The Chemistry of Textile Fibres PDF by R. H. Wardman and R. R. Mather

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The Chemistry of Textile Fibres
by R. H. Wardman and R. R. Mather
The Chemistry of Textile Fibres

Contents
Acronyms xxiii
Chapter 1 The Scope of Textile Fibres 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Classification of Textile Fibres 2
1.3 Fibre Production Statistics 4
1.4 Characteristics of Textile Fibres 7
1.5 Requirements of Fibre-Forming Polymers 9
1.6 Properties of Textile Fibres 12
1.6.1 Mechanical Properties 13
1.6.2 Thermal Properties 15
1.6.3 Electrical Properties 16
1.6.4 Optical Properties 18
1.6.5 Surface Properties 21
1.6.6 Biological Properties 21
Suggested Further Reading 23
Chapter 2 Cellulosic Fibres 25

2.1 Introduction 25
2.2 Seed Fibres 25
2.2.1 Growth and Morphology of Cotton 26
2.2.2 Chemical Composition of Cotton 29
2.2.3 Crystalline Structure of Cotton 32
2.2.4 Chemical Processing of Cotton 34
2.2.5 Chemical Reactions of Cellulose 35
2.2.6 Fibre Properties 44
2.2.7 GM Cotton 45
2.2.8 ‘Green Cotton’ 46
2.3 Bast Fibres 49
2.3.1 Flax 49
2.3.2 Hemp 54
2.3.3 Jute 55
2.3.4 Ramie 57
2.3.5 Bamboo 59
2.3.6 Nettles 60
2.3.7 Uses of Bast Fibres 61
2.4 Leaf Fibres 62
2.5 Other Polysaccharide Fibres 62
2.5.1 Alginate Fibres 63
2.5.2 Chitin and Chitosan Fibres 64
Suggested Further Reading 66
Chapter 3 Protein Fibres 67

3.1 Introduction 67
3.2 Wool 67
3.2.1 Origins and Morphology 67
3.2.2 Cuticle 70
3.2.3 Cortex 71
3.2.4 Cell Membrane Complex 72
3.2.5 Chemical Composition of Wool 72
3.2.6 Isolation and Location of Keratins 77
3.2.7 Processing of Wool Fleeces 78
3.2.8 Chemical Reactions of Wool 79
3.2.9 Setting 93
3.2.10 Shrinkproofing 94
3.2.11 Fibre Properties 97
3.2.12 Ecological Aspects 97
3.3 Speciality Mammalian Fibres 99
3.4 Silk 101
3.4.1 Introduction 101
3.4.2 Chemical Composition of Silk 102
3.4.3 Bleaching of Silk 104
3.4.4 Chemical Reactions of Silk 104
3.4.5 Silk Weighting 106
3.4.6 Fibre Properties 106
3.5 Spider Silk 107
3.5.1 Introduction 107
3.5.2 Chemical Composition of Spider Silk 109
Suggested Further Reading 110
Chapter 4 Regenerated Fibres 111

4.1 Regenerated Cellulosic Fibres 111
4.1.1 Viscose 113
4.1.2 Variants of Rayons 119
4.1.3 Cuprammonium Rayon 126
4.1.4 Lyocell Fibres 128
4.1.5 Other Solvent-Based Processes 135
4.1.6 Cellulose Acetate Fibres 135
4.2 Regenerated Protein Fibres 139
Suggested Further Reading 143
Chapter 5 Synthetic Fibres 144
5.1 General Introduction 144
5.2 Processing of Synthetic Fibres 145
5.2.1 Introduction 145
5.2.2 Melt Spinning 146
5.2.3 Solution Spinning 148
5.2.4 Drawing 151
5.3 Polyamide Fibres 153
5.3.1 Introduction 153
5.3.2 Manufacture of Monomers 154
5.3.3 Production of Nylon 6,6 159
5.3.4 Production of Nylon 6 160
5.3.5 Fibre Extrusion 161
5.3.6 Physical Structure 162
5.3.7 Chemistry of Polyamide Fibres 163
5.3.8 Fibre Properties 168
5.4 Polyester Fibres 169
5.4.1 Introduction 169
5.4.2 Manufacture of Monomers 171
5.4.3 Production of Polyesters 176
5.4.4 Fibre Processing 179
5.4.5 Physical Structure 180
5.4.6 Chemistry of Polyester Fibres 181
5.4.7 Fibre Properties 184
5.5 Acrylic and Modacrylic Fibres 185
5.5.1 Introduction 185
5.5.2 Manufacture of Acrylonitrile 188
5.5.3 Polymerisation of Acrylonitrile 190
5.5.4 Fibre Extrusion 191
5.5.5 Chemical Properties of Acrylic Fibres 193
5.5.6 Physical Properties of Acrylic Fibres 194
5.5.7 Uses of Acrylic Fibres 195
5.6 Polyolefin Fibres 196
5.6.1 Introduction 196
5.6.2 Manufacture of Monomers 200
5.6.3 Production of Polyolefins 200
5.6.4 Fibre Processing 202
5.6.5 Physical Structures 204
5.6.6 Chemistry of Polyolefin Fibres 205
5.6.7 Fibre Properties 207
5.7 Elastomeric Fibres 208
5.7.1 Introduction 208
5.7.2 Elastane Fibres 210
5.7.3 Elastodiene Fibres 217
5.7.4 Elastomultiester Fibres 218
5.7.5 Elastolefin Fibres 219
5.8 Microfibres 219
5.9 Bicomponent Fibres and Polymer Blends 221
Suggested Further Reading 224
Chapter 6 High-Performance Fibres 226

6.1 Introduction 226
6.2 Aramid Fibres 228
6.2.1 Introduction 228
6.2.2 Production of Aramid Fibres 228
6.2.3 Physical Structure 232
6.2.4 Chemistry of Aramid Fibres 234
6.2.5 Fibre Properties 236
6.3 Aromatic Polyester Fibres 236
6.3.1 Introduction 236
6.3.2 Production of Aromatic Polyester Fibres 237
6.3.3 Fibre Structure 238
6.3.4 Chemistry of Aromatic Polyester Fibres 240
6.3.5 Fibre Properties 240
6.4 Polybenzimidazole Fibres 240
6.4.1 Introduction 240
6.4.2 Production of PBI Fibres 241
6.4.3 Fibre Properties 242
6.5 Poly( p-Phenylene Benzobisoxazole) Fibres 244
6.5.1 Introduction 244
6.5.2 Production of PBO Fibres 244
6.5.3 Fibre Properties 245
6.6 Fluoropolymer Fibres 246
6.6.1 Introduction 246
6.6.2 Production of Fluoropolymer Fibres 246
6.6.3 Fibre Properties 247
6.7 Carbon Fibres 247
6.7.1 Introduction 247
6.7.2 Carbon Fibres from PAN Fibres 248
6.7.3 Carbon Fibres from Mesophase Pitch 250
6.7.4 Fibre Structure 251
6.7.5 Fibre Properties 252
6.7.6 Carbon Nanotube Fibres 252
6.8 Thermoset Polymer Fibres 254
6.8.1 Introduction 254
6.8.2 Melamine–Formaldehyde Fibres 255
6.8.3 Phenol–Formaldehyde Fibres 256
6.9 Ceramic Fibres 257
6.9.1 Introduction 257
6.9.2 Production of Silicon Carbide Fibres 257
6.9.3 Production of Alumina Fibres 258
6.9.4 Fibre Properties 258
Suggested Further Reading 259
Chapter 7 Other Speciality Fibres 260
7.1 Nanofibres 260
7.1.1 Introduction 260
7.1.2 Methods for Making Nanofibres 261
7.1.3 Uses of Nanofibres 270
7.2 Electrically Conducting Fibres 271
7.2.1 Introduction 271
7.2.2 Methods for Making Electrically Conductive
Fibres 271
7.2.3 Inherently Conducting Nanofibres 284
7.2.4 Use of Conducting Polymers for Flexible
Textile Electrochromic Devices 285
7.3 Optical Fibres 286
7.3.1 Introduction 286
7.3.2 Glass Fibres 288
7.3.3 Polymer Optical Fibres (POFs) 291
7.3.4 Uses of Optical Fibres in Textiles 294
7.3.5 Photonic Crystal Fibres (PCFs) 297
7.4 Luminescent Fibres 300
7.4.1 Introduction 300
7.4.2 Photoluminescent Fibres 300
7.4.3 Electroluminescent Fibres 302
7.5 Biodegradable Fibres 303
7.5.1 Introduction 303
7.5.2 Polylactic Acid (PLA) 304
7.5.3 Polycaprolactone (PCL) 311
7.5.4 Other Biodegradable Fibres 312
Suggested Further Reading 313
Nanofibres 313
Electrically Conducting Fibres 313
Optical Fibres 314
Biodegradable Fibres 314

Chapter 8 Enhancement of Fibre Performance by Surface
Modification 315
8.1 Introduction 315
8.2 Wetting and Wicking Properties of Textiles 316
8.2.1 Introduction 316
8.2.2 Wetting 317
8.2.3 Wicking 322
8.3 Surface Treatments 326
8.3.1 Plasma Treatment 326
8.3.2 Enzyme Treatments 335
8.3.3 Chemical Finishing of Textiles 336
8.4 Sol–Gel Finishing 361
8.4.1 Superhydrophobic Fibres 363
8.4.2 Antimicrobial Treatments 366
8.4.3 UV Protection 369
8.5 Functionalisation Using Carbon Nanotubes 369
Suggested Further Reading 370
Wetting and Wicking 370
Surface Treatments 370
Chemical Finishes 371 

Chapter 9 The Chemistry of Functional Fibres and Fabrics 372
9.1 Introduction 372
9.2 Responsive Surface Treatments 372
9.2.1 Temperature-Responsive Hydrogels 373
9.2.2 pH-Responsive Hydrogels 375
9.2.3 Photo-Responsive Hydrogels 376
9.2.4 Bio-Responsive Hydrogels 377
9.2.5 Dual Stimuli-Responsive Hydrogels 377
9.3 Waterproof Breathable Fabrics 378
9.3.1 Introduction 378
9.3.2 Types of ‘Waterproof’/Breathable Systems 379
9.4 Thermoregulating Fabrics 386
9.5 Controlled-Release Coatings 389
9.5.1 Cyclodextrins 389
9.5.2 Encapsulation 393
9.5.3 Hollow Fibres 394
9.5.4 Ion-Exchange Fibres 395
9.6 Self-Cleaning Fabrics 397
9.7 Shape Memory Materials 399
9.8 Energy Harvesting Fabrics 404
Suggested Further Reading 406
Responsive Surface Treatments 406
Waterproof Breathable Fabrics 407
Thermoregulating Fabrics 407
Controlled-Release Coatings 407
Self-Cleaning Textiles 408
Shape Memory Materials 408
Energy Harvesting Fabrics 408
Appendices 409
Subject Index 419

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