Textile Chemistry pdf by Thomas Bechtold and Tung Pham (De Gruyter)

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Textile Chemistry
By Thomas Bechtold and Tung Pham
Textile Chemistry

Contents
1 Textiles
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Spinning
1.3 Linear density – yarn count
1.4 Fabric formation
1.5 Textile chemical aspects in spinning and fabric formation
1.5.1 Spin finish
1.5.2 Sizing
1.5.3 Embroidery
1.5.4 Printing/coating
1.5.5 Garment production/assembly/joining
1.5.6 Technical textiles
References 

2 Textile fibres
2.1 Fibre production
2.2 Fibre formation
2.2.1 Polymer-dependent fibre properties
2.3 Molecular mass/degree of polymerisation
2.4 Important fibres and their chemistry
2.4.1 Cellulose fibres
2.4.2 Structure of cotton/flax/hemp fibres
2.5 Relevant aspects of cellulose chemistry (chemical reactions, d
erivatisation and chemical stability)
2.6 Chemical reactions
2.6.1 Derivatisation
2.6.2 Hydrolysis
2.6.3 Oxidation
2.6.4 Esterification
2.6.5 Etherification
2.6.6 Complex formation
2.6.7 The secondary structure of cellulose
2.6.8 Methods of structural characterisation
2.7 Regenerated cellulose fibres
2.7.1 Dissolution of cellulose
2.7.2 The viscose process
2.7.3 Lyocell fibres – the NMMO process
2.7.4 Ionic liquids and other cellulose solvents
2.7.5 Cupro fibres – the cuprammonium process
2.7.6 Cellulose diacetate and triacetate
2.8 Protein fibres
2.8.1 General aspects of protein fibres
2.8.2 Protein structure – basic properties
2.8.3 Wool
2.8.4 Silk
2.8.5 Casein fibres
2.9 Synthetic fibres
2.9.1 General
2.9.2 Polyamide
2.9.3 Aminocarboxylic acid-based PAs
2.9.4 Diamine–dicarboxylic acid-based PAs
2.9.5 PES fibres
2.9.6 Polylactic acid and polyhydroxybutyrate
2.9.7 Polyurethanes/elastomer fibres
2.9.8 Polyolefin fibres, PE and PP
2.9.9 Polyacrylonitrile fibres
2.9.10 High-performance fibres
References 

3 Structure of textile fibres
3.1 General aspects
3.2 Crystallinity versus amorphous regions
3.3 Constitution of a polymer
3.4 High-performance fibres
3.5 Molecular weight distribution
3.6 Consequences of polydispersity
3.7 Configuration
3.8 Conformation
3.8.1 Conformational statistics
3.9 Polymer assemblies
3.10 The thermodynamic non-equilibrium state of polymers
3.11 Models of fibre structure
3.12 Consequences of polymer order in a fibre
3.12.1 Moisture/adsorption/swelling
Reference
4 Basic interactions between fibre polymers and sorptives
4.1 General
4.2 Dipoles
4.3 Polarisability
4.4 Molecular interactions
4.4.1 Ion–ion interactions
4.4.2 Van der Waals forces
4.4.3 Hydrogen bonds
4.4.4 Hydrophobic interactions
4.4.5 π-electron interactions
4.5 The polymer–solvent boundary layer
4.6 Zeta potential
4.7 Donnan equilibrium
References
5 Thermodynamics and kinetics in fibre chemistry
5.1 Moisture sorption
5.2 Moisture sorption isotherms
5.2.1 Water activity
5.3 Sorption kinetics for adsorption from the gas phase
5.4 Sorption from the liquid phase
5.4.1 General considerations
5.4.2 The Nernst isotherm
5.4.3 The Freundlich isotherm
5.4.4 Langmuir adsorption isotherm
5.4.5 Special aspects of sorption isotherms
References
6 Kinetics of textile chemical processes
6.1 Elementary steps in polyester dyeing
6.2 Step A – dissolution of dispersed dye
6.3 Infinite and finite dyeing kinetics
6.4 Step B – hydraulic transport in the dyebath
6.5 Step C – diffusion through the boundary layer of the fibre
6.6 Step D – dyestuff sorption in the fibre
6.7 Levelling
6.8 Follow-up reactions – kinetics in reactive dyeing
6.9 Preceding and following reactions – vat dyeing
6.10 Aggregation
References
7 Basics of colour development
7.1 The phenomenon of colour – how to approach?
7.2 Physical aspects of colour development
7.3 Additive and subtractive colour
7.4 Development of colour
7.5 Colour variations independent of molecular structure
7.6 Fluorescence and phosphorescence
7.7 Textile chemical relevance
References
8 General principles of dyes
8.1 The molecular structure of dyes
8.2 The azo chromophore
8.2.1 Mono-, di- and polyazo dyes
8.2.2 The diazotisation
8.2.3 The coupling component
8.3 Anthraquinone chromophores
8.4 Indigoid chromophores
8.5 Cationic dyes
8.6 Polymethine dyes
8.7 Phthalocyanine dyes – Aza[18]annulenes
8.8 Sulphur-based chromophores
8.9 Metal complexes
8.10 Formazan dyes
8.11 Fluorescent brighteners/fluorescent whitening agents
8.12 Photodegradation of dyes
8.13 Photodegradation of dye classes
References
9 Colour measurement
9.1 The perception of colour
9.2 The standard observer
9.3 Colour specification through the CIELAB system
9.4 Metamerism
9.5 Tristimulus values
9.6 Colour coordinates
9.7 Measurement of reflectance curves
9.8 Determination of whiteness, yellowness
9.9 Colour strength – the Kubelka–Munk function
9.10 Prediction of dyeing recipes
9.11 Gloss/lustre
References
10 Dye chemistry
10.1 Overview
10.2 Disperse dyes
10.2.1 Dyeing processes with disperse dyes
10.2.2 Reductive cleaning
10.3 Direct dyes
10.4 Reactive dyes
10.4.1 Chemistry of reactive dyes
10.4.2 Important dyeing techniques
10.5 Vat dyes
10.5.1 Oxidation/soaping
10.6 Indigo
10.6.1 Synthesis of indigo
10.6.2 Application of indigo
10.6.3 Chemistry of indigo reduction
10.6.4 Garment wash – fading
10.7 Sulphur dyes
10.8 Acid dyes and metal complex dyes
10.9 Naphthol dyes
10.10 Cationic dyes/basic dyes
10.11 Natural colourants
10.11.1 General aspects
10.11.2 Major classes of natural colourants
10.11.3 Tannin-based dyes
10.12 Pigment dyes
10.13 Textile printing
10.13.1 General aspects of printing
10.13.2 Screen printing
10.13.3 Ink-jet printing
10.13.4 Special printing techniques
References
11 Pre-treatment
11.1 Sizing
11.2 Desizing
11.3 Alkaline extraction
11.4 Prewashing of textiles from synthetic fibres
11.5 Setting of synthetic fibres
11.6 Alkalisation (causticising, mercerisation)
11.7 Alkalisation of polyester fibres
11.8 Bleaching
11.8.1 General aspects
11.8.2 Peroxide compounds
11.8.3 Halogen-based oxidants
11.9 Singing
11.10 Carbonisation
11.11 Reductive bleach
11.12 Wool anti-felt treatment
11.13 Cationisation
11.14 Degumming of silk
11.15 Production of microfibres
References
12 Finishing
12.1 General aspects
12.2 Easy-care/durable press finishing
12.3 Softening
12.4 Hand building finishes
12.5 Water-repellent finishes
12.6 Flame retardant finishes
12.7 Antistatic finishes
12.8 Improvement of colour fastness
12.9 Improving the light fastness
12.10 UV protection
12.11 Antimicrobial finishing
12.12 Insect-resistant finishes – Mite protection
12.13 Enzymatic finishing – biofinishing
12.14 Denim finishing
12.15 Finishes that influence thermal regulation
12.16 Sorption of fragrances and functional substances
12.17 Plasma chemistry in textile treatment/modification
12.17.1 Introduction
12.17.2 Effect of plasma treatment on fibre and textile surfaces
12.17.3 Free radical formation
12.17.4 Etching/cleaning
12.17.5 Surface activation and functionalisation
12.17.6 Surface coating by plasma-induced polymerisation
12.17.7 Industrial plasma technologies and applications on textil
es
References

13 Technical approaches in dyestuff/chemical application
13.1 General aspects
13.2 Batchwise operation
13.3 Yarn dyeing apparatus
13.4 Overflow dyeing machines/jet dyeing machines
13.5 Continuous pretreatment
13.6 Continuous dyeing processes – cold-pad-batch dyeing
13.7 Continuous dyeing processes – pad-dry/pad steam plants
13.8 Drying, fixation and finishing
13.9 Minimum pick-up applications
13.10 Coating and laminating
References
14 Surfactants, detergents and laundry
14.1 Surfactants
14.2 Classification of surfactants
14.3 Solubility of surfactants
14.4 Contact angle
14.5 Cloud point
14.6 Surfactant adhesion at interfaces
14.7 The role of multivalent ions
14.8 Detergent ingredients
14.9 Washing and environment
References

15 Environmental aspects of textiles
15.1 Waste water
15.2 General wastewater treatment
15.3 Processing steps and relevant aspects of wastewater treatm
ent
15.3.1 General
15.3.2 Wool processing
15.3.3 Sizing/desizing
15.3.4 Scouring, bleaching, pre-washing
15.3.5 Mercerisation/causticising
15.3.6 Dyeing processes
15.3.7 Printing
15.3.8 Finishing
15.4 End-of-pipe technologies
15.4.1 Neutralisation
15.4.2 Filtration techniques
15.4.3 Flocculation and sedimentation
15.4.4 Oxidative processes
15.4.5 Adsorption
15.4.6 Biological (aerobic, anaerobic) treatment
15.5 Recycling and disposal
15.6 Approaches and challenges
References
Index

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