Handbook on Fabric Manufacturing: Grey Fabrics: Preparation, Weaving to Marketing PDF by B. Purushothama

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Handbook on Fabric Manufacturing: Grey Fabrics: Preparation, Weaving to Marketing
by B. Purushothama
Handbook on Fabric Manufacturing: Grey Fabrics: Preparation, Weaving to Marketing

Contents
Preface iii
1 Activities in a fabric manufacturing unit 1
1.1 Introduction 1
2 Cone winding 4
2.1 Winding 4
2.1.1 Purpose of cone winding 6
2.1.2 What cone winding should do? 7
2.1.3 What cone winding should not do? 8
2.2 General activities in cone winding 8
2.3 Knowledge required for cone winding 9
2.4 Control points and check points 10
2.4.1 Control points in cone winding 10
2.4.2 Check points at cone winding 10
2.5 Normal problems in winding 13
2.5.1 Improper splicing 13
2.5.2 Electronic Yarn Clearer (EYC) failures 14
2.5.3 Double end 14
2.5.4 Stitches 14
2.5.5 Soft/bulged cones 14
2.5.6 Sunken nose/base 14
2.5.7 Weight variation between cones 14
2.5.8 Shade variation within cones 15
2.5.9 Wrong cone tip or cone label 15
2.6 Dos and don’ts for cone winding 15
2.6.1 Dos 15
2.6.2 Don’ts 16
2.7 Responsibilities of supervisor in winding 17
2.8 Authorities of supervisor in winding 18
2.9 Some hints for better performance 18
2.10 Applicable formulae 18
2.10.1 Method of working out expected production, efficiency and workloads 18

3 Winding–yarn dyeing section 21
3.1 Purpose 21
3.1.1 Purpose of soft winding 21
3.1.2 Purpose of hard winding of dyed yarn 23
3.2 General activities in winding 25
3.2.1 Soft winding 25
3.2.2 Hard winding 25
3.3 Knowledge required for cone winding 25
3.4 Routine activities of winding supervisor 26
3.4.1 Activity specific to soft winding 27
3.4.2 Activities specific to hard winding 27
3.5 Control points and check points 28
3.5.1 Control points for soft winding 28
3.5.2. Check points for soft inding 29
3.5.3 Control points in dyed yarn winding 31
3.5.4 Check points in dyed yarn winding 32
3.6 Normal problems 35
3.6.1 Problems in oft winding 35
3.6.2 Problems in dyed yarn winding (hard winding) 35
3.7 Dos and Don’ts 36
3.7.1 Dos 36
3.7.2 Don’ts 38
3.8 Responsibilities of supervisor in winding 39
3.9 Authorities of winding supervisor 40
3.10 Some hints for better performance 40
3.11 Applicable formulae 40
3.11.1 Working out production and work loads 41

4 Quest for ideal yarn dye package 44
4.1 Winding of soft package for dyeing 44
4.1.1 Crossing or winding angle 44
4.1.2 Winding ratio 45
4.1.3 Package stability 45
4.2 The package 45
4.2.1 Package holder (yarn holding tube) 46
4.2.2 SS dye springs 46
4.2.3 Perforated cones 46
4.2.4 Perforated plastic and SS dye tubes 47
4.2.5 Package weight and density 48
4.3 Conventional or random winding machines 48
4.3.1 Patterning or ribbon formation and hard edges 49
4.3.2 Hard edge formation 50
4.3.3 Traverse of the package 50
4.3.4 Weight release mechanism 50
4.3.5 Length measuring device 50
4.3.6 Balloon breaker 50
4.3.7 Yarn tension controlling 50
4.3.8 Winding speed 51
4.4 Ideal dye package 51
4.4.1 Requirements for a good dye package 51
4.4.2 Dyeing related requirements 51
4.4.3 Requirements from downstream processing and quality control 52
4.5 Principles of winding 52
4.5.1 Random winding 52
4.5.2 Precision winding 53
4.5.3 Step-precision winding: (DIGI winding or hybrid winding) 54
4.5.4 Resulting packages – packages that conform to requirements 54
4.5.5 Packages that do not conform to requirements 55
4.6 Main features of dye package machines 56
4.7 How to calculate the package density? 57 

5 HTHP yarn dyeing 59
5.1 Introduction 59
5.2 Purpose of yarn dyeing on HTHP machine 60
5.2.1 What HTHP yarn dyeing should do? 61
5.2.2 What HTHP yarn dyeing should not do? 61
5.3 General activities of Yarn dyeing in HTHP machine 61
5.3.1 Standard operating procedure 62
5.4 Knowledge required for HTHP dyeing 65
5.5 Routine activities of yarn dyeing supervisor 65
5.5.1 Activity specific to loading and unloading 66
5.6 Control points and check points 67
5.6.1 Control points for yarn dyeing 67
5.6.2 Check points in arn dyeing 68
5.7 Normal problems in yarn dyeing 71
5.7.1 Shade variation within cheeses 71
5.7.2 Shade variation between cheeses 71
5.7.3 Uneven dyeing 72
5.7.4 Stains 72
5.7.5 Improper shade or tonal difference between lots 72
5.7.6 Poor fastness properties 72
5.7.7 Brittle yarn 72
5.7.8 Strength drop after dyeing/bleaching 72
5.7.9 Hard packages after rewinding 73
5.8 Dos and don’ts for supervisor 73
5.8.1 Dos 73
5.8.2 Don’ts 74
5.9 Responsibilities of supervisor in yarn dyeing 75
5.10 Authorities of yarn dyeing supervisor 75
5.11 Some hints for better performance 76 

6 Yarn singeing – yarn gassing 77
6.1 Yarn singeing 77
6.1.1 What Singeing should do? 78
6.1.2 What Singeing should not do? 79
6.2 Quality of singeing 79
6.3 General activities in yarn singeing 79
6.4 Knowledge required for singeing 79
6.5 Precautions to be taken for singeing 80
6.6 Control points and check points 80
6.6.1 Control points 80
6.6.2 Check points 81
6.7 Normal problems in yarn singeing 83
6.8 Dos and don’ts for singeing 83
6.8.1 Dos 83
6.8.2 Don’ts 83
6.9 Responsibilities of supervisor in singeing 84
6.10 Authorities of supervisor in singeing 84
6.11 Some hints for better performance 84

7 Yarn mercerising 85
7.1 Mercerising 85
7.1.1 Changes during mercerising process 86
7.1.2 Concentration, temperature and wet ability of mercerising lye 86
7.2 Purpose of yarn mercerising 86
7.2.1 What Mercerising should do? 87
7.2.2 What Mercerisation should not do? 87
7.3 Quality of Mercerising 87
7.4 General activities in yarn mercerising 88
7.4.1 Steps involved in one cycle of yarn mercerising 89
7.5 Knowledge required for mercerising 91
7.5.1 Significance of different steps in mercerising cycle 91
7.5.2 Precautions to be taken for mercerising 92
7.6 Control points and check points 92
7.6.1 Control points 92
7.6.2 Check points 93
7.7 Normal problems in yarn mercerising 95
7.8 Dos and Don’ts for mercerising 95
7.8.1 Dos 95
7.8.2 Don’ts 95
7.9 Responsibilities of supervisor in mercerising 95
7.10 Authorities of supervisor in mercerising 96
7.11 Some hints for better performance 96

8 Space dyeing of yarns 97
8.1 What is Space dyeing? 97
8.1.1 Warp printing 97
8.1.2 Hank dyeing 97
8.1.3 Space dyeing of cheeses 99
8.2 Purpose of space dyeing of yarn 99
8.2.1 What space dyeing should do? 100
8.2.2 What Space dyeing should not do? 100
8.3 Quality of space dyeing 100
8.4 General activities in yarn space dyeing 100
8.5 Knowledge required for space dyeing 103
8.5.1 Significance of different steps
in space dyeing cycle 103
8.5.2 Precautions to be taken for space dyeing 104
8.6 Control points and check points 104
8.6.1 Control points 104
8.6.2 Check points 105
8.7 Normal problems in yarn space dyeing 106
8.8 Dos and don’ts for space dyeing 107
8.8.1 Dos 107
8.8.2 Don’ts 107
8.9 Responsibilities of supervisor
in yarn space dyeing 107
8.10 Authorities of supervisor in
yarn space dyeing 108
8.11 Some hints for better performance 108
9 Warping 109
9.1 Purpose of warping 109
9.2 Different types of warping 110
9.2.1 Beam warping 110
9.2.2 Sectional warping 111
9.2.3 Draw-warping 111
9.2.4 Ball warping 111
9.2.5 Beam to beam rolling 113
9.3 What warping should do? 114
9.4 What warping should not do? 114
9.5 General activities in warping 115
9.6 Knowledge required for running warping
115
9.7 Control points and check points 116
9.7.1 Control points in warping 116
9.7.2 Check points in warping 117
9.8 Normal problems in warping 119
9.8.1 Variation in tension within and
between beams 120
9.8.2 Missing ends 120
9.8.3 Crossed ends 120
9.8.4 Poor quality of beam preparation 120
9.8.5 Production loss due to some cones running
out early 121
9.8.6 Pattern not proper 121
9.8.7 Lost end 122
9.8.8 Section mark 122
9.8.9 Draw back 122
9.9 Dos and don’ts for warping 122
9.9.1 Dos 122
9.9.2 Don’ts 123
9.10 Responsibilities of supervisor in warping 123
9.11 Authorities of supervisor in warping 124
9.12 Some hints for better performance 125
9.13 Applicable formulae 125
9.13.1 Method of working the expected production
and the workloads 125
10 Sizing 129
10.1 Definition and purpose 129
10.1.1 Definition of sizing 129
10.1.2 What sizing should do? 130
10.1.3 What sizing should not do? 131
10.2 Quality of sized beam 131
10.2.1 Performance assessment of sizing
is done by 132
10.3 General activities in sizing 133
10.4 Knowledge required for sizing 133
10.5 Control points and check points 134
10.5.1 Control points in sizing 134
10.5.2 Check points in sizing 135
10.6 Normal problems in sizing 138
10.6.1 High size pick up 139
10.6.2 Size pick up and fabric weight 139
10.6.3 Low size pick up 139
10.6.4 Uneven size pick up 139
10.6.5 Low elongation at break 140
10.6.6 High moisture content 140
10.6.7 Low moisture content 140
10.6.8 Excessive lappers 140
10.7 Dos and don’ts for sizing 140
10.7.1 Dos 141
10.7.2 Don’ts 142
10.8 Responsibilities of supervisor in sizing 143
10.9 Authorities of supervisor in sizing 144
10.10 Some hints for better performance 145
10.11 Applicable formulae 145
11 Basics of fabric structure 146
11.1 Weaves 146
11.2 Plain weave 146
11.2.1 Basic basket weaves 147
11.2.2 Other plain weaves 148
11.3 Twill weave 149
11.4 Satin/sateen weave 150
11.5 Leno weave 151
11.6 Honey comb weaves 152
11.7 Huck a back weaves 152
11.7.1 Waffle weave 153
11.8 Crepe weaves 154
11.9 Dobby fabrics 155
11.10 Jacquard fabrics 155
11.10.1 Types of Jacquard fabric 155
11.11 Pile fabrics 156
11.11.1 Uncut pile 156
11.11.2 Cut pile 156
11.11.3 Different types of cut pile fabric 156
11.12 Double cloth 157
12 Drawing-in 158
12.1 Purpose of drawing-in 158
12.1.1 What drawing-in should do? 158
12.1.2 What drawing-in should not do? 159
12.2 General activities in drawing-in 159
12.3 Knowledge required for drawing-in 160
12.4 Control points and check points 160
12.4.1 Control points 160
12.4.2 Check points 160
12.4 Normal problems in drawing-in 162
12.5 Dos and don’ts 163
12.5.1 Dos 163
12.5.2 Don’ts 164
12.6 Responsibilities of supervisor in drawing-in 164
12.7 Authorities of supervisor in drawing-in 165
12.8 Some hints for better performance 165
12.9 Applicable formulae 165

13 Weaving 166
13.1 Definitions and functions 166
13.2 Methods of shedding 168
13.2.1 Tappet shedding 168
13.2.2 Dobby shedding 171
13.2.3 Jacquard shedding 172
13.3 Types of shed 174
13.3.1 Open shed 174
13.4 Methods of weft insertion 177
13.4.1 Shuttle Looms 178
13.4.2 Projectile looms 179
13.4.3 Rapier (flexible and rigid) technology 181
13.4.4 Jet looms 182
13.5 Multi-phase loom 186
13.6 Multi-axial weaving technology 187
13.7 Weaving machines with embroidery unit 194
13.8 Multi-axis three dimensional (3D) woven fabric 195
13.8.1 3D orthogonal fabric 195
13.8.2 Multi-axis 3D fabric 197
13.9 Needle weaving technology 198
13.10 Measuring weaving loom shed performance 201
14 Weaving - shuttle looms 203
14.1 Purpose of shuttle loom shed 203
14.1.1 What shuttle loom shed should do? 203
14.1.2 What loom shed should not do? 203
14.2 Quality of loom shed 204
14.3 General activities of a shuttle loom shed 204
14.4 Knowledge required for running shuttle looms 205
14.5 Routine activities of shuttle loom shed supervisor 205
14.6 Control points and check points 207
14.6.1 Control points in loom shed 207
14.6.2 Check points in loom shed 208
14.7 Normal problems in loom shed 214
14.7.1 Yarn related problems 214
14.7.2 Loom related problems 216
14.7.3 Working related problems 221
14.8 Dos and don’ts for weaving 223
14.8.1 Dos 223
14.8.2 Don’ts 223
14.9 Responsibilities of weaving supervisor 224
14.10 Authorities of weaving supervisor 225
14.11 Some hints for better performance 225
14.12 Applicable formulae 225
15 Weaving - shuttle less looms 227
15.1 Purpose of shuttle less Loom shed 227
15.1.1 What loom shed should do? 227
15.1.2 What loom shed should not do? 227
15.2 Quality of loom shed 227
15.3 General activities of a loom shed 228
15.4 Knowledge required for running shuttle
less looms 229
15.5 Routine activities of loom shed supervisor 229
15.6 Control points and check points 232
15.6.1 Control points in loom shed 232
15.6.2 Check points in loom shed 233
15.7 Normal problems in loom shed 237
15.7.1 Yarn related problems 237
15.7.2 Loom related problems 238
15.7.3 Working related problems 242
15.8 Dos and don’ts for supervisor 245
15.8.1 Dos 245
15.8.2 Don’ts 245
15.9 Responsibilities of weaving supervisor 246
15.10 Authorities of weaving supervisor 247
15.11 Some hints for better performance 247
15.12 Applicable formulae 247
15.12.1 Expected production and work loads 248
16 Grey fabric inspection 250
16.1 Purpose 250
16.1.1 What grey inspection should do? 250
16.1.2 What grey inspection should not do? 250
16.2 General activities in grey inspection 251
16.3 Knowledge required for Fabric inspection 251
16.4 Control points and check points 253
16.4.1 Control points 253
16.4.2 Check points 253
16.5 Normal problems in grey inspection 255
16.6 Dos and don’ts for fabric inspection 255
16.6.1 Dos 256
16.6.2 Don’ts 256
16.7 Responsibilities of supervisor in grey inspection 257
16.8 Authorities of supervisor in grey inspection 257
17 Mending of Defects in Fabrics 258
17.1 What is mending? 258
17.2 Mendable and non-mendable defects 259
17.3 Stages of mending 260
17.4 Mending methods for woven fabrics 262
17.5 Mending a sweater 271
17.6 Typical procedure followed in a mill for mending 273
17.7 Care for fancy and special fabrics 274
17.8 Possible mending defects 275
17.9 Methods for removal of stains from fabrics made out of natural fibres 276
18 Final Inspection and packing of fabrics 280
18.1 Introduction 280
18.2 Receiving 280
18.2.1 Dos and don’ts for receiving 281
18.3 Mapping faults and cutting finished fabrics 282
18.3.1 Dos and don’ts for cutting 284
18.4 Good cutting 285
18.4.1 Dos and don’ts for good cutting 286
18.5 Book folding 287
18.5.1 Dos and don’ts for book folding 289
18.6 Packing 290
18.6.1 Dos and don’ts for packing 292
19 Folding of fabrics 294
19.1 Purpose of folding 294
19.2 Hand folding – warkata (वारकाटा) 294
19.3 Single folding machine 295
19.4 Double folding machine 296
19.5 Typical procedure for folding 297
19.6 Control points and check points 298
19.6.1 Control points 299
19.6.2 Check points 299
19.7 Dos and don’ts 300
19.7.1 Dos 300
19.7.2 Don’ts 301
20 Fabric Sampling and Presentation 302
20.1 Presentation of samples 302
20.2 Different types of sample presentation 303
20.2.1 Swatch cards 303
20.2.2. Memo samples 307
20.2.3 Sample hangers 310
20.3 Sample cutting machines 314
20.3.1 Manual sample cutting machine 314
20.3.2 Motorised sample cutting machine 315
20.3.3 Waterfall sample cutting machine 317
20.3.4 Slitter – Rewinder 317
20.4 Typical procedure followed for Sample preparation 318
20.5 Control points and check points 321
20.5.1 Control points 321
20.5.2 Check points 321
20.6 Dos and Don’ts 322
20.6.1 Dos 322
20.6.2 Don’ts
21 Textile marketing 323
21.1 What is marketing? 323
21.2 Marketing strategies 323
21.3 Competitive environment in marketing 324
21.4 Sales management 325
21.4.1 Distribution channels 326
21.5 Textile marketing 329
21.5.1 Marketing grey fabrics to process houses 329
21.5.2 Marketing finished fabrics to garment industry 331
21.5.3 Marketing finished fabrics in retail shops 332
21.5.4 Studying markets and booking orders for fabrics 335
21.5.5 Handling orders 336
22 Customer Services 339
22.1 Importance of Customer Services 339
22.2 Product development 340
22.2.1 Design and development 341
22.2.2 Single package yarn sizing 342
22.2.3 Developing warp sheet using single end warping machine 346
22.2.4 Developing desk loom samples 349
22.2.5 Monitoring the designing activities of yardage 351
22.2.6 Designing activity for bulk designing 352
22.2.7 First piece checking for design 354
22.2.8 Monitoring production hall of product development section 355
22.3 Production planning and control 356
22.3.1 Communicating and monitoring the production schedules 356
22.3.2 Preparing monthly and quarterly production plans and reserving required yarns 359
22.3.3 Production planning and control activity 360
22.4 Quality assurance 361
22.4.1 Yarn approval 361
22.4.2 Measurement of density of soft wound package 362
22.4.3 Sectional warping inspection 363
22.4.4 Sizing machine inspection 364
22.4.5 Process control in loom shed 365
22.4.6 Greige fabric audit 367
22.5 Market feedback and complaint analysis 368
22.5.1 Handling market complaints and taking actions 368
22.5.3 Handling situation in case of customer order cancellation 374
22.6 Controlling of non-conformance and taking corrective actions 375
22.7 Preventive actions 378
References 380
About the Authour 384

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