Operations and Supply Chain Management, Fifth Edition PDF by F. Robert Jacobs and Richard B. Chase

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Operations and Supply Chain Management, Fifth Edition
by F. Robert Jacobs and Richard B. Chase
Operations and Supply Chain Management, Fifth Edition

Contents:
S E C T I O N O N E
STRATEGY, PRODUCTS,
AND CAPACITY
1 INTRODUCTION 2
Introduction—the Elements of OSCM 3
What Is Operations and Supply Chain Management? 3
Distinguishing Operations versus Supply
Chain Processes 4
Categorizing Operations and Supply
Chain Processes 6
Differences Between Services and Goods 7
The Goods–Services Continuum 8
Product–Service Bundling 9
Careers in OSCM 9
Chief Operating Officer 10
The Major Concepts that Define the
OSCM Field 11
Current Issues in Operations and Supply
Chain Management 13
Efficiency, Effectiveness, and Value 14
How Does Wall Street Evaluate
Efficiency? 14 

Concept Connections 18
Discussion Questions 19
Objective Questions 20
Analytics Exercise: Comparing
Companies
Using Wall Street
Efficiency
Measures 21
Practice Exam 22
2 STRATEGY 23
A Sustainable Operations
and Supply Chain Strategy 24
What Is Operations and Supply Chain
Strategy? 25 

Competitive Dimensions 27
The Notion of Trade-Offs 29
Order Winners and Order Qualifiers: The
Marketing–Operations Link 29
Strategies are Implemented Using
Operations and Supply Chain Activities— IKEA’s Strategy 30
Assessing the Risk Associated with Operations
and Supply Chain Strategies 31
Risk Management Framework 32
Productivity Measurement 33
Concept Connections 35
Solved Problem 37
Discussion Questions 37
Objective Questions 37
Case: The Tao of Timbuk 40
Practice Exam 41
3 DESIGN OF PRODUCTS AND
SERVICES 42
Product Design 43
Product Development Process 44
Product Design Criteria 49
Designing for the Customer 49
Value Analysis/Value Engineering 51
Designing Products for Manufacture
and Assembly 52
Designing Service Products 56
Economic Analysis of Product
Development Projects 57
Build a Base-Case Financial
Model 58
Sensitivity Analysis to Understand
Project Trade-Offs 60
Measuring Product Development
Performance
61
Concept Connections 62
Solved Problem 63
Discussion Questions 66
Objective Questions 66
Case: IKEA: Design and
Pricing 69
Case: Dental Spa 72
Practice Exam 72
4 PROJECTS 73
What is Project Management? 74
Organizing the Project Team 75
Pure Project 75
Functional Project 75
Matrix Project 76
Organizing Project Tasks 77
Network-Planning Models 78
Critical Path Method (CPM) 79
CPM with Three Activity Time
Estimates 83
Time–Cost Models and Project
Crashing 86
Managing Projects 89
Earned Value Management
(EVM) 91
Project Management Information
Systems
94
Concept Connections 95
Solved Problems 97
Discussion Questions 101
Objective Questions 102
Analytics Exercise: Product Design
Project
108
Practice Exam 109
5 STRATEGIC CAPACITY
MANAGEMENT 110
Capacity Management in
Operations
and Supply Chain
Management 111
Capacity Planning Concepts 112
Economies and Diseconomies of
Scale 112
Capacity Focus 113
Capacity Flexibility 113
Capacity Planning 114
Considerations in Changing
Capacity 114
Determining Capacity Requirements 115
Using Decision Trees to Evaluate
Capacity Alternatives 117
Planning Service Capacity 120
Capacity Planning in Services versus
Manufacturing 120
Capacity Utilization and Service
Quality 121
Concept Connections 122
Solved Problem 123
Discussion Questions 125
Objective Questions 125
Case: Shouldice Hospital—A Cut
Above 127
Practice Exam 129
6 LEARNING CURVES 130
What are Learning Curves? 131
How are Learning Curves
Modeled? 132
Logarithmic Analysis 133
Learning Curve Tables 133
Estimating the Learning
Percentage 138
How Long Does Learning
Go On? 138
In Practice, How Much Learning
Occurs? 138
Individual Learning 138
Organizational Learning 139
Concept Connections 141
Solved Problems 141
Discussion Questions 142
Objective Questions 143
Practice Exam 146
S E C T I O N T WO
MANUFACTURING AND
SERVICE PROCESSES
7 MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
148
What are Manufacturing
Processes? 149
How Manufacturing Processes
are Organized 151
Break-Even Analysis 153
Manufacturing Process
Flow Design 155
Concept Connections 160
Solved Problems 161
Discussion Questions 162
Objective Questions 163
Case: Circuit Board Fabricators,
Inc. 165
Practice Exam 167
8 FAC I L I T Y LAYOUT 168
Analyzing the Four Most Common
Layout
Formats 170
Workcenters (Job Shops) 170
Systematic Layout Planning 174
Assembly Lines 174
Assembly-Line Design 174
Splitting Tasks 178
Flexible and U-Shaped Line Layouts 179
Mixed-Model Line Balancing 179
Cells 181
Project Layouts 181
Retail Service Layout 183
Servicescapes 183
Signs, Symbols, and Artifacts 185
Office Layout 185
Concept Connections 186
Solved Problem 187
Discussion Questions 190
Objective Questions 191
Advanced Problem 197
Analytics Exercise: Designing a
Manufacturing Process 198
Practice Exam 200
9 SERVICE PROCESSES 201
The Nature of Services 202
An Operational Classification of
Services 203
Designing Service Organizations 203
Structuring the Service Encounter: The
Service-System Design Matrix 205
Managing Customer-Introduced
Variability 207
Applying Behavioral Science to Service
Encounters 207
Service Blueprinting and
Fail-Safing 211
Three Contrasting Service Designs 212
The Production-Line Approach 212
The Self-Service Approach 213
The Personal-Attention Approach 213
Seven Characteristics of a Well-Designed
Service System 215
Concept Connections 216
Discussion Questions 217
Objective Questions 218
Case: Pizza USA: An Exercise in Translating
Customer Requirements into
Process Design Requirements 218
Practice Exam 220
10 WAITING LI N E ANALYSIS AND
SIMULATION 221
The Waiting Line Problem 222
The Practical View of Waiting Lines 222
The Queuing System 223
Waiting Line Models 230
Approximating Customer Waiting Time 236
Simulating Waiting Lines 239
Example: A Two-Stage Assembly Line 239
Spreadsheet Simulation 242
Simulation Programs and Languages 244
Concept Connections 246
Solved Problems 248
Discussion Questions 251
Objective Questions 251
Case: Community Hospital Evening
Operating Room 256
Analytics Exercise: Processing Customer Orders 256 

Practice Exam 259
11 PROCESS DESIGN AND ANALYSIS 265
Process Analysis 266
Example—Analyzing a Las Vegas Slot
Machine 266
Process Flowcharting 268
Understanding Processes 270
Buffering, Blocking, and Starving 270
Make-to-Stock vs. Make-to-Order 271
Measuring Process Performance 273
Production Process Mapping and Little’s
Law 275
Job Design Decisions 278
Behavioral Considerations in Job
Design 278
Work Measurement and Standards 279
Process Analysis Examples 280
A Bread-Making Operation 280
A Restaurant Operation 281
Planning a Transit Bus Operation 283
Process Flow Time Reduction 285
Concept Connections 287
Solved Problems 289
Discussion Questions 291
Objective Questions 292
Case: Analyzing Casino Money-Handling
Processes 296
Practice Exam 297
12 SIX SIGMA QUALITY 298
Total Quality Management 299
Quality Specifications and Quality
Costs 300
Developing Quality Specifications 300
Cost of Quality 301
Six Sigma Quality 303
Six Sigma Methodology 304
Analytical Tools for Six Sigma 305
Six Sigma Roles and Responsibilities 308
The Shingo System: Fail-Safe
Design 309
ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 310
External Benchmarking for Quality
Improvement 311
Concept Connections 312
Discussion Questions 313
Objective Questions 314
Case: Tesla’s Quality Challenge 315
Practice Exam 316
13 STATISTICA L QUALITY CONTROL 317
Statistical Quality Control 318
Understanding and Measuring Process
Variation 319
Measuring Process Capability 321
Statistical Process Control
Procedures 325
Process Control with Attribute
Measurements:
Using p-Charts 326
Process Control with Attribute
Measurements:
Using c-Charts 328
Process Control with Variable
Measurements:
Using X- and
R-Charts 329
How to Construct X- and R-Charts 330
Acceptance Sampling 333
Design of a Single Sampling Plan for
Attributes 333
Operating Characteristic Curves 334
Concept Connections 336
Solved Problem 337
Discussion Questions 340
Objective Questions 340
Analytics Exercise: Hot Shot Plastics
Company 345
Analytics Exercise: Quality
Management—Toyota 346
Practice Exam 347
S E C T I O N T H R E E
SUPPLY CHAIN PROCESSES
14 LEAN SUPPLY CHAINS 350
Lean Production 351
The Toyota Production System 352
Lean Supply Chains 353
Value Stream Mapping 355
Lean Supply Chain Design Principles 357
Lean Concepts 358
Lean Production Schedules 359
Lean Supply Chains 363
Lean Services 364
Concept Connections 366
Solved Problems 368
Discussion Questions 372
Objective Questions 372
Case: Quality Parts Company 373
Case: Value Stream Mapping 375
Case: Pro Fishing Boats—A Value
Stream Mapping Exercise 376
Practice Exam 377
15 LOGIST I C S , DI STRIBUTION, AND
TRANSPORTATION 378
Logistics 379
Decisions Related to Logistics 380
Transportation Modes 380
Warehouse Design 381
Locating Logistics Facilities 381
Plant Location Methods 383
Centroid Method 387
Locating Service Facilities 388
Concept Connections 391
Solved Problems 392
Discussion Questions 396
Objective Questions 396
Analytics Exercise: Distribution Center
Location 399
Practice Exam 401
16 GLOBAL SOURCING AND
PROCUREMENT 402
Strategic Sourcing 403
The Bullwhip Effect 404
Supply Chain Uncertainty Framework 405
Outsourcing 408
Logistics Outsourcing 408
Framework for Supplier Relationships 409
Green Sourcing 411
Total Cost of Ownership 414
Measuring Sourcing Performance 416
Concept Connections 418
Discussion Questions 419
Objective Questions 420
Analytics Exercise: Global Sourcing
Decisions—Grainger: Reengineering the
China/U.S. Supply Chain 422
Practice Exam 424
S E C T I O N F O U R
SUPPLY AND DEMAND
PLANNING
AND CONTROL
17 ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING
SYSTEMS 426
What is ERP? 427
Consistent Numbers 427
Software Imperatives 428
Routine Decision Making 428
How ERP Connects the Functional Units 429 

Finance 430
Manufacturing and Logistics 430
Sales and Marketing 430
Human Resources 430
Customized Software 431
Data Integration 431
How Supply Chain Planning and Control
Fits Within ERP 432
Simplified Example 432
SAP Supply Chain Management 433
SAP Supply Chain Execution 433
SAP Supply Chain Collaboration 434
SAP Supply Chain Coordination 434
Performance Metrics to Evaluate Integrated
System Effectiveness 435
The “Functional Silo” Approach 435
Integrated Supply Chain Metrics 436
Calculating the Cash-to-Cash Cycle
Time 438
Concept Connections 440
Solved Problems 441
Discussion Questions 442
Objective Questions 442
Practice Exam 443
18 FORECASTING 444
Forecasting in Operations and Supply
Chain Management 445
Quantitative Forecasting
Models 446
Components of Demand 447
Time Series Analysis 448
Forecast Errors 463
Causal Relationship Forecasting 466
Qualitative Techniques in
Forecasting 468
Market Research 469
Panel Consensus 469
Historical Analogy 469
Delphi Method 469
Web-Based Forecasting: Collaborative
Planning, Forecasting, and Replenishment
(CPFR) 470
Concept Connections 471
Solved Problems 473
Discussion Questions 478
Objective Questions 478
Analytics Exercise: Forecasting
Supply Chain Demand—Starbucks
Corporation 487
Practice Exam 488
19 SALES AND OPERATIONS
PLANNING 489
What is Sales and Operations
Planning? 490
An Overview of Sales and Operations
Planning Activities 490
The Aggregate Operations Plan 492 

Aggregate Planning Techniques 496
A Cut-and-Try Example: The JC
Company 496
Aggregate Planning Applied to Services:
Tucson Parks and Recreation
Department 501
Yield Management 503
Operating Yield Management
Systems 504
Concept Connections 505
Solved Problems 506
Discussion Questions 509
Objective Questions 509
Analytics Exercise: Developing
an Aggregate Plan—Bradford
Manufacturing 512
Practice Exam 513
20 INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 515
Understanding Inventory
Management 516
Purposes of Inventory 518
Inventory Costs 519
Independent versus Dependent
Demand 520
Inventory Control Systems 521
A Single-Period Inventory Model 521
Multiperiod Inventory Systems 524
Fixed–Order Quantity Models 525
Fixed–Time Period Models 532
Inventory Turn Calculation 534
Price-Break Model 535
Inventory Planning and Accuracy 538
ABC Classification 538
Inventory Accuracy and Cycle
Counting 539
Concept Connections 541
Solved Problems 543
Discussion Questions 546
Objective Questions 546
Analytics Exercise: Inventory Management
at Big10Sweaters.com 555
Practice Exam 557
21 MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PLANNING 559
Understanding Material Requirements
Planning 560
Where MRP Can Be Used 560
Master Production Scheduling 561
Material Requirements Planning
System Structure 563
Demand for Products 563
Bill-of-Materials 563
Inventory Records 565
MRP Computer Program 566
An Example Using MRP 567
Forecasting Demand 567
Developing a Master Production
Schedule 568
Bill-of-Materials (Product Structure) 568
Inventory Records 569
Performing the MRP Calculations 569
Lot Sizing in MRP Systems 572
Lot-for-Lot 573
Economic Order Quantity 573
Least Total Cost 574
Least Unit Cost 574
Choosing the Best Lot Size 576
Concept Connections 576
Solved Problems 577
Discussion Questions 583
Objective Questions 583
Analytics Exercise: An MRP Explosion—
Brunswick Motors 587
Practice Exam 589
22 WORKCENTER SCHEDULING 590
Workcenter Scheduling 591
The Nature and Importance of
Workcenters
591
Typical Scheduling and Control
Functions 593
Objectives of Workcenter Scheduling 594
Job Sequencing 594
Priority Rules and Techniques 595
Scheduling n Jobs on One Machine 595
Scheduling n Jobs on Two Machines 598
Scheduling a Set Number of Jobs on the
Same Number of Machines 599
Scheduling n Jobs on m Machines 601
Shop-Floor Control 601
Gantt Charts 601
Tools of Shop-Floor Control 602
Principles of Workcenter Scheduling 604
Personnel Scheduling in Services 605
Scheduling Daily Work Times 605
Scheduling Hourly Work Times 606
Concept Connections 607
Solved Problems 609
Discussion Questions 614
Objective Questions 614
Case: Keep Patients Waiting? Not in My
Office 619
Practice Exam 621
23 THEORY OF CONSTRAINTS 622
Eli Goldratt’s Theory of
Constraints 623
The Goal of the Firm 625
Performance Measurements 625
Unbalanced Capacity 626
Bottlenecks, Capacity-Constrained
Resources, and Synchronous
Manufacturing 628
Basic Manufacturing Building Blocks 628
Methods for Synchronous Control 629
Comparing Synchronous Manufacturing
(TOC) to Traditional Approaches 638
MRP and JIT 638 

Relationship with Other Functional Areas 639
Theory of Constraints—Problems About
What to Produce 640
Concept Connections 647
Solved Problem 648
Discussion Questions 649
Objective Questions 650
Practice Exam 654
S E C T I O N F I V E
SPECIAL TOPICS
24 HEALTH CARE 656
The Nature of Health Care
Operations 657
Classification of Hospitals 658
Hospital Layout and Care Chains 659
Capacity Planning 660
Workforce Scheduling 661
Quality Management and Process
Improvement 661
Health Care Supply Chains 663
Inventory Management 664
Performance Measures 665
Trends in Health Care 665
Concept Connections 667
Discussion Questions 668
Objective Questions 668
Case: Managing Patient Wait Times at a
Family Clinic 669
Practice Exam 670
25 OPERATIONS CONSULTING 671
What Is Operations Consulting? 672
The Management Consulting Industry 673
Economics of Consulting Firms 673
When Operations Consulting Is
Needed 674

The Operations Consulting
Process 676
Operations Consulting Tool Kit 677
Problem Definition Tools 677
Data Gathering 679
Data Analysis and Solution
Development 682
Cost Impact and Payoff Analysis 683
Implementation 684
Business Process Reengineering (Bpr) 684
Principles of Reengineering 685
Guidelines for Implementation 686
Concept Connections 687
Discussion Questions 687
Objective Questions 688
Exercise: Quick Plant Assessment 688
Practice Exam 690
APPENDICES
A Linear Programming Using the
Excel Solver 691
B Operations Technology 711
C Financial Analysis 718
D Answers to Selected Objective
Questions 734
E Present Value Table 736
F Negative Exponential Distribution:
Values of e–X 737
G Areas of the Cumulative Standard
Normal Distribution 738
H Uniformly Distributed Random
Digits 739
I Interest Tables 740
INDEX 744

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