Textiles and Clothing: Environmental Concerns and Solutions pdf Edited by Mohd Shabbir

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Textiles and Clothing: Environmental Concerns and Solutions
Edited by Mohd Shabbir
Textiles and Clothing: Environmental Concerns and Solutions

Contents
Preface xiii
1 Introduction to Textiles and the Environment 1
Mohd Shabbir and Masoom Naim
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Textile Fiber Manufacturing/Processing and the Environment 3
1.3 Textile Finishing and the Environment 4
1.4 Dyeing and the Environment 4
1.5 Technologies and Methods to Cure
the Textile-Infected Environment 5
1.6 Reuse of Wastewater from the Textile Industry 7
1.7 Conclusion and Perspectives 7
References 8
2 Synthetic Dyes: A Threat to the Environment and Water Ecosystem 11
Mohd Yusuf
2.1 Introduction 11
2.2 Environmental Hazards Parallel to Dye Applications 12
2.2.1 Impact on Human Health 13
2.2.2 Impact on Growth of Crops and Plants 15
2.2.3 Impact on Water Ecosystem 16
2.3 Regulations and Toxicological Prospects of Synthetic Dyes 18
2.4 Conclusion and Future Prospects 23
References 24

3 In Search of Natural Dyes Towards Sustainability
from the Regions of Africa (Akebu-Lan) 27
S. Anuradha Jabasingh
3.1 Role of Natural Dyes in the Tradition of the African Continent 28
3.2 Indigenous Sources of Natural Dyes 30
3.3 Dyeing and Processing Techniques 34
3.4 Fashion Fabric with Natural Colors 36
3.5 Natural Shades for Environmental Sustainability:
Application Aspects 41
3.6 Conclusions 42
References 42
4 Revitalization of Carotenoid-Based Natural Colorants
in Applied Field: A Short Review 45
Fazal-ur-Rehman, Shahid Adeel, Kaleem Khan Khosa,
Mahwish Salman, Atta-ul-Haq and Sana Rafi
4.1 Introduction of Natural Dyes 46
4.2 Carotenoids as Natural Colorant 46
4.3 Classification of Carotenoids 48
4.3.1 Structure-Based Carotenoids 48
4.3.1.1 Carotene 48
4.3.1.2 Xanthophylls 50
4.3.2 Color 53
4.3.2.1 Red 53
4.3.2.2 Yellow 53
4.3.2.3 Orange 54
4.4 Sources of Carotenoids as Natural Pigment 54
4.4.1 Plants 54
4.4.2 Microorganisms 56
4.5 Functional Assets of Carotenoids 57
4.5.1 Antioxidant Activity 58
4.5.2 Antimicrobial Activity 59
4.5.3 Photoprotection Property 60
4.6 Extraction Phenomenon of Carotenoids 60
4.6.1 Conventional Methods 60
4.6.1.1 Solvent Method 61
4.6.1.2 Soxhlet Method 61
4.6.2 Advanced Methods 61
4.6.2.1 Supercritical Fluid Method 62
4.6.2.2 Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) 63
4.6.2.3 Ultrasound Method 63
4.6.2.4 Microwave Radiation 64
4.6.2.5 Ultraviolet Radiation 64
4.6.2.6 Gamma Radiation 64
4.7 Potential Resurgence of Carotenoids in Textile 65
4.7.1 Marigold 65
4.7.2 Saffron 66
4.7.3 Pepper 67
4.7.4 Annatto 67
4.7.5 Tomato 68
4.7.6 Delonix regia 68
4.7.7 Sweet Potato 68
4.8 Conclusion 68
Acknowledgments 69
References 69
5 Environmentally Sound Dyeing of Cellulose-Based Textiles 79
Nabil A. Ibrahim, Basma M. Eid and Tawfik A. Khattab
5.1 Introduction 79
5.2 Cellulose-Based Textiles 80
5.3 Common Preparation Processes and Environmental Impacts 81
5.4 Dyeing of Cellulosic Substrates 82
5.5 Environmental Impacts of Conventional Dyeing 84
5.6 Cleaner Production Opportunities 88
5.7 Future Trends 89
References 95
6 Environmentally-Friendly Textile Finishing 101
Mohammad Tajul Islam and Syed Asaduzzaman
6.1 Use of Enzymes in Textile Finishing 101
6.1.1 Bio-Polish 102
6.1.2 Anti-Felting 104
6.1.3 Denim Washing 105
6.1.4 Hydrophilic Finishing 107
6.2 Easy Care 107
6.2.1 Finish Containing Low “Free Formaldehyde” 108
6.2.2 Non-Formaldehyde Finish 108
6.3 Softening Finishes 110
6.4 Repellent Finishes 113
6.4.1 Short-Chain Fluorocarbon 114
6.5 Flame-Retardant (FR) Finish 115
6.5.1 Replacing Bromine 117
6.5.2 Replacing Formaldehyde Chemistry 118
6.5.3 Novel Surface Chemistries 119
6.6 Ultraviolet (UV) Protection Finish 119
6.7 Plasma Treatment 120
6.7.1 Plasma Application on the Finishing of Natural Fibers 121
6.7.2 Plasma Application on the Finishing of Synthetic Fibers 121
6.8 Energy-Efficient and Water-Saving Finishing Processes 122
6.8.1 Low Wet Pickup Methods 122
6.8.2 Hotmelt Polymers/Adhesives 123
6.8.3 Minimization of Energy Consumption
of Stenter Frames 123
6.8.4 Emerging Processes 124
References 124
7 Functional Finishes for Cotton-Based Textiles: Current
Situation and Future Trends 131
Nabil A. Ibrahim, Basma M. Eid and Samar M. Sharaf
7.1 Introduction 131
7.2 Easy Care Finishing 133
7.2.1 Essential Properties of Finishing Agent 134
7.2.2 Current Easy Care Finishing Agent 134
7.2.3 Cross-Linking of Cellulose Structure 134
7.2.4 Test Method 140
7.3 Softening Finishes 140
7.3.1 Desirable Properties 141
7.3.2 Classification 142
7.3.3 Chemical Structures 142
7.3.4 Silicone Softeners 142
7.3.4.1 Molecular Size 142
7.3.4.2 Reactivity 147
7.3.4.3 Chemical Structure 147
7.3.5 Mode of Interaction 147
7.3.6 Evaluation of the Performance of the Soft Finish 147
7.4 Hydrophobic and Oleophobic Functional Finishes 150
7.4.1 Mode of Actions 150
7.4.2 Water- and Oil-Repellent Finishing Agents 151
7.4.3 Test Methods 151
7.5 Flame-Retardant Functional Finish 151
7.5.1 Factors Affecting Functionalization 155
7.5.2 Major Requirements 155
7.5.3 Mode of Action 155
7.5.4 Flame-Retardant Types 157
7.5.5 Test Methods 160
7.6 Antimicrobial Finish 160
7.6.1 Mode of Action 160
7.6.2 Requirement of Antimicrobial Finishes 161
7.6.3 Antimicrobial Agents 161
7.6.4 Methods of Application 161
7.6.5 Test Methods 161
7.7 UV Protection Functional Finishes 168
7.7.1 Factors Affecting UV-Blocking Ability 168
7.7.2 UV-Protection Mechanisms 168
7.7.3 Application Methods 168
7.7.4 Evaluation of UV-Protection Textiles 171
7.8 Recent Developments in Functional Finishes 171
7.9 Future Trends 171
References 179
8 Remediation of Textile Effluents via Physical and Chemical
Methods for a Safe Environment 191
Shumaila Kiran, Sofia Nosheen, Shazia Abrar, Sadia Javed,
Nosheen Aslam, Gulnaz Afzal, Ikram Ahmad and Farhat Ijaz
8.1 Physical Methods for the Wastewater Treatment Processes 192
8.1.1 Screening Removal System 192
8.1.1.1 Types of Screens 192
8.1.1.2 Coarse Screens 193
8.1.1.3 Cleaned Screens through Hand 193
8.1.1.4 Cleaned Screens through Mechanical
Process 193
8.1.1.5 Fine Screens 194
8.1.1.6 Micro Screens 195
8.1.2 Grit Chamber 195
8.1.3 Skimming Tank 196
8.1.4 Solids Separation through Sedimentation 197
8.1.4.1 Parameters Influencing Sedimentation 197
8.1.4.2 Types of Sedimentation Tank 197
8.1.5 Filtration 198
8.1.5.1 Membrane Technology 199
8.1.5.2 Microfiltration 200
8.1.5.3 Ultrafiltration (UF) 200
8.1.5.4 Nanofiltration 201
8.1.6 Reverse Osmosis 202
8.1.7 Adsorption 203
8.1.7.1 Adsorption by Activated Carbon (AC) 204
8.1.7.2 Adsorption by Peat 205
8.1.7.3 Absorption by Wood Chips 205
8.1.7.4 Adsorption by Fly Ash and Coal (Mixture) 206
8.1.7.5 Adsorption by Silica Gel 207
8.1.8 Electro-Kinetic Coagulation 207
8.1.9 Coagulation and Flocculation 208
8.1.10 Ion Exchangers 209
8.2 Chemical Methods for Wastewater Treatment 211
8.2.1 Precipitation 211
8.2.2 Flotation 211
8.2.3 Neutralization 212
8.2.4 Oxidation/Reduction 212
8.2.5 Advanced Oxidation Process 213
8.2.6 Cucurbituril 213
8.2.7 Ozonation 216
8.2.8 Photochemical Process 218
8.2.9 Chlorination 220
8.3 Conclusion 221
Acknowledgments 222
References 222
9 Fenton and Photo-Fenton Oxidation for the Remediation
of Textile Effluents: An Experimental Study 235
Zubera Naseem, Haq Nawaz Bhatti, Munawar Iqbal,
Saima Noreen and Muhammad Zahid
9.1 Introduction 236
9.2 Materials and Methods 237
9.3 Results and Discussion 237
9.3.1 Effect of pH 237
9.3.2 Effect of Contact Time 239
9.3.3 Effect of Fe+2 Concentrations 240
9.3.4 Effect of H2O2 Dose 241
9.3.5 Effect of Initial Dye Concentration 242
9.3.6 Effect of Temperature 243
9.3.7 Effect of UV Radiation 244
9.4 Kinetic Modeling 245
9.4.1 Comparison of First-Order, Second-Order,
and Behnajady–Modirshahla–Ghanbery Kinetic
Models for AO3 245
9.4.2 Comparison of First-Order, Second-Order,
and Behnajady–Modirshahla–Ghanbery (BMG)
Kinetic Models for AY 216 at Different Intensities
of UV Radiation at a Wavelength of 365 nm 247
9.5 Conclusions 247
References 249
10 Recent Advances in the Processing of Modern Methods
and Techniques for Textile Effluent Remediation—A Review 253
Sabiyah Akhter, Luqman Jameel Rather, Showkat Ali Ganie,
Ovas Ahmad Dar and Qazi Parvaiz Hassan
10.1 Introduction 254
10.2 Pollution Problems with Associated Human Health
and Environmental Risks 254
10.3 Types of Textile Effluents 260
10.4 Effluent Treatment 261
10.5 Traditional/Conventional Physicochemical Methods
for Effluent Removal 262
10.5.1 Physical Methods 262
10.5.1.1 Adsorption Process 262
10.5.1.2 Irradiation 265
10.5.1.3 Electro-Kinetic Coagulation 266
10.5.1.4 Membrane Filtration/Separation 266
10.5.2 Chemical Methods (Advanced Oxidative Processes) 267
10.5.2.1 H2O2–Fe (II) Salts (Fenton’s Reagent) 268
10.5.2.2 Ozonation 269
10.5.2.3 Photochemical Oxidation 270
10.5.2.4 Sodium Hypochlorite 271
10.5.2.5 Electrochemical Oxidation 271
10.6 Biopolymers as Potential Wastewater Management
Alternative 272
10.7 Conclusion 276
Acknowledgment 277
References 278

11 Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Wastewater Using Micellar-
Enhanced Ultrafiltration Technique (MEUF): A Brief Review 289
Amnah Yusaf, Shahid Adeel, Muhammad Usman, Asim Mansha
and Matloob Ahmad
11.1 Introduction 290
11.2 Removal of Single Metals by MEUF 291
11.2.1 Removal of Arsenic 291
11.2.2 Removal of Cadmium 292
11.2.3 Removal of Copper 294
11.2.4 Removal of Chromium 295
11.2.5 Removal of Uranium 295
11.2.6 Removal of Gold 295
11.2.7 Removal of Iron 296
11.2.8 Removal of Lead 296
11.2.9 Removal of Nickel 297
11.2.10 Removal of Manganese 298
11.2.11 Removal of the Platinum Group 298
11.2.12 Removal of Americium 298
11.2.13 Removal of Aluminum 298
11.2.14 Removal of Palladium 298
11.2.15 Removal of Zinc 299
11.2.16 Removal of Metals in the Presence of Other Metals 299
11.3 Factors Affecting the Efficiency of MEUF 301
11.3.1 Effects of Surfactant Concentrations 301
11.3.2 The Effect of Ratio of Concentration of Surfactant
to Metal Ion (S/M) 302
11.3.3 The Effect of Mixed Micellization 302
11.3.4 Effect of pH Value 302
11.3.5 Effects of Electrolytes 303
11.3.6 Effects of Transmembrane Pressure 303
11.3.7 Effect of Temperature 304
11.3.8 Effect of Nature of Membrane 304
11.3.9 The Effect of Concentration of Metal Ion in Feed 304
11.3.10 The Effect of Operating Time 305
11.3.11 The Effect of Rate of Feed Flow 305
11.3.12 Effect of Applied Pressure 305
11.3.13 Effect of Initial Concentration of Metal Ions 306
11.4 Surfactant Recovery from Retentate 306
11.5 Summary (in Tabulated Form) 306
11.6 Conclusions 310
References 310
Index 317

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