Thermal Analysis of Textiles and Fibers PDF by Michael Jaffe and Joseph D. Menczel

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Thermal Analysis of Textiles and Fibers
by Michael Jaffe and Joseph D. Menczel
Thermal Analysis of Textiles and Fibers

Contents
List of contributors xiii
1. Introduction 1
Michael Jaffe and Joseph D. Menczel
1.1 Introduction 1
References 5

2. Fiber process_structure_property relationships 7
Michael Jaffe, Anthony J. East and Xianhong Feng
2.1 Introduction 7
2.2 Spinning 8
2.3 Drawing 13
2.4 Yarn after-processing—heat setting and bulking 14
References 14
Further reading 15

3. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in fiber research 17
Joseph D. Menczel and William S. Kohl
3.1 The basics of differential scanning calorimetry 17
3.2 Calibration of differential scanning calorimetries 23
3.2.1 Temperature calibration 23
3.2.2 Energy (enthalpy) calibration 30
3.2.3 Specific heat capacity calibration (heat flow calibration) 31
3.3 Differential scanning calorimetry of fibers 36
References 67
Further reading 69

4. Thermogravimetric analysis of fibers 71
Joseph D. Menczel
References 79
Further reading 79

5. Thermomechanical analysis of fibers 81
Joseph D. Menczel and Michael Jaffe
References 93
Further reading 94
6. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) in fiber research 95
Joseph D. Menczel
References 103

7. Thermal analysis of natural fibers 105
Ye Xue, Wenbing Hu and Xiao Hu
7.1 Introduction 105
7.2 Structure of natural fibers 106
7.2.1 Silk 107
7.2.2 Keratins 108
7.2.3 Celluloses 108
7.2.4 Collagens 109
7.2.5 Other natural fibers 109
7.3 Thermal analysis of natural fibers 109
7.3.1 Measurement of crystallinity of natural fibers by
differential scanning calorimetry 111
7.3.2 Thermal analysis characterization of the melting of
natural fibers 115
7.3.3 Thermal analysis measurement of the specific heat capacity
of natural fibers 117
7.3.4 Thermal analysis characterization of the crystallization
kinetics of natural polymers 119
7.3.5 Thermal analysis study of the natural polymer_bound
water systems 122
7.4 Thermal analysis study of the natural polymer_metal ions systems 124
7.5 Conclusion 126
References 127

8. Polyester fibers 133
Michel Jaffe, Anthony J. Easts and Xianhong Feng
8.1 Introduction 133
8.2 Poly(ethylene terephthalate) history 135
8.3 Poly(ethylene terephthalate) polymerization 135
8.4 Characterization of poly(ethylene terephthalate) chip 136
8.5 Poly(ethylene terephthalate) fiber processing 137
8.6 Physical properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) 138
8.7 Other polyesters 138
8.8 Thermal analysis (TA) of polyester fibers 139
8.9 Polyester fiber thermal analysis in the 21st century 145
8.10 Other polyester fibers, polypropylene terephthalate,
poly(butylene terephthalate), polyethylene naphthalate 147
8.11 Conclusion 147
References 147
Further reading 149
9. Thermal properties of aliphatic polyesters 151
Mazeyar Parvinzadeh Gashti, Marlon Bustos, Hicham Alayan,
Roya Jamarani and Milan Maric
9.1 An introduction to aliphatic polyesters 151
9.2 Thermal properties of polyglycolides 153
9.2.1 Homopolymers 153
9.2.2 Copolymers 156
9.2.3 Effect of additives on thermal properties 158
9.3 Thermal properties of polylactic acid/poly(lactide)s 158
9.3.1 Homopolymers 158
9.3.2 Copolymers 162
9.3.3 Effect of additives on thermal properties 164
9.4 Thermal properties of polycaprolactones 166
9.4.1 Homopolymers 166
9.4.2 Copolymers 170
9.4.3 Effect of additives on thermal properties 172
9.5 Thermal properties of polyhydroxyalkanoates 174
9.5.1 Homopolymers 174
9.5.2 Copolymers 175
9.5.3 Effect of additives on thermal properties 176
9.6 Conclusion 183
References 183
Further reading 189
10. Poly(ethylene naphthalate) [poly(ethylene-2,6-naphthalene
dicarboxylate)] 191
Joseph D. Menczel
References 196
11. Polyethylene fibers 197
Joseph D. Menczel and Tonson Abraham
References 203
Further reading 203
12. Polypropylene fibers 205
Alfre´d Menyha´rd, Joseph D. Menczel and
Tonson Abraham
12.1 Introduction 205
12.2 Manufacturing of polypropylene fibers 207
12.3 Processing of polypropylene 207
12.4 Properties of polypropylene fibers 208
12.5 Thermal analysis of polypropylene fibers 211
12.5.1 Melting 211
12.5.2 The glass transition 215
12.5.3 Comparison of results/experimental conditions 216
12.6 Conclusion 220
References 220
Further reading 222
13. Thermal analysis of aliphatic nylon fibers 223
Lawrence Judovits
13.1 Nylon fiber production and basics 223
13.2 Thermal analysis basics of nylon and its fibers 225
13.3 Nylon-6 232
13.4 Nylon-6,6 239
13.5 Other aliphatic nylon fibers 242
References 243
14. Thermal analysis of poly(aryl ether ketone) fibers 247
Lawrence Judovits
14.1 Introduction 247
14.2 Poly(aryl ether ketone) synthesis 248
14.3 Producers 248
14.4 Thermal analysis basics of poly(ether ether ketone) and
poly(ether ketone ketone) 249
14.5 Poly(ether ether ketone) fiber 251
14.6 Poly(ether ketone ketone) fiber 254
14.7 Conclusion 257
References 257
15. Surgical sutures 259
Joseph D. Menczel
References 269
Further reading 270
16. Thermal analysis of poly(vinyl alcohol) fibers 271
Zohar Ophir
16.1 Introduction 271
16.2 Manufacturing of poly(vinyl alcohol) fibers 272
16.2.1 Wet spinning of poly(vinyl alcohol) fibers 272
16.2.2 Dry spinning of poly(vinyl alcohol) fibers 273
16.2.3 Melt spinning of poly(vinyl alcohol) fibers 273
16.2.4 Gel spinning of poly(vinyl alcohol) fibers 273
16.2.5 Hot drawing and stabilization of poly(vinyl alcohol)
fibers 274
16.3 Thermal analysis of poly(vinyl alcohol) fibers 275
16.4 Conclusion 289
References 289
Further reading 290
17. Polybenzimidazole fiber 291
Joseph D. Menczel
References 295
Further reading 295
18. Thermal analysis of acrylic and carbon fibers 297
Shahram Arbab and Joseph D. Menczel
18.1 Overview 297
18.2 Introduction 298
18.3 Production of polyacrylonitrile fibers 301
18.4 Thermal analysis of polyacrylonitrile and polyacrylonitrile fibers 301
18.4.1 Thermal analysis of polyacrylonitrile 301
18.4.2 Thermal analysis of polyacrylonitrile fibers 303
18.5 Oxidative stabilization of polyacrylonitrile fibers 312
18.5.1 Effect of chemical composition 313
18.5.2 Effect of processing parameters 315
18.5.3 Study of the stabilization by Fourier-transform
infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) 317
References 321
Further reading 323
19. Thermal analysis of liquid crystalline polymers 325
Michael Jaffe, Anthony J. East and Xianhong Feng
19.1 Introduction 325
19.2 Chemical structure of liquid crystalline polymers 326
19.3 Process_structure_property relationships of liquid crystalline
polymer fibers 328
19.4 Thermal analysis of liquid crystalline polymer fibers 329
References 333
Further reading 334
20. Thermal analysis of temperature responsive fibrous materials 335
Danmei Sun, Kashif Iqbal and Muhammad Owais Raza Siddiqui
20.1 Introduction 335
20.2 Working principle of phase-change material 336
20.3 Types of phase-change material 337
20.3.1 Hydrated inorganic salt 338
20.3.2 Organic hydrocarbons 338
20.3.3 Polyethylene glycol 341
20.4 Phase-change material incorporated fibers and their thermal
management performance 342
20.5 Applications of phase-change material and its incorporated fibers 347
20.6 Conclusions and future research 350
References 350
Further reading 353
21. Thermal characterization of fire-protective fabrics 355
Sumit Mandal_, Sabyasachi Gaan, Martin Camenzind,
Simon Annaheim and Rene´ M. Rossi
21.1 Introduction 355
21.2 Measurement of fire-protective performance of fabrics 358
21.2.1 Determination of thermal stability of fibers or fabrics 358
21.2.2 Determination of thermal insulation capacity of fabrics 361
21.3 Evaluation of fire-protective performance of fabrics 368
21.3.1 Thermal stability 368
21.3.2 Thermal insulation capacity 374
21.4 Key issues related to the fire-protective performance of fabrics 383
21.5 Summary and conclusion 384
References 384
Acronyms and abbreviations 389
Index 393

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