Food Biotechnology PDF by S. C. Bhatia (Woodhead Publishing India)

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Food Biotechnology
By S. C. Bhatia
Food Biotechnology

Contents
Preface xi
Section I: General considerations 1
1. Food biotechnology: A review 3
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Biotechnology contributes to the social, economic, and environmental sustainability of agriculture 4
1.3 Branches of biotechnology 4
1.4 Benefits of biotechnology 8
1.5 Facts about biotechnology 9
1.6 Risks of biotech foods 11
1.7 Food biotechnology safety and regulations 16
1.8 Different techniques associated with food biotechnology 16 

2. Microorganisms associated with food 19
2.1 Introduction 19
2.2 Bacteria, yeast and molds 19
2.3 Primary sources of microorganisms commonly associated with food 21
2.4 Factors influencing microbial activity 23
2.5 Micro-organisms important in food industry 29
2.6 Importance of bacteria in the food industry 32
2.7 Importance of yeasts in foods 33

3. Fermentation biotechnology 37
3.1 Introduction 37
3.2 Types of fermentation 38
4. Genetically modified foods 59
4.1 Introduction 59
4.2 Advantages of GM foods 59
4.3 Criticisms against GM foods 61
4.4 Regulation of GM foods and role of government 64
4.5 Labelling of GM foods 66
4.6 Most common genetically modified foods 68
4.7 Pros and cons of genetically modified foods 69
Section II: Proteins and enzymes 73
5. Cross-linking of proteins 75
5.1 Introduction 75
5.2 Maillard Reaction 77
5.3 Cross-linking of proteins 82
5.4 Role of cross-linking enzymes in meat systems 86
6. Enzymes as biocatalysts 93
6.1 Introduction 93
6.2 Characteristics of enzymes 93
6.3 Enzyme catalysis 94
6.4 Enzyme inhibitors 98
6.5 Biocatalysis 99
7. Enzymes in food industry 105
7.1 Introduction 105
7.2 Production of food enzymes from microorganisms 105
7.3 Rennet 106
7.4 Lactases 109
7.5 Catalases 110
7.6 Lipases 112
7.7 Proteases 114
7.8 Amylases 115
Section III: Milk, dairy and bakery products 119
8. Dairy products 121
8.1 Introduction 121
8.2 Properties of milk 121
8.3 Fresh fluid milk 125
8.4 Condensed and dried milk 128
8.5 Butter 130
8.6 Ice cream manufacture 132
8.7 Cultured dairy foods 134
9. Designer milk 143
9.1 Introduction 143
9.2 Modification of milk composition by genetic technology 144
9.3 Designer milk and nutritional significance 144
9.4 Changes in the individual casein content of milk 146
9.5 Designer milk and technological aspects 147
10. Genetically modified cheese 153
10.1 Introduction 153
10.2 Genetic modification 153
10.3 Genetically modified cheeses 154
10.4 Modification in milk composition 154
11. Bakery and cereal products 161
11.1 Introduction 161
11.2 Bread formulation 161
11.3 Bread-making procedure 162
11.4 Functions of mixing 167
11.5 Types of mixers 167
11.6 Functions of molding and dividing 168
11.7 Functions of proving 168
11.8 Changes during mixing, fermentation and baking 168
11.9 Major bread-making processes 171
11.10 Packaging of bread 174
11.11 Variety of bread products 175
11.12 Bread spoilage and stalling 177
11.13 Bread staling 179
11.14 Fermentation of cereals 180
Section IV: Fruits and vegetables 187
12. Fruit and vegetable biotechnology 189
12.1 Introduction 189
12.2 Direct and indirect benefits of biotechnology 190
12.3 Consumer benefits 191
12.4 Strategies for commercialization 193
12.5 Biotechnology improves nutritional quality and 193
shelf-life of fruits and vegetables
12.6 Future prospects 201
13. Genetically modified fruits 203
13.1 Introduction 203
13.2 Apples 203
13.3 Citrus 205
13.4 Cherry 206
13.5 Guava 207
13.6 Apricots 208
13.7 Papaya 211
13.8 Eggplant 212
14. Genetically modified vegetables 215
14.1 Introduction 215
14.2 Tomatoes 215
14.3 Soyabeans 219
14.4 Corn 223
14.5 Carrot 225
14.6 Potatoes 227
Section V: Meat, fish and poultry products 231
15. Biotechnology of fermented meat 233
15.1 Introduction 233
15.2 Fermented meat 235
15.3 Raw material preparation 236
15.5 Fermented sausages 242
15.6 Finished product 257
16. Genetically engineered fish 265
16.1 Introduction 265
16.2 Fish feed biotechnology 265
16.3 Transgenic fish 266
16.4 Genetically engineered fish and seafood: Environmental 267
Concerns
16.5 Environmental concerns and control options 269
16.6 Interbreeding with wild fish 269
16.7 Competition with wild fish 270
16.8 Potential control options 270
16.9 Possible benefits and disadvantages of genetically 271
engineered fish and seafood
16.10 Future applications of biotechnology 272
17. Poultry industry 275
17.1 Introduction 275
17.2 Different varieties of poultry meat 276
17.3 Broilers for meat production 278
17.4 Laying hens for egg production 285
18. Impact of biotechnology on poultry nutrition 291
18.1 Introduction 291
18.2 Impact of biotechnology on poultry nutrition 291
18.3 Mechanisms of action 293
18.4 Criteria for selection of probiotics in the poultry industry 295
18.5 Evaluating probiotic effects on growth performance 297
18.6 Evaluating probiotic effects on the intestinal microbiota 297
and intestinal morphology
18.7 Evaluating probiotic effects on immune response 298
18.8 Evaluating probiotic effects on meat quality 298

Section VI: Beverages 301
19. Beverages 303
19.1 Introduction 303
19.2 Carbonated non-alcoholic beverages 303
19.3 Stimulating beverages 303
19.4 Alcoholic beverages 307
20. Biotechnology of brewer’s yeast 327
20.1 Introduction 327
20.2 Biotechnology of brewer’s yeast 327
20.3 Genetic constitution of brewer’s yeast 327
21. Genetically modified organisms in the wine industry 337
21.1 Introduction 337
21.2 Genetically modified grapewines 338
21.3 Genetically modified yeasts 340
21.4 Genetically modified wine bacteria 341

Section VII: Special topics 343
22. Carbon footprint of food 345
22.1 Introduction 345
22.2 Ecological footprint of the global food system 345
22.3 Eating less beef will reduce carbon footprint more than 348 cars
22.4 Shrink your food footprint 349
22.5 Food transportation issues and reducing carbon footprint 354
22.6 Carbon footprint ranking of food 361
23. Nanotechnology in agriculture and food industry 363
23.1 Introduction 363
23.2 Applications of nanotechnology 363
23.3 Biosensors to detect nutrients and contaminants 366
23.4 Smart delivery systems 368
23.5 Way forward: Policy options and actions 377 

24. Bioethics and biotechnology 379
24.1 Introduction 379
24.2 Goals of biotechnology 380
24.3 Ethical aspects of food and agricultural biotechnology 385
24.4 Variety of changes shaping bioethics today 388
Appendix: The case study of American carbon footprint 391
A1. American carbon foodprint at a glance 392
A2. Organic agriculture 394
References 401
Index 403

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