Mechanics of Fiber and Textile Reinforced Cement Composites PDF by Barzin Mobasher

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Mechanics of Fiber and Textile Reinforced Cement Composites
by Barzin Mobasher
Mechanics of Fiber and Textile Reinforced Cement Composites

Contents
Preface........................................................................................xvii
Author.........................................................................................xxi
Chapter 1 Cement-Based Composites—A Case for Sustainable Construction..........1
Introduction.............................................................................1
Cement and Concrete Production.....................................2
Current Trends...................................................................2
Structure of This Book..................................................................................................4
Textile Reinforced and High-Volume Content Cement Composites........................5
Development of Design Methodologies for Fiber Reinforced Composites..............5
Sustainability—The Main Driver for New Materials and Design Methods
Is the Economy of Construction System..................................................................6
References.....................................................................................................................6
Chapter 2 Historical Aspects of Conventional Fiber Reinforced Concrete Systems.....................9
Introduction...................................................................................................................9
Prehistoric Developments..............................................................................................9
Asbestos Cement......................................................................................................... 10
Hatscheck Process....................................................................................................... 12
Ferrocement................................................................................................................. 13
Cement Composites in Modular and Panelized Construction Systems...................... 13
Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete................................................................................ 14
Cellulose Fibers........................................................................................................... 17
Continuous Fiber Systems........................................................................................... 18
Thin Section Composites Using Textiles.................................................................... 19
References................................................................................................................... 19
Chapter 3 Ductile Cement Composite Systems...........................................................................23
Introduction.................................................................................................................23
Mechanics of Toughening...........................................................................................24
Macro-Defect-Free Cements.......................................................................................25
Ductile Composites with High-Volume Fiber Contents..............................................26
Extrusion.....................................................................................................................27
Compression Molding.................................................................................................28
Spin Casting................................................................................................................28
Mixing High-Volume Fraction Composites................................................................29
Composites Using Continuous Fibers and Textiles.....................................................30
Mesh Reinforced Cementitious Sheets...................................................................30
Pultrusion...............................................................................................................30
Matrix Phase Modifications........................................................................................ 33
Rapid Setting.......................................................................................................... 33
Fly Ash................................................................................................................... 33
Calcium Hydroxide Reduction....................................................................................34
Rheology..................................................................................................................... 35
Hybrid Short Fiber Reinforcement.............................................................................. 35
Hybrid Reinforcement: Woven Mesh and Discrete Fibers..........................................36
Conclusions.................................................................................................................36
References...................................................................................................................36
Chapter 4 Textile Reinforcement in Composite Materials........................................................... 41
Introduction................................................................................................................. 41
Terminology and Classifications Systems................................................................... 42
Fiber and Fabric Terminology........................................................................... 42
Composites........................................................................................................ 42
AR Glass Fibers..........................................................................................................44
Kevlar.......................................................................................................................... 45
Carbon Filaments and Yarns....................................................................................... 45
Textile Reinforced Composites...................................................................................46
Textile Fibers.......................................................................................................... 47
Textile Forms.......................................................................................................... 47
Monofilaments (25–200 μm, Continuous).............................................................. 47
Whiskers (<1 μm, Discontinuous)..........................................................................48
Textile Terminology...............................................................................................48
Scrims..........................................................................................................................49
Stitch-Bonded Fabrics.................................................................................................50
Leno Weave Technique............................................................................................... 51
Analysis of Woven Textile Composites....................................................................... 51
Composite Moduli in Textile Reinforcements............................................................ 53
Modeling of Textile Composites at the Representative Volume Level.......................54
Mechanical Strength and Damage Accumulation.......................................................56
References................................................................................................................... 57
Chapter 5 Single Yarns in Woven Textiles: Characterization of Geometry
and Length Effects...................................................................................................... 61
Introduction................................................................................................................. 61
Kevlar Fabric............................................................................................................... 61
Single Yarn Tensile Tests............................................................................................69
Weibull Analysis......................................................................................................... 71
References................................................................................................................... 74
Chapter 6 Introduction to Mechanics of Composite Materials.................................................... 75
Introduction................................................................................................................. 75
Volume Fraction.......................................................................................................... 75
Composite Density...................................................................................................... 76
Nature of Load Sharing and Load Transfer................................................................ 76
Computation of Transverse Stiffness.......................................................................... 78
Strength of a Lamina...................................................................................................82
Case Study 1: Matrix Fails First, σmu Governs............................................................83
Case Study 2: Four Stages of Cracking.......................................................................85
Laminated Composites................................................................................................88
Stiffness of an Off-Axis Ply........................................................................................88
Ply Discount Method...................................................................................................96
Failure Criteria............................................................................................................96
Maximum Stress Theory........................................................................................97
Interactive Failure Criterion, Tsai–Hill.............................................................97
References...................................................................................................................97
Chapter 7 Mechanical Testing and Characteristic Responses.....................................................99
Introduction.................................................................................................................99
Concepts of Closed-Loop Testing...............................................................................99
Components and Parameters of CLC........................................................................ 101
The Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) Controller....................................... 101
Actuators and Servomechanism................................................................................ 102
Hydraulic Actuators and Servovalves.................................................................. 102
Servohydraulic Testing Machines............................................................................. 103
The Electronics..................................................................................................... 103
Compression Test...................................................................................................... 104
Uniaxial Tension Test................................................................................................ 107
Flexure Test............................................................................................................... 108
Fracture Tests............................................................................................................ 110
Cyclic Test................................................................................................................. 110
Compliance-Based Approach.................................................................................... 111
Mechanical Performance—Test Methods for Measurement of
Toughness of FRC..................................................................................................... 113
Round Panel Tests..................................................................................................... 114
Fatigue Tests.............................................................................................................. 116
Impact Resistance...................................................................................................... 118
Restrained Shrinkage................................................................................................ 119
Aging and Weathering..............................................................................................120
References.................................................................................................................120
Chapter 8 Fiber Pullout and Interfacial Characterization.......................................................... 123
Introduction............................................................................................................... 123
Significance of Interfacial Modeling......................................................................... 123
Analytical Derivation for Fiber Pullout Fiber and Textile Composites.................... 125
Pullout Response in Elastic Stage (Stage 1)......................................................... 127
Pullout Response in the Nonlinear Stage (Stage 2).............................................. 129
Pullout Response in Dynamic Stage (Stage 3)..................................................... 130
Algorithm for Pullout Simulation............................................................................. 130
Single-Fiber Pullout Experiments............................................................................. 131
Textile Pullout Tests.................................................................................................. 132
Energy Dissipation during Pullout............................................................................ 138
Finite Element Simulation......................................................................................... 139
Fracture-Based Approach......................................................................................... 140
Strain Energy Release Rate....................................................................................... 140
Modeling of the Transverse Yarn Anchorage Mechanism........................................ 143
Finite Difference Approach for the Anchorage Model............................................. 145
Characterization of Interfacial Aging....................................................................... 147
Theoretical Modeling of Interfacial Aging............................................................... 148
Conclusions............................................................................................................... 148
References................................................................................................................. 148
Chapter 9 Fracture Process in Quasi-Brittle Materials.............................................................. 151
Introduction............................................................................................................... 151
Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics........................................................................... 152
Stress Intensity Factor and Fracture Toughness........................................................ 153
Fracture Process Zone............................................................................................... 154
Equivalent Elastic Cracks.......................................................................................... 155
Cohesive Crack Models............................................................................................. 157
Closing Pressure Formulations................................................................................. 158
R-Curve Approach.................................................................................................... 159
Derivation of R-Curves............................................................................................. 160
Alternative Forms of R-Curves................................................................................. 162
Stress–Crack Width Relationship............................................................................. 162
Stress Intensity Approach Using Fiber Pullout or Stress–Crack Width............... 165
Termination of Stable Crack Growth Range............................................................. 167
Toughening under Steady-State Condition................................................................ 168
Discrete Fiber Approach Using Fiber Pullout for Toughening................................. 168
Comparison with Experimental Results................................................................... 172
Simulation of Glass Fiber Concrete.......................................................................... 175
Compliance-Based Approach.................................................................................... 177
References................................................................................................................. 179
Chapter 10 Tensile Response of Continuous and Cross-Ply Composites.................................... 183
Introduction............................................................................................................... 183
Specimen Preparation............................................................................................... 183
(0/90) Composite Laminates..................................................................................... 187
(+45) Composite Laminates...................................................................................... 188
Compression Response.............................................................................................. 188
PP Fiber Laminates................................................................................................... 189
Flexural Response..................................................................................................... 190
Microstructural Damage and Toughness.................................................................. 192
References................................................................................................................. 193
Chapter 11 Inelastic Analysis of Cement Composites Using Laminate Theory......................... 195
Introduction............................................................................................................... 195
Stiffness of a Lamina................................................................................................ 195
Stiffness of a Ply along Material Direction............................................................... 196
Ply Discount Method................................................................................................. 199
Damage-Based Modeling Using a Nonlinear-Incremental Approach......................200
Failure Criteria for Lamina.......................................................................................203
Generalized Load Displacement for the Composite Response.................................203
Performance of Model: Simulation of Tensile Load.................................................204
Simulation of Flexural Results..................................................................................208
References................................................................................................................. 210
Chapter 12 Tensile and Flexural Properties of Hybrid Cement Composites .............................. 211
Introduction............................................................................................................... 211
Manufacturing Techniques and Materials................................................................ 212
Experimental Program.............................................................................................. 212
Specimen Preparation............................................................................................... 213
Flexural Three-Point Bending Tests..................................................................... 213
Direct Tension Tests............................................................................................. 213
Brittle Fibers......................................................................................................... 213
Ductile Fibers....................................................................................................... 215
Hybrid Composites............................................................................................... 215
Tension Results..................................................................................................... 216
Comparison of Injection Molding and Compression Molding............................. 218
Fracture Resistance Curves..................................................................................220
Conclusion.................................................................................................................223
References.................................................................................................................223
Chapter 13 Correlation of Distributed Damage with Stiffness Degradation Mechanisms.........225
Introduction...............................................................................................................225
Role of Microcracking Cement Composites in Tension............................................225
Tensile Response of Textile Reinforced Cement Composites...................................225
Crack Spacing Measurement.....................................................................................228
Imaging Procedures for Measurement of Crack Spacing.........................................228
Effect of Fabric Type................................................................................................. 231
Effect of Mineral Admixtures................................................................................... 233
Effect of Accelerated Aging...................................................................................... 235
Rheology and Microstructure................................................................................... 235
Effect of Curing........................................................................................................236
Effects of Pressure..................................................................................................... 237
Microcrack–Textile Interaction Mechanisms............................................................238
Conclusions...............................................................................................................240
References.................................................................................................................240
Chapter 14 Flexural Model for Strain-Softening and Strain-Hardening Composites.................243
Introduction ..............................................................................................................243
Correlation of Tensile and Flexural Strength from Weibull Statistics Perspective...... 244
Derivation of Closed-Form Solutions for Moment–Curvature Diagram..................245
Stage 1: (0 < β < 1) and (λ < ω)............................................................................249
Stage 2: 1 < β < α.................................................................................................250
Stage 3: β > α....................................................................................................... 252
Stage 3.1: β > α and λ < ω............................................................................... 252
Stage 3.2: β > α and ω < λ < λcu....................................................................... 253
Simplified Expressions for Moment–Curvature Relations........................................ 255
Case 2.1: 1 < β < ρ and 0 < λ < ω........................................................................ 255
Case 3.1: α < β < βtu and 0 < λ < ω....................................................................... 257
Crack Localization Rules..........................................................................................260
Algorithm to Predict Load–Deflection Response of the
Four-Point Bending Test............................................................................................ 261
Parametric Study of Material Parameters.................................................................262
Prediction of Load–Deformation Response..............................................................263
Steel FRC..............................................................................................................264
Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC)......................................................265
AR Glass and PE Textile Reinforced Cement Composites.................................. 267
Closed-Form Moment–Curvature Solutions for FRC Beams with
Reinforcement......................................................................................................269
Parametric Studies................................................................................................ 272
Conclusions............................................................................................................... 275
Nomenclature............................................................................................................ 276
Subscripts.............................................................................................................277
References.................................................................................................................277
Chapter 15 Back-Calculation Procedures of Material Properties from Flexural Tests............... 279
Introduction .............................................................................................................. 279
Case A: Tension Data Are Unavailable................................................................280
Case A1: Inverse Analysis of Load–Deflection Response of
Polymeric Fibers..............................................................................................280
Case A2: Inverse Analysis Load–Deflection Response of
Macro-PP-FRC (English System)....................................................................283
Data Reduction by the ARS Method and RILEM Test Method...............................284
Case B: Tension Data Are Available, Forward and Back Calculation.................286
Case B1: Glass FRC.........................................................................................286
Case B2: Simulation of Steel FRC...................................................................287
AR Glass Fiber Concrete..........................................................................................290
Comparison with the RILEM Approach................................................................... 291
Conclusion.................................................................................................................292
References.................................................................................................................293
Chapter 16 Modeling of Fiber Reinforced Materials Using Finite Element Method..................295
Introduction...............................................................................................................295
Model Concrete Structure with ABAQUS................................................................297
Implicit or Explicit Analysis Types......................................................................297
Element.................................................................................................................297
Quasi-Static Simulation........................................................................................298
Concrete Model in ABAQUS...............................................................................299
Calculation of Moment–Curvature Response......................................................300
Nodal Calculation............................................................................................300
Element Calculation.........................................................................................300
Implementation of the User Material Model........................................................302
Inverse Analysis of FRC...........................................................................................302
Finite Element Simulation of Round Panel Test.......................................................303
Simulation Result.................................................................................................303
Moment–Curvature Relationship for Rigid Crack Model........................................305
Modeling of Round Panel Test with Rigid Crack Model..........................................307
Elastic Range (Mα < Mcr)......................................................................................307
Plastic Range (Mα > Mcr)......................................................................................308
Prediction of Load–Deflection Response............................................................. 311
Summary................................................................................................................... 312
References................................................................................................................. 313
Chapter 17 Flexural Design of Strain-Softening Fiber Reinforced Concrete............................. 315
Introduction .............................................................................................................. 315
Strain-Softening FRC Model............................................................................... 316
Moment–Curvature Response................................................................................... 317
Bilinear Moment–Curvature Diagram...................................................................... 319
Allowable Tensile Strain...........................................................................................320
Ultimate Moment Capacity.................................................................................. 322
Minimum Postcrack Tensile Capacity for Flexure............................................... 322
Hybrid Reinforcement Conversion Design Chart................................................. 323
Deflection Calculation for Serviceability..................................................................324
Minimum Postcrack Tensile Strength for Shrinkage and Temperature.................... 325
Design Examples....................................................................................................... 326
Design Example 1: Slab on Grade........................................................................ 326
Equivalent Moment Capacity with SFRC, fc′ = 4000 psi (27.6 MPa).............. 326
Equivalent Tensile Capacity............................................................................ 327
Design Example 2: Equivalent Reinforced Slab with Various Steel Yield
Strengths............................................................................................................... 327
Step 1: Calculate Existing Moment Capacity Based on 1-Ft. Strip................. 327
Step 2: Calculate Normalized Ultimate Moment............................................ 328
Step 3: Determine Postcrack Tensile Strength Using Simplified Equation..... 328
Design Example 3: Simply Supported Slab with Serviceability Criteria............. 329
Ultimate Moment Capacity............................................................................. 329
Check Tensile Strain Limit.............................................................................. 330
Short-Term Deflection...................................................................................... 330
Stress Distributions.......................................................................................... 331
Design Example 4: Four-Span Floor Slab............................................................ 332
Moment Capacity............................................................................................. 332
Shear Capacity................................................................................................. 333
Design Example 5: Retaining Wall...................................................................... 333
Design Example 6: Design with Macropolymeric Fibers.................................... 335
Problem Formulation....................................................................................... 335
Proposed Approach......................................................................................... 335
Moment Capacity of a 7-In.-Thick Reinforced Concrete Slab........................ 335
Replace the Moment Capacity with Macropolymeric Fiber, fc′ = 4000 psi..... 335
Replace Tensile Capacity................................................................................. 335
Moment Capacity of an 8-In.-Thick Reinforced Concrete Slab...................... 336
Replace the Moment Capacity with Macrofibers, fc′ = 4000 psi..................... 336
Replace Tensile Capacity................................................................................. 336
Conclusions............................................................................................................... 337
References ................................................................................................................ 337
Chapter 18 Fiber Reinforced Aerated Concrete.......................................................................... 339
Introduction............................................................................................................... 339
AFRC Production...................................................................................................... 342
Density and Compressive Strength Relationship...................................................... 342
Flexural Response.....................................................................................................344
Pore Structure............................................................................................................346
References.................................................................................................................348
Chapter 19 Sisal Fiber Reinforced Composites...........................................................................349
Introduction...............................................................................................................349
Sisal Fiber Composites.............................................................................................. 351
Stress–Strain Behavior and Cracking Mechanisms.................................................. 351
Flexural Response................................................................................................ 353
Fatigue....................................................................................................................... 355
Fiber Matrix Pullout Behavior.................................................................................. 359
Tension Stiffening Model.....................................................................................364
References................................................................................................................. 367
Chapter 20 Restrained Shrinkage Cracking................................................................................369
Introduction...............................................................................................................369
Review of Drying Shrinkage Testing Methods.........................................................369
Plastic Shrinkage Cracking.................................................................................. 370
Restrained Shrinkage Cracking........................................................................... 370
Restrained Drying Shrinkage Test Methodology................................................. 371
Modeling Restrained Shrinkage Cracking........................................................... 373
Lattice Models................................................................................................. 375
Lamina Model................................................................................................. 376
Moisture Diffusion and Free Shrinkage............................................................... 376
Effect of Creep in Restrained Shrinkage Cracking.................................................. 378
Age-Dependent Concrete Strength........................................................................... 378
Equilibrium and Compatibility Conditions...............................................................380
Stress–Strain Development.......................................................................................380
Parametric Study.................................................................................................. 383
Comparison of Experimental Data and Simulations............................................ 383
Conclusions...............................................................................................................384
References.................................................................................................................384
Chapter 21 Flexural Impact Test..................................................................................................387
Introduction...............................................................................................................387
Experimental Program..............................................................................................388
Material Properties and Mix Design....................................................................388
AR Glass Composite........................................................................................388
Sisal Fiber Composites....................................................................................388
Drop Weight Impact Setup.............................................................................. 389
Dynamic Calibration.......................................................................................390
Results and Discussions........................................................................................394
AR Glass Composite........................................................................................394
Effect of Drop Height................................................................................................ 395
Effect of Number of Lamina and Specimen Orientation................................397
Energy Absorption...........................................................................................397
Sisal Fiber Composites......................................................................................... 398
Discussions................................................................................................................403
References.................................................................................................................403
Chapter 22 Textile Composites for Repair and Retrofit...............................................................407
Introduction...............................................................................................................407
Comparison of FRP Systems with Textile Reinforced Concrete..............................408
Experimental Program..............................................................................................408
Materials Tests..........................................................................................................409
Structural Tests..........................................................................................................409
Tensile Properties................................................................................................. 411
Structural Tests of Masonry Walls............................................................................ 413
Conclusions............................................................................................................... 415
References................................................................................................................. 416
Chapter 23 Retrofit of Reinforced Concrete Beam–Column Joints Using Textile Cement
Composites................................................................................................................ 417
Introduction .............................................................................................................. 417
Experimental Program.............................................................................................. 418
Material Properties............................................................................................... 418
Experimental Results................................................................................................420
Behavior of the Specimens...................................................................................420
Absorbed Energy..................................................................................................420
Total Energy.................................................................................................... 421
Dissipated Energy............................................................................................ 422
Recovery Energy............................................................................................. 423
Stiffness Degradation...........................................................................................424
Conclusions............................................................................................................... 425
References................................................................................................................. 425
Chapter 24 Dynamic Tensile Characteristics of Textile Cement Composites..... 427
Introduction............................................................................................................... 427
Dynamic Tensile Testing........................................................................................... 427
Dynamic Testing of Cement Composites.................................................................. 428
Experimental Methodology....................................................................................... 428
Fabric–Cement Composites............................................................................. 428
Dynamic Loading Devices and Technique.......................................................... 429
Data Processing Method for Dynamic Tensile Testing........................................ 429
Dynamic Characterization............................................................................... 429
Results and Discussions............................................................................................ 429
Unidirectional Sisal Fiber Reinforced Composite................................................ 429
Fabric Reinforced Composites............................................................................. 431
Cracking and Failure Behavior........................................................................ 433
Microstructural Features................................................................................. 436
Conclusions............................................................................................... 437
References................................................................................................ 438

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