Nanomaterials in the Wet Processing of Textiles pdf by Shahid Ul-Islam and B. S. Butola

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Nanomaterials in the Wet Processing of Textiles
By Shahid Ul-Islam, B. S. Butola
Nanomaterials in the Wet Processing of Textiles

Title page
Copyright page
Chapter 1: Functional Finishing of Textiles via Nanomaterials
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Antibacterial Textiles
1.3 Anti-Odor Textiles
1.4 Deodorant Textiles
1.5 Protective Textile Against Electromagnetic Radiation
1.6 UV-Protective Textiles
1.7 Water-Repellent Textiles
1.8 Self-Cleaning Textiles
1.9 Flame-Retardant Textiles
1.10 Wrinkle-Resistant Fabrics
1.11 Future Trends and Challenges of Nano-Based Textiles
Chapter 2: Antimicrobial Textiles Based on Metal and Metal Oxide Nano-particles
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Antimicrobial NP Used in Functionalization of Textiles
2.3 Application of NP onto Textile Substrates
2.4 Mechanism of Action of Inorganic NP
2.5 Nano-Toxicological Impact of NP on the Eco-System
2.6 Conclusion
Chapter 3: Nano-Zinc Oxide: Prospects in the Textile Industry
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Synthesis of Nano-ZnO
3.3 Application of Nano-ZnO onto Textiles
3.4 Properties of Nano-ZnO-Finished Textiles
3.5 Conclusion
Chapter 4: Application of Nanomaterials in the Remediation of Textile Effluents from
Aqueous Solutions
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Types of Dyes
4.3 Adsorption of Various Dyes on Nanomaterials
4.4 Conclusion
Chapter 5: Chitosan-Graphene-Grafted Nanocomposite Materials for Wastewater
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Chitosan–Graphene-Grafted Nanocomposite
5.3 Removal and Recovery of Environmental Pollutants
5.4 Conclusion
Chapter 6: Decolorization of Textile Wastewater Using Composite Materials
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Classification of Dyes and Their Toxicity
6.3 Decolorization of Colored Water
6.4 Sorption Technology
6.5 Recent Development in Adsorption Technology
6.6 Removal of Dyes Using Composites
6.7 Adsorption Mechanism
6.8 Conclusion
Chapter 7: Adsorption of Cr (VI) and Textile Dyes on to Mesoporous Silica, Titanate
Nanotubes, and Layered Double Hydroxides
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Mesoporous Silica (m-SiO2)
7.3 Titanate Nanotubes
7.4 Layered Double Hydroxides
7.5 Conclusion
Chapter 8: Ultrasonic Synthesis of Zero Valent Iron Nanoparticles for the Efficient
Discoloration of Aqueous Solutions Containing Methylene Blue Dye
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Materials and Methods
8.3 Results and Discussion
8.4 Conclusions
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List of Illustrations
Chapter 1
Figure 1.1 Photocatalysis mechanism of titanium dioxide [9].
Figure 1.2 Close-up of the TEM image of silver nanoparticles in different shapes and
sizes [5].
Figure 1.3 Chemical structure of a chitosan [6].
Figure 1.4 Odor-absorbing nanostructured materials.
Figure 1.5 The production process of a bamboo nanoparticle.
Figure 1.6 Odor-captured textiles with dandelion polymers.
Figure 1.7 Aroma nanocarriers.
Figure 1.8 Nanocapsule production methods [46].
Figure 1.9 SEM images of the finished cotton fabrics with aroma (a) and untreated
cotton fabric [49].
Figure 1.10 Basic dendrimer components.
Figure 1.11 The effect of ultraviolet radiation on human skin (positive effects on the
left and negative effects on the right).
Figure 1.12 Different shapes of drops on a textile substrate.
Figure 1.13 Scheme of the deposition chamber with Q-switched and substrate heating
laser [132].
Figure 1.14 Water-repellent effect of ®RUCO-DRY ECO on textiles [139],
Figure 1.15 SEM image of CNT coating on cotton fiber (a). Water contact angle on the
CNT-treated cotton fabric (b) [139].
Figure 1.16 Physical and chemical methods of anti-wrinkle finishing.
Figure 1.17 Some crease-resistant nano-agents for textile finishing.
Figure 1.18 Formation of linkages between BCTA/cellulose chains and BCTA/nano-
TiO2 [195].
Chapter 2
Figure 2.1 (a) Antibacterial finishing of cotton fabrics by pad-dry-cure, (b) TEM
micrograph of silver nanoparticles with a concentration of 500 ppm, Adapted with
permission from reference [86].
Figure 2.2 SEM images of coverless nylon: (a) 100x and (b) 15,000x, nylon fabric
covered by silver nanoparticles/BTCA (c) 15,000x and (d) 30,000x. Adapted with
permission from reference [160].
Figure 2.3 SEM images of cotton fabrics: (a) untreated and (b-d) treated with 35 ppm
of Ag2O. Adapted with permission from reference [179].
Figure 2.4 SEM images of the nylon fabric: untreated (a) 15000 × and treated with
copper nano-particles (b) 2000 x, (c) 20000 x, (d) 40000 x. Adapted with permission
from reference [198].
Figure 2.5 Mechanisms of toxicity of nano-particles (NP) against bacteria. NP and
their ions (e.g., silver and zinc) can produce free radicals, resulting in induction of
oxidative stress (i.e., reactive oxygen species; ROS). The produced ROS can
irreversibly damage bacteria (e.g., their membrane, DNA, and mitochondria), resulting
in bacterial death. Adapted with permission from reference [127].
Chapter 3
Figure 3.1 Different forms of nano-ZnO.
Figure 3.2 Methods for the synthesis of nano-ZnO.
Figure 3.3 Schematic diagram showing the in situ synthesis of nano-ZnO on the surface
of cotton fabrics. Reproduced with permission from [39].
Figure 3.4 Different mechanisms for the antibacterial activity of nano-ZnO.
Figure 3.5 Interaction of UV rays with a textile fabric.
Figure 3.6 Degradation of MB stains on cotton fabrics by nano-ZnO coating. The Xaxis
represents the concentration of nano-ZnO coating and Y-axis represents the time of
irradiation using a solar simulator. Reproduced with permission from [52].
Chapter 4
Figure 4.1 Classification of dyes.
Figure 4.2 Pictorial diagram of the chapter.
Chapter 6
Figure 6.1 Classification of dyes.
Figure 6.2 Unmodified adsorbent having hydroxyl groups.
Figure 6.3 Modified adsorbent having other groups.
Figure 6.4 Synthesis of g-Fe2O3/C and their activity for dye removal and degradation
(Adapted from Chen et al. [94] Copyright (2017), with permission from the Royal
Society of Chemistry).
Figure 6.5 (a): Schematic illustration of the extraction of QSM (Adapted from
Hosseinzadeh and Mohammadi [95] Copyright (2015), with permission from Elsevier).
(b) Schematic illustration of the QSM-MIONs formation and magnetic separation of the
nano-composites (Adapted from Hosseinzadeh and Mohammadi [95] copyright (2015),
with permission from Elsevier). (c) Schematic illustration of the formation of QSMbased
magnetic nanocomposites (Adapted from Hosseinzadeh and Mohammadi [95]
copyright (2015), with permission from Elsevier).
Figure 6.6 FTIR spectra of (a) AB93, (b) MB, (c) AB93 loaded cellulose-based
bioadsorbent, (d) MB-loaded cellulose based bioadsorbent, (e) cellulose-based
bioadsorbent, and (f) cellulose (Adapted from Liu et al. [96] copyright (2015), with
permission from the American Chemical Society).
Figure 6.7 Schematic drawing for the possible interactions between the bioadsorbents
and (a) AB93 and (b) MB dye molecules (Adapted from Liu et al. [96] Copyright
(2015), with permission from the American Chemical Society).
Figure 6.8 An example of a graphene layer and proposed mechanisms of methylene
green 5 adsorption onto biochar, synthesized activated carbon, and commercial
activated charcoal (Adapted from Tran et al. [97] copyright (2017), with permission
from Elsevier).
Chapter 7
Figure 7.1 Clinical/health problems due to Cr (VI) toxicity.
Figure 7.2 Adsorption of Cr (VI) and dyes on to mesoporous silica, TNTS, and LDH.
Figure 7.3 Roadmap for the scope of the chapter.
Scheme 7.1 Proposed mechanism for titania loading on MCM-41 and Cr (VI)
adsorption on TiO2-MCM-41 [Reproduced from reference 31].
Figure 7.4 Chemical structure of (a) methylene blue (MB), (b) Janus Green B (JGB),
(c) reactive black 5 (RB 5), and (d) dimethyl phthalate (DMP).
Figure 7.5 Different types of mesoporous silica with varying concentration of
surfactants and its monomer precursors (reproduced from reference [44]).
Figure 7.6 Chemical structure of (a) Rhodamine B (RhB) and (b) acid blue 62 (AB62).
Figure 7.7 Chemical structure of phenosafranine (PF), basic green 5 (BG5), basic
violet 10 (BV10), acid red 1 (AR1), and acid blue 9 (AB9).
Figure 7.8 Chemical structure of (a) Acid Fuchsine (AF) and (b) Acid Orange II (AO).
Figure 7.9 Chemical structure of (a) Malachite Green (MG) and (b) Rhodamine 6G
(Rd 6G).
Scheme 7.2 Schematic diagram of the synergetic adsorption of Cr (III) and Cr (VI) in
the binary system [Reproduced from reference 59].
Scheme 7.3 Schematic illustration of Cr (VI) adsorption–reduction mechanism onto
amino-functionalized titanate nanotubes (reproduced from reference 33).
Figure 7.10 (a) TEM images of TNTs. (b) HRTEM of the TNTs [Reproduced from
reference 61].
Figure 7.11 Chemical structure of (a) neutral red (NR) and (b) crystal violet (CV).
Figure 7.12 NiFe-LDH for Cr (VI) and methgyl orange (MO) dye adsorption [95].
Chapter 8
Figure 8.1 Chemical structure of MB.
Figure 8.2 XRD pattern of the synthesized nZVIUI particles. A ZVI single-phase can be
identified according to the JCPDS database.
Figure 8.3 TEM and SAED images of the nZVIUI particles.
Figure 8.4 Particle size distribution of the synthesized nZVIUI. The average particle
size is around 27 nm.
Figure 8.5 pH dependence of the zeta potential of nZVIUI. The zero charge point is
around 8.
Figure 8.6 Magnetic hysteresis loop of nZVIUI at T = 5K.
Figure 8.7 The absorption spectra of various concentrations varying from 5 mg/L to 20
Figure 8.8 Mechanism involved in the discoloration of MB under acidic conditions.
The electrons released by the oxidation of the surface layer of the ZVI nanoparticles
are used in the reduction of MB to the colorless LMB.
Figure 8.9 The UV-Vis adsorption spectra of the solution containing MB (25 mg/L) at
the beginning (a) and after treatment with nZVIUI (1 g/L) for 30 min under acidic
conditions, pH = 4 (b).
Figure 8.10 UV-Vis spectra of the reaction medium under initial pH = 7.5 after 5 min
(a), 30 min (b), and 24 h, being the NMs already separated from the reaction solution
Figure 8.11 Initial MB solution (25 mg/L) (left) and the solution after 30 min of
reaction under initial pH=7.5 using nZVI particles (1 g/L) (right).
Figure 8.12 Mechanism involved in the discoloration of MB under quasi-neutral
Figure 8.13 UV-Vis spectra of the reaction media under initial pH = 10, after 5 min (a),
after 15 min (b), and after 30 min (c) of reaction for the removal of MB (25 mg/L) with
ZVI NMs (1 g/L).

List of Tables
Chapter 1
Table 1.1 Lipid nanostructures [51].
Table 1.2 Sunlight wavelength properties that reach earth [79].
Table 1.3 Surface tensions and contact angles of conventional polymers in textile
Table 1.4 Several methods of production of self-cleaning textiles.
Chapter 3
Table 3.1 Multifunctional properties of nano-ZnO-finished textiles.
Table 3.2 Classification of textiles based on UPF.
Table 3.3 Classification of textile surfaces based on the water contact angle.
Chapter 4
Table 4.1 Maximum adsorption capacities of various nanomaterials toward different
Table 4.2 Adsorption parameters of different dyes onto various nanomaterials.
Chapter 5
Table 5.1 Permissible limits of metal pollutants in water and their effect in human
Table 5.2 A comparative study for adsorption capacity of Cr (VI) on different chitosangrafted
Table 5.3 Chitosan–graphene-grafted nanocomposite for wastewater treatment.
Chapter 6
Table 6.1 Some selective dyes and their structure.
Table 6.2 Various types of dyes.
Table 6.3 Methods used for decolorization of colored water.
Table 6.4 Various recently used adsorbents for dye remediation.
Chapter 7
Table 7.1 Maximum adsorption capacity, optimum adsorption condition such as pH,
temperature, initial Cr (VI) concentration, adsorbent dose, fitted isotherm, kinetic
model, thermodynamic parameters, and mechanism of adsorption for Cr (VI) onto
silica-based nanomaterials, titanate nanotubes, and layer double hydroxides.
Table 7.2 Maximum adsorption capacity, optimum adsorption condition such as pH,
temperature, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dose, fitted isotherm, kinetic model,
thermodynamic parameters, and mechanism of adsorption for dyes onto silica-based
nanomaterials, titanate nanotubes and layer double hydroxides.
Chapter 8
Table 8.1 Performance of nanomaterials used for the removal of MB from dye solution.
Table 8.2 Some recent studies for the removal of MB using nZVI materials.
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