Personal Protective Equipment for Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Hazards: Design, Evaluation, and Selection PDF by Eva F. Gudgin Dickson

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Personal Protective Equipment for Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Hazards: Design, Evaluation, and Selection
by Eva F. Gudgin Dickson
Personal Protective Equipment for Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Hazards: Design, Evaluation, and Selection

CONTENTS
Acknowledgments xi
1 Introduction to CBRN Protection 1
1.1 What Is CBRN PPE and Why Is It Used? 1
1.2 What Are CBRN Agents? 2
1.3 Context of Use as It Relates to Design, Selection, and Performance 5
1.4 Acquiring Equipment 6
1.4.1 How Not to Do It 6
1.4.2 Stage 1: Prior to the Design and Procurement Cycle 7
1.4.3 Stage 2: At the Time of Decision to Procure New PPE 8
1.4.4 Stage 3: Off-the-Shelf Procurement 9
1.4.5 Stage 4: Development Program 10

2 Hazardous Substances 12
2.1 General Overview of Agents 12
2.2 Dose and Exposure 13
2.3 Routes of Entry 13
2.4 Forms of Agent Leading to Exposure 17
2.4.1 Airborne Hazards 17
2.4.2 Contact Hazards 19
2.4.3 Radiation Hazards 20
2.5 Effects of Hazardous Materials 21
2.5.1 Local vs. Systemic Effects 21
2.5.2 Acute, Chronic, and Long-Term Effects 22
2.6 Chemical Hazards 22
2.6.1 Chemical Warfare Agents and Their Classification 22
2.6.2 Respiratory Hazards 24
2.6.3 Ocular Hazards 24
2.6.4 Dermal Hazards 25
2.6.5 Ingestion Hazards 25
2.6.6 Dissemination of Chemicals and Types of Events 26
2.7 Biological Hazards 28
2.7.1 General Background 28
2.7.2 What Makes a Potential Biological Agent? 28
2.7.3 Classification 29
2.7.4 The Immune System and Infection 31
2.7.5 General Properties of Microorganisms 32
2.7.6 The Bacteria 33
2.7.7 The Rickettsia 34
2.7.8 The Viruses 34
2.7.9 The Fungi 35
2.7.10 Toxins 35
2.7.11 Other Important Methods of Control 36
2.7.12 Transmission and Dissemination 37
2.7.13 The Agents of Concern 40
2.8 Radiological and Nuclear Agents 43
2.8.1 General Hazards 43
2.8.2 Examples of Hazardous Radiological and Nuclear
Agents 44
2.8.3 Types of Short- and Long-Term Effects 44
2.8.4 Route of Entry 45
2.8.5 Dissemination 45
2.9 Summary of Dissemination of CBRN Agents 47
2.9.1 Methods of Dissemination 47
2.9.2 Persistency and Environmental Effects 48
2.9.3 Summary of CBRN Hazards and Their Location 50

3 Setting High-Level Requirements 51
3.1 Defining Concepts of Operations 51
3.2 Military Operations 52
3.2.1 Concept of Operations 52
3.2.2 Military User Groups 53
3.3 Domestic Response 55
3.3.1 Concept of Operations 55
3.3.2 Domestic User Groups 57
3.4 Hazard Assessment 59
3.4.1 General Comments 59
3.4.2 Scenarios and Modeling 60
3.4.3 Conditions of Use 64
3.4.4 Limits to Operations 66
3.5 Exposure Limits 66
3.5.1 General 66
3.5.2 Chemical Exposure 67
3.5.3 Radiation Exposure 73
3.5.4 Biological Agent Exposure 76
3.6 Human Factors and Task Requirements 77
3.7 Examples of High-Level Requirements
Development Discussions 79
3.7.1 Coroners, Medical Examiners, and Pathologists 79
3.7.2 Law Enforcement 81
4 Designing for Appropriate Protection and Performance 84
4.1 The Hazard 84
4.1.1 Airborne Hazards 84
4.1.2 Contact Hazards 85
4.1.3 Protection Priorities and Issues Related to the Hazard 86
4.2 Mechanisms of Protection 87
4.2.1 Barrier Materials and Hardening 87
4.2.2 Air Purification Processes 89
4.2.3 Airflow and Overpressure 95
4.3 Human Factors 95
4.3.1 General 95
4.3.2 Thermophysiology 96
4.3.3 Breathing and Respiratory Physiology 98
4.3.4 Anthropometry and Range of Motion 100
4.3.5 Sensory Issues and Situational Awareness 103
4.3.6 Integration, Compatibility, and Functionality 105
4.4 The Environment 105
4.4.1 Climatic Conditions 105
4.4.2 Physical and Mechanical Stressors 106
4.5 Materials and Their Selection 106
4.5.1 General Issues 106
4.5.2 Fibers and Textiles 108
4.5.3 Barrier Materials 109
4.5.4 Selectively Permeable Materials 111
4.5.5 Filtration Media 115
4.5.6 Adsorbents 118
4.5.7 Reactive Materials 120
4.5.8 Smart Materials 125
4.5.9 Nanomaterials and Other Protective or Next-Generation
Materials 126
4.6 System Design 128
4.6.1 Introduction and Background 128
4.6.2 Early Design Considerations 129
4.6.3 Maintaining System Integrity to Prevent Penetration and
Leakage 131
4.6.4 Preventing Penetration and Permeation of Liquids Through
Materials 133
4.6.5 Preventing Breakthrough of Chemicals by Using Adsorbing
or Reactive Elements 133
4.6.6 Preventing Penetration and Reaerosolization of
Aerosols 136
4.6.7 Protecting from Non-CBRN Hazards 137
4.6.8 Optimizing Human Performance 138
4.6.9 Optimizing Sizing 144
4.6.10 Other Design Issues 145
4.7 Modeling Performance and Human Physiology 147
4.7.1 Introduction 147
4.7.2 Protection Performance Modeling 149
4.7.3 Human Performance and Physiology Modeling 150
4.7.4 Toxicity Modeling 151
5 Protective Equipment: Concepts, Components, and Systems 153
5.1 Terminology 153
5.2 Concepts of Use 153
5.3 Respiratory Protective Devices 154
5.3.1 Protective Concepts 154
5.3.2 Components of a Respirator 155
5.3.3 Self-Contained Breathable Gas Styles 161
5.3.4 Tethered Supplied Breathable Gas Systems 165
5.3.5 Air-Purifying (Negative-Pressure) Respirators 165
5.3.6 Powered Air-Purifying Respirators 167
5.3.7 Emerging Concepts and Issues 169
5.4 Dermal Protective Equipment (Clothing) 170
5.4.1 Components 171
5.4.2 Ensembles 172
5.4.3 Emerging Concepts 178
5.5 Future Concepts to Improve Performance in Use 181
6 Performance Evaluation and Standard Test Methods 183
6.1 Test Selection as Determined by Life-Cycle Phase 183
6.2 Issues That May Prevent Effective Evaluations 186
6.2.1 Translating Requirements to Effective Test Methods 186
6.2.2 Scope of Evaluations 187
6.2.3 Standard Test Methods 187
6.2.4 Time and Cost 187
6.3 Selection of Test Conditions 188
6.3.1 General Limits 188
6.3.2 Test Scale and Test Platform 189
6.3.3 Item To Be Tested 193
6.3.4 User-Related Parameters 196
6.3.5 Challenge CBRN Agent 197
6.3.6 Amount and Physical Form of Agent 202
6.3.7 Test Environments 206
6.3.8 Preconditioning 207
6.3.9 Representative Sampling 208
6.4 Designing Methods and Setting Criteria 209
6.4.1 Setting Priorities 209
6.4.2 Degradation of Performance 210
6.4.3 CBRN Protective Performance Measures Using Items or
Systems 210
6.4.4 CBRN Protective Performance Measures Using
Materials 217
6.4.5 Human Performance Measures Using Items or
Systems 222
6.4.6 Human Performance Measures Using Materials 223
6.5 Sources of Methods 224
6.6 Preconditioning and Pretreating 225
6.7 Physical Properties and Survivability 225
6.7.1 Dimensions and Weight 225
6.7.2 Electrostatics 225
6.7.3 Environmental Stressors 225
6.7.4 Physical Stressors 225
6.7.5 Other Durability 225
6.7.6 Survivability Against Heat and Flame 235
6.8 CBRN Performance 235
6.8.1 Generic Integrity and Protection Factor Methods 235
6.8.2 Chemical Vapor and Liquid Protection 235
6.8.3 Particulate and Biological: Penetration and Filtration
Methods 237
6.8.4 Biological: Methods Assessing Resistance to Microbial
Growth 247
6.9 Human Factors 253
6.9.1 Comfort, Fit, and Function 253
6.9.2 Field of View 255
6.9.3 Visual Acuity 257
6.9.4 Communications 258
6.9.5 Air Quality and Supply 259
6.9.6 Thermal Performance 259

7 Selection and Use of PPE 265
7.1 Operational Requirements 265
7.1.1 Examples of CBRN Work Environments 265
7.1.2 Requirements Setting and Specifications 266
7.2 Expected Levels of Performance from Various Styles of
Equipment 267
7.2.1 General Comments 267
7.2.2 Material-Level Performance 268
7.2.3 Dermal Protective Equipment Performance 268
7.2.4 Respiratory Protective Device Performance 268
7.3 Performance and Selection Standards and Regulations 275
7.3.1 North America 276
7.3.2 Europe 285
7.3.3 Asia 288
7.3.4 ISO 288
7.3.5 NATO 290
References 291
Index 321

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