Saffron: Science, Technology and Health PDF by Alireza Koocheki and Mohammad Khajeh-Hosseini

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Saffron: Science, Technology and Health
Edited by Alireza Koocheki and Mohammad Khajeh-Hosseini
Saffron: Science, Technology and Health

Contents
List of contributors xv
Preface xix
Acknowledgments xxi
Section I
Cultural and historical aspects of saffron 1
1. Saffron and folklore 3
Mohammad Jafari-Ghanavati and Salman Saket
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Aspects of folklore in planting, growing, and harvesting of saffron 4
1.3 Applications of saffron in folklore 5
1.3.1 Saffron and food 5
1.3.2 Saffron in prayers, charms, and talismans 6
1.3.3 Other uses of saffron 7
1.3.4 Popular medicine 8
1.4 Saffron in popular literature 9
1.4.1 Do-bayti 9
1.4.2 Riddles 10
1.4.3 Stories and humor 10
1.5 Conclusion 11
References 11
Further reading 13

2. Saffron and religion 15
Mansour Motamedi, Fayyaz Gharaei and
Salman Saket
2.1 Introduction 15
2.2 Saffron in Indian religions 16
2.2.1 Saffron symbols 16
2.2.2 Saffron in Tantara rites 17
2.2.3 Saffron for laundering Gods 17
2.2.4 Saffron color in India’s flag 17
2.2.5 Saffron, the color of religious costumes 18
2.2.6 Saffron celebrations and festivals 18
2.2.7 Saffron color in Buddhism 19
2.3 Semitic religions 19
2.3.1 Judaism 19
2.3.2 Islam 20
2.4 Conclusion 21
References 21
Further reading 21

3. Saffron in the ancient history of Iran 23
Askar Bahrami, Sayed-Said Mirmohammadsadegh,
Seyyede-Fatemeh Zare-Hoseini,
Reza Mousavi-Tabari and Salman Saket
3.1 Introduction 23
3.2 Saffron in Iran before Islam 23
3.2.1 Use of saffron before Islam 24
3.2.2 Use of saffron in ancient Iran 25
3.3 Saffron in Iran after Islam 28
3.3.1 Cultivation of saffron 28
3.3.2 Saffron as a commodity 28
3.3.3 Applications of saffron in Iranian daily life 30
3.4 Conclusion 32
References 32
Further reading 34

Section II
Safron production 35
4. Evolution and botany of saffron
(Crocus sativus L.) and allied species 37
Mohammad-Hassan Rashed-Mohassel
4.1 Introduction 37
4.2 Crocus 38
4.3 Contractile roots 40
4.4 Corm 41
4.5 Iridaceae 41
4.6 Saffron evolution and phylogeny 43
4.7 Pollination and seed growth 46
4.8 Sexual reproduction 46
4.9 Cultivated saffron (Crocus sativus L.) 47
4.10 Wild saffron (C. cartwrightianus Herbert) 51
4.11 Crocus palasii subsp. Haussknechtii 52
4.12 Crocus oreocreticus Burtt 53
4.13 Crocus Thomasii Tenore 54
4.14 Crocus hadriaticus 54
4.15 Conclusion 55
Acknowledgment 56
References 56
Further reading 57

5. Soil conditions for sustainable
saffron production 59
Hamid Shahandeh
5.1 Introduction 59
5.2 Soil conditions 60
5.3 Soil texture 60
5.4 Soil nutrient content 61
5.5 Saffron nitrogen requirement 62
5.6 Nitrogen use efficiency in saffron 64
5.7 Conclusion 65
References 65
6. Saffron water requirements 67
Alireza Koocheki, Hamid-Reza Fallahi and
Majid Jami-Al-Ahmadi
6.1 Introduction 67
6.2 Crop coefficients and potential evapotranspiration 67
6.3 Irrigation scheduling 70
6.3.1 Before corm lifting 70
6.3.2 After corm planting 70
6.3.3 Preflowering irrigation in autumn 71
6.3.4 During vegetative growth 72
6.3.5 Summer irrigation 78
6.4 Rainfed saffron production 80
6.5 Factors affecting water requirements 80
6.6 Irrigation methods 81
6.7 Water quality 82
6.7.1 Water quality parameters 82
6.7.2 Salt stress in saffron 83
6.8 Water-use efficiency and productivity 83
6.9 Physiological responses of saffron
to water stress 84
6.10 Beneficial water-related approaches
for saffron production 85
6.11 Saffron response to flooding 87
6.12 Indigenous irrigation knowledge 87
6.13 Conclusion 88
References 88
7. Saffron “seed”, the corm 93
Alireza Koocheki and
Seyyed-Mohammad Seyyedi
7.1 Introduction 93
7.2 Corm botanical criteria 93
7.2.1 Mother and daughter corms 93
7.2.2 Main and lateral buds 94
7.2.3 Root system 96
7.2.4 Developmental stages and phonological description 98
7.2.5 Corm nutrient content 98
7.2.6 Field age effect on corm production 101
7.3 Agronomical practices 101
7.3.1 Corm lifting time and storage 101
7.3.2 Planting time 103
7.3.3 Planting depth 103
7.3.4 Row spacing, corm density 104
7.3.5 Corm size/weight 104
7.3.6 Corm size classification 106
7.3.7 Planting beds 107
7.3.8 Application of hormones 112
7.4 Corm and climate change 112
7.5 Conclusion 113
References 113

8. Ecophysiology of saffron 119
Parviz Rezvani-Moghaddam
8.1 Introduction 119
8.2 Climatic factors for crop production 120
8.2.1 Temperature 120
8.2.2 Precipitation 121
8.3 Lifecycle 122
8.3.1 Flowering phase 122
8.3.2 Vegetative phase 122
8.3.3 Production of replacement corms 122
8.3.4 Dormant phase 123
8.4 Growth parameters 123
8.4.1 Leaf area index 125
8.4.2 Crop growth rate 126
8.4.3 Relative growth rate 126
8.4.4 Net assimilate rate 130
8.4.5 Leaf area ratio 131
8.4.6 Leaf weight ratio 131
8.4.7 Corms 133
8.4.8 Whole plant 133
8.4.9 Source and sink relationship
in the growth organs 134
8.5 Effects of environmental changes
on the quality of saffron 134
8.6 Yield determination 135
8.7 Conclusion 135
References 135
9. Advances in modeling saffron growth
and development at different scales 139
Mehdi Nassiri Mahallati
9.1 Introduction 139
9.2 Statistical models 140
9.2.1 The basics 140
9.2.2 Crop-weather models for saffron
yield prediction 140
9.3 Artificial neural networks 143
9.3.1 Artificial neural networks,
an overview 143
9.3.2 Application of artificial neural
networks for saffron 144
9.4 Application of response surface
modeling in saffron production 146
9.4.1 Statistical background 146
9.4.2 Central composite designs 146
9.4.3 Application 147
9.5 Dynamic simulation models 148
9.5.1 Advances in development of
simulation models for saffron 150
9.5.2 Radiation-based model for saffron
growth 152
9.6 Modeling saffron development and
flowering 154
9.6.1 Hypothetical model of saffron
development 154
9.6.2 Developmental responses in crop
species 155
9.6.3 Structure of the model 155
9.6.4 Simulation of saffron response
to climate change 158
9.7 Land suitability and zoning methodology
for saffron 161
9.7.1 Objectives and methods of zoning 161
9.7.2 Application of zoning schemes
to saffron 162
9.8 Conclusion 163
References 164
Further reading 167
10. Saffron crop protection 169
Mohammad Bazoobandi, Hasan Rahimi and
Mahmud-Reza Karimi-Shahri
10.1 Introduction 169
10.2 Weeds 169
10.2.1 Weed and saffron ecophysiology 170
10.2.2 Weed presence in saffron fields and possibility of weed control 170
10.2.3 Critical period of weed control 171
10.2.4 Dominant weeds in saffron fields 171
10.2.5 Weed management 174
10.3 Pests 176
10.3.1 Mites (Acari) and Insects (Insecta) 177
10.4 Pathogens 182
10.4.1 The fungal agents of saffron corm rot 182
10.4.2 Fusarium rottings of the saffron corm 182
10.4.3 Nematodes 183
10.4.4 The saffron pathogenic bacteria 183
10.4.5 Saffron viruses 183
10.5 Conclusion 184
References 184
Further reading 185
11. Mechanization of saffron
production 187
Mohammad-Hossein Saeidirad
11.1 Introduction 187
11.1.1 The role of mechanization
in agricultural development 187
11.1.2 Economic advantages of saffron
mechanization 188
11.2 Machines for corm production 188
11.2.1 Physical properties of saffron
corms 188
11.2.2 Corm digging 188
11.2.3 Corm sorting 189
11.3 Tillage 189
11.3.1 Bed preparation for corm
planting 189
11.3.2 Crust breaking 190
11.4 Corm planting 191
11.4.1 Planting patterns 191
11.4.2 Traditional planting methods 192
11.4.3 Automatic planting machines 192
11.5 Harvesting saffron flowers 194
11.5.1 Traditional method of harvesting
saffron flowers 194
11.5.2 Invented picker machines 195
11.6 Saffron stigma separation 198
11.6.1 Physical properties of saffron
flowers 198
11.6.2 Traditional stigma_flower
separation method 198
11.6.3 Invented separators 200
11.7 Conclusion 203
References 204
12. Emerging innovation in saffron
production 205
Mohammad Khajeh-Hosseini and Farnoush
Fallahpour
12.1 Introduction 205
12.2 Why is innovation needed? 206
12.3 Production under controlled
environments 207
12.3.1 Soilless beds 207
12.3.2 Growth chambers 208
12.3.3 In vitro cultivation 208
12.4 Forced flowering 209
12.5 Nonconventional breeding techniques 209
12.6 Application of hormones 209
12.7 Production in inadequate climates 210
12.8 Organic production 210
12.9 Mechanization 210
12.10 Smart farming 211
12.11 Saffron as feed additive 211
12.12 Saffron byproducts 212
12.13 e-commerce 212
12.14 Conclusion 213
References 213
Further reading 216
Section III
Genetics and biotechnology of
saffron 217
13. Utilizing O-mics technologies
for saffron valorization 219
Matteo Busconi, Giovanna Soffritti and
Jose´ -Antonio Ferna´ndez
13.1 Introduction 219
13.2 Analysis of variation in saffron
germplasm 220
13.3 Epigenetics stability 222
13.4 Detection of adulteration and
DNA-based traceability 224
13.5 Perspectives 226
Acknowledgements 227
References 227
14. Tissue and cell culture of saffron 229
Nasrin Moshtaghi
14.1 Introduction 229
14.2 Tissue culture of monocotyledons 230
14.3 Micropropagation of saffron 230
14.3.1 Explant preparation 230
14.3.2 Propagation 231
14.3.3 Acclimation 232
14.4 Callus and cell culture 232
14.5 Direct organogenesis 233
14.5.1 Generating adventitious shoots 234
14.5.2 Microcorm production 235
14.6 Somatic embryogenesis 236
14.7 Protoplast culture 239
14.8 Stigma-like structure 241
14.9 Conclusion 243
References 243
15. Molecular biology of Crocus
sativus 247
Alireza Seifi and Hajar Shayesteh
15.1 Introduction 247
15.2 Flower development 247
15.3 Gametogenesis and interspecific
hybridization 248
15.4 Secondary metabolites 248
15.4.1 Carotenoid biosynthesis
in plants 249
15.4.2 Carotenoid biosynthesis
in saffron 251
15.4.3 Apocarotenoid biosynthesis 251
15.4.4 Crocin, crocetin, picrocrocin,
and safranal 252
15.4.5 Genetic regulation of carotenoids
biosynthesis 253
15.5 Production of saffron metabolites in
microorganisms 254
15.6 Saffron_microbe interactions 255
15.7 Molecular response to abiotic stresses 255
15.8 Conclusion 255
References 256
Section IV
Saffron processing 259
16. Bioactive ingredients of saffron:
extraction, analysis, applications 261
Seid-Mahdi Jafari, Maria Z. Tsimidou,
Hamid Rajabi and Anastasia Kyriakoudi
16.1 Introduction 261
16.1.1 International classification
of saffron stigmas 262
16.1.2 Iranian trade categories 262
16.2 Saffron drying methods 264
16.3 Extraction of saffron bioactive
components 264
16.3.1 Conventional extraction
techniques 266
16.3.2 Novel extraction methods 270
16.4 Characterization of saffron bioactive
compounds 272
16.4.1 UV-Vis spectrophotometry 272
16.4.2 High performance liquid
chromatography (HPLC) 273
16.4.3 Gas chromatography-mass
spectrometry (GC-MS) 279
16.4.4 Electronic nose technique 279
16.5 Applications of saffron bioactive
ingredients: from prehistory up to 21st
century 282
16.5.1 Food industry 282
16.5.2 Pharmaceutical industry 283
16.5.3 Cosmetics and other sectors 284
16.6 Conclusion 285
Acknowledgment 285
References 285
17. Dehydration of saffron stigmas 291
Arash Koocheki
17.1 Introduction 291
17.2 Drying methods 292
17.3 Traditional methods 292
17.4 Artificial drying methods 292
17.5 Hybrid photovoltaic_thermal solar
dryer 293
17.6 Infrared thin-layer drying 294
17.7 Freeze drying 295
17.8 Microwave drying 296
17.9 Effects of drying on color, aroma,
and taste 296
17.10 Conclusion 297
References 298
18. Saffron packaging 301
Arash Koocheki
18.1 Introduction 301
18.2 Saffron packaging 302
18.3 Paper and paperboard 302
18.4 Aluminum foil 302
18.5 Glass 302
18.6 Low-density polyethylene 303
18.7 High-density polyethylene 303
18.8 Modified atmosphere
packaging 303
18.9 Nanosilver composite antimicrobial
packaging 304
18.10 Edible and biodegradable films 304
18.11 Conclusion 304
References 305
19. Assessment and monitoring of
saffron microbiological criteria 307
Elnaz Milani
19.1 Introduction 307
19.2 Microbial critical point in saffron 308
19.2.1 Microbiological analysis 308
19.3 Monitoring harvesting of saffron flowers 309
19.4 Monitoring transportation of saffron
flowers 310
19.5 Microbial decontamination of saffron
by different postharvest processes 310
19.5.1 Effect of drying processes on
microbiological quality of dried
stigma 311
19.5.2 Effect of cold plasma process on
microbiological quality of dried
stigma 313
19.5.3 Effect of ozone treatment on
microbiological quality of dried
stigma 313
19.5.4 Effect of irradiation treatment on
microbiological quality of dried
stigma 313
19.5.5 Infrared irradiation treatment 314
19.6 Saffron packaging 315
19.6.1 Modified atmosphere packing 315
19.7 Effect of antibacterial packaging on
microbiological quality of dried stigma 315
19.8 Effect of Hurdle technology on
microbiological quality of dried stigma 316
19.9 Conclusion 317
References 317
Further reading 320
20. Saffron adulteration 321
Arash Koocheki and Elnaz Milani
20.1 Introduction 321
20.2 Detecting adulteration 321
20.2.1 Chromatographic techniques 322
20.2.2 Infrared spectroscopy 325
20.2.3 1H nuclear magnetic resonance 328
20.2.4 Molecular techniques 328
20.2.5 Electronic nose 331
20.3 Conclusion 332
References 332
Section V
Economy and trade of saffron 335
21. Economic analysis of saffron
production 337
Naser Shahnoushi, Leili Abolhassani, Vida
Kavakebi, Michael Reed and Sayed Saghaian
21.1 Introduction 337
21.2 World’s main exporters of saffron 337
21.3 Price of saffron 338
21.4 Saffron production around the world 339
21.4.1 Iran 340
21.4.2 India 341
21.4.3 Greece 341
21.4.4 Spain 342
21.4.5 Afghanistan 342
21.4.6 Summary 343
21.5 Production function in economics 343
21.5.1 Production function of saffron 344
21.6 Economic productivity of saffron 344
21.6.1 Water productivity of saffron 345
21.6.2 Labor productivity of saffron 345
21.6.3 Land productivity of saffron 345
21.7 Economic performance of saffron 346
21.7.1 Return on investment 346
21.7.2 Ratio of return to cost 346
21.8 Efficiency 346
21.8.1 Energy use efficiency 346
21.9 Economic comparative advantage 349
21.9.1 Revealed comparative
advantage 349
21.9.2 Policy analysis matrix 349
21.9.3 Nominal protection coefficient 352
21.9.4 Effective protection coefficient 352
21.9.5 The domestic resource cost 352
21.9.6 Based on unit costs 353
21.10 Some economic advantages of saffron
production 353
21.11 Conclusion 353
References 354
22. Saffron marketing: challenges and
opportunities 357
Hosein Mohammadi and Michael Reed
22.1 Introduction 357
22.2 Problems of exporting and marketing
of saffron 357
22.3 Marketing concepts in the saffron
industry 360
22.4 Marketing management tasks for
saffron marketing 362
22.5 Conclusion 364
References 365
23. Environmental economic analysis
of saffron production 367
Leili Abolhassani, Soroor Khorramdel,
Michael Reed and Sayed Saghaian
23.1 Introduction 367
23.2 Estimation of potential environmental
impacts by lifecycle assessment 367
23.2.1 Global warming potential 368
23.2.2 Acidification potential 369
23.2.3 Aquatic eutrophication potential 369
23.2.4 Terrestrial eutrophication
potential 370
23.2.5 Aggregated environmental
indicator (EcoX) 371
23.3 Ecological economic analysis of energy
use 372
23.3.1 Ecological energy indicators 373
23.3.2 Ecological analysis of energy
input 375
23.3.3 Energy economic indicators 378
23.4 Carbon footprint 380
23.5 Ecosystem functions and services 381
23.5.1 Valuation of the ecosystem
function 382
23.5.2 Ecosystem services and impacts
from agriculture 382
23.5.3 Ecosystem services 382
23.5.4 Environmental impacts 384
23.6 Green policy analysis matrix of saffron 385
23.7 Conclusion 387
References 387
Section VI
Saffron and Health 391
24. Saffron in Persian traditional
medicine 393
Mahdi Yousefi and Khosro Shafaghi
24.1 Introduction 393
24.2 A short history of using saffron in
traditional medicine 394
24.3 A brief survey on principles of Persian
medicine focusing on pharmacological
aspects 394
24.3.1 Temperament 394
24.3.2 Pharmacotherapy 395
24.3.3 Temperament of drugs and
medicines 396
24.4 Origin and history of the word saffron 397
24.5 History of saffron usage in Persian
civilization 397
24.6 Medical properties of saffron 397
24.6.1 Botanical aspects 397
24.6.2 The nature and matter
of saffron 397
24.6.3 Temperament and general
properties 398
24.6.4 Medicinal uses of saffron 402
24.6.5 Toxicity and adverse effects 403
24.6.6 Quality assessment 403
24.7 Conclusion 403
References 404
25. Antiinflammatory and
immunomodulatory effects of
saffron and its derivatives 405
Mohammad-Hossein Boskabady,
Zahra Gholamnezhad,
Mohammad-Reza Khazdair and
Jalil Tavakol-Afshari
25.1 Introduction 405
25.2 Antiinflammatory effects of saffron
and its derivatives 406
25.2.1 Antiinflammatory effects of
saffron extracts 406
25.2.2 Antiinflammatory effects of
saffron petals 407
25.2.3 Antiinflammatory effects of
saffron derivatives 409
25.3 Immunomodulatory effects of saffron
and its derivatives 412
25.3.1 Immunomodulatory effects
of saffron extracts 414
25.3.2 Immunomodulatory effects of
saffron derivatives 415
25.4 Conclusion 417
References 417
Further reading 421
26. Effectiveness of saffron on memory
function, learning ability, and
epilepsy 423
Hamid-Reza Sadeghnia, Arezoo Rajabian and
Seyed-Mahmoud Hosseini
26.1 Introduction 423
26.2 In vitro and preclinical studies 423
26.2.1 Memory and learning skills 423
26.2.2 Oxidative stress 425
26.2.3 Alzheimer’s disease 426
26.2.4 Seizure 427
26.3 Clinical studies 427
26.4 Conclusion 427
References 428
27. Antidepressant and antianxiety
properties of saffron 431
Seyed Ahmad Mohajeri, Samaneh Sepahi
and Adel Ghorani Azam
27.1 Introduction 431
27.2 Nervous system 431
27.3 Depression and anxiety 432
27.3.1 Pathophysiology of depression
and anxiety 432
27.3.2 Epidemiology of depression and
anxiety 432
27.3.3 Causes of depression and
anxiety 433
27.4 Antidepressants 433
27.4.1 Classification of antidepressants
and antianxiety drugs 433
27.4.2 Pharmacokinetics 434
27.4.3 Mechanism of action of
antidepressants and antianxiety
drugs 434
27.4.4 Possible side effects of
antidepressants 434
27.5 Traditional medicine for the treatment
of depression and anxiety 435
27.6 Saffron 435
27.6.1 Chemical compounds of
saffron 435
27.6.2 Pharmaceutical applications
of saffron in traditional
medicine 436
27.6.3 Pharmacology of saffron and
its active ingredients 436
27.6.4 In vivo studies on the effects
of saffron and its active
compounds on depression and
anxiety 436
27.6.5 Antidepressant and anxiolytic
properties of saffron in clinical
practice 437
27.6.6 Mechanistic pathway for
antidepressant and antianxiety
effects 438
27.6.7 Effect of saffron and saffron
compounds on nervous system
diseases 438
27.7 Conclusion 440
References 441
28. Application of saffron as a
neuroprotective agent 445
Shahin Akhondzadeh, Seyyed-Hosein Mortazavi,
Erfan Sahebolzamani and Amirhosein Mortezaei
28.1 Alzheimer’s disease 445
28.1.1 Introduction and epidemiology 445
28.1.2 Signs and symptoms 445
28.1.3 Pathogenesis 445
28.1.4 Pharmacological therapy 446
28.2 Saffron in Alzheimer’s disease treatment 446
28.2.1 Introduction to saffron 446
28.2.2 Effects of saffron on the central
nervous system 446
28.2.3 Neuroprotective activity
of saffron 448
28.2.4 Saffron clinical trials on
Alzheimer’s disease 448
28.3 Other herbal medicines and Alzheimer’s
disease 449
28.4 Conclusion 449
References 449
29. Cardiovascular effects of saffron
and its active constituents 451
Bibi-Marjan Razavi and Hossein Hosseinzadeh
29.1 Introduction 451
29.2 Cardiovascular pharmacological
effects of saffron 452
29.2.1 Antiarrhythmic and antiischemic
effects 452
29.2.2 Protective effects against cardiac
hypertrophy 453
29.2.3 Effects of saffron and its active
constituents on blood pressure 453
29.2.4 Antiatherosclerotic effects of
saffron and its active constituents 454
29.2.5 Protective effects of saffron and
its active constituents on natural
and chemical toxins 455
29.3 Conclusion 457
References 457
30. Saffron, its main derivatives, and
their effects on the respiratory
system 461
Mohammad-Hossein Boskabady,
Vahideh Ghorani and Azam Alavinezhad
30.1 Introduction 461
30.2 Bronchodilatory effect of saffron and
its derivatives 462
30.2.1 Relaxant effect of saffron extracts
on airway smooth muscle 462
30.2.2 Relaxant effect of saffron
derivatives on airway smooth
muscle 462
30.2.3 Possible mechanisms of the
airway smooth muscle relaxant
effect of saffron and its
derivatives 463
30.3 Prophylactic effect of saffron and its
derivatives on respiratory disorders 464
30.3.1 Prophylactic effect of saffron
extracts on respiratory disorders 464
30.3.2 Prophylactic effect of saffron
derivatives on respiratory
disorders 466
30.4 Conclusion 467
References 467
31. Saffron’s role in metabolic
disorders 471
Ahmad Ghorbani
31.1 Introduction 471
31.2 Effects of saffron on obesity 471
31.3 Effects of saffron on diabetes 472
31.3.1 Antihyperglycemic effects of
saffron 473
31.3.2 Antihyperglycemic mechanisms
of saffron 473
31.3.3 Effects of saffron on diabetic
complications 476
31.4 Conclusion 479
References 480
32. Anticancer properties of saffron 485
Jalil Tavakol-Afshari, Mohammad-Hossein
Boskabady and Roshanak Salari
32.1 Introduction 485
32.2 Lung cancer 486
32.3 Pancreatic cancer 487
32.4 Colorectal cancer 487
32.5 Breast cancer 487
32.6 Leukemia 488
32.7 Hepatic cancer 489
32.8 Cervical cancer 489
32.9 Skin cancer 490
32.10 Prostate cancer 490
32.11 Gastric cancer 490
32.12 Conclusion 491
References 491
33. Available saffron formulations and
product patents 493
Seyed Ahmad Mohajeri, Narges Hedayati and
Mehri Bemani-Naeini
33.1 Introduction 494
33.2 Skin care products 494
33.2.1 Creams 494
33.2.2 Masks 495
33.3 Health care products 496
33.3.1 Toothpaste 496
33.3.2 Drugs for kidney health 496
33.3.3 Compositions containing
enriched natural crocin
and/or crocetin 496
33.3.4 Hair conditioner 496
33.4 Therapeutic products 496
33.4.1 Chinese medicine for
treatment of angiitis 496
33.4.2 Krocina tablet 496
33.4.3 Topical spray 497
33.4.4 Arthritis and rheumatism liquid
patch 497
33.4.5 Ointment for treating dermatitis 497
33.4.6 Antiacne ointment 497
33.4.7 Topical spray for treating skin
scars 497
33.4.8 Oral compositions 497
33.4.9 Tibetan nighttime medicine 497
33.4.10 Antimicrobial composition 498
33.4.11 Chinese medicinal composition 498
33.4.12 Gout medicine 498
33.4.13 Prepregnancy fetus protection
pills 498
33.4.14 Cold and flu symptomatic relief
composition 498
33.4.15 Herbal composition for treating
diabetes 498
33.4.16 Multiglycosides saffron tablets 498
33.4.17 Externally applied Chinese
medicine 499
33.4.18 Satiation agent for the treatment
of obesity 499
33.4.19 Medicine for treating chronic
obstructive pulmonary disease 499
33.4.20 Topical treatment for rheumatic
arthritis 499
33.4.21 Chinese medicine for treatment
and prevention of rheumatic
arthritis 499
33.4.22 Saffron-based compositions
for treating of duodenal bulbar
ulcer or inflammation 499
33.4.23 Traditional Chinese medicine
for treating gastric ulcer 499
33.4.24 Topical treatment for breast cancer 500
33.4.25 Chinese medicine for treating brain apoplexy 500
33.4.26 Saffrotin capsule 500
33.4.27 Composition for the treatment and prevention of degenerative eye disorders 500
33.4.28 Medicine for treating prostatic hyperplasia 500
33.4.29 Chinese medicine for treatment of gynecologic diseases 500
33.4.30 Traditional Chinese composition for treating dysmenorrhea 501
33.4.31 Composition for treating endocrine dysfunction 501
33.4.32 Chinese formulation for treating premature ovarian failure 501
33.4.33 Traditional Chinese medicine for treating rheumatic heart disease 501
33.4.34 Chinese medicine for treating cataracts 501
33.4.35 Traditional Chinese medicine capable of treating cervical spondylosis 501
33.4.36 Traditional Chinese medicine preparation for treating qi stagnation and blood stasis 502
33.4.37 Chinese medicine for treating osteoproliferation and herniated disk 502
33.4.38 Traditional Chinese medicine for treating blocking antibody deficiency in recurrent spontaneous abortion 502
33.4.39 Herbal medicine formula for treating nasopharyngitis 502
33.4.40 Chinese medicine for treating lung tumor 502
33.4.41 Medicine for treating damp-heat stagnation (abdominal mass) 502
33.4.42 Traditional Chinese medicine composition for treating ascites due to cirrhosis 503
33.4.43 Traditional Chinese medicine for treating nonulcer dyspepsia 503
33.4.44 Chinese medicine for treating peptic ulcer 503
33.4.45 Medicine for treating ankylosing spondylitis 503
33.4.46 Externally-applied wet tissue for treating measles 503
33.4.47 Treatment of herpes zoster 503
33.4.48 Chinese composition for treating septic shock 504
33.4.49 Drug for treating bone injury 504
33.4.50 Traditional Chinese medicine for treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases 504
33.4.51 Medicine for treating eyelid eczema 504
33.5 Food products 504
33.5.1 Vegetable drinks 504
33.5.2 Healthy drink prepared from saffron pollen 504
33.6 Conclusion 513
References 513

34. Safety and toxicity of saffron 517
Soghra Mehri, Bibi-Marjan Razavi and Hossein Hosseinzadeh
34.1 Introduction 517
34.2 Experimental data on the safety and toxicity of saffron and its bioactive ingredients in animal models 518
34.2.1 Acute toxicity 518
34.2.2 Subacute toxicity 518
34.2.3 Subchronic and chronic toxicity 519
34.2.4 Developmental toxicity 520
34.2.5 Mutagenicity and genotoxicity 521
34.3 Clinical studies on safe and toxic doses
of saffron and its bioactive ingredients 523
34.4 Conclusion 527
References 528
Index 531

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