History of Plant Pathology PDF by S. G. Borkar

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History of Plant Pathology
By S. G. Borkar
History of Plant Pathology

Contents
Preface xv
1 Introduction 1
2 Plant pathology in ancient era 5
2.1 Status of plant pathology in ancient literature 7
3 Plant pathology in medieval era 13
3.1 In Europe 14
3.2 In central America 17
3.3 In the Arabia 17
3.4 In the far east 18
3.5 In India 23
3.5.1 Internal diseases and their symptoms 25
3.5.2 External factors leading to diseases of plants 26
3.5.3 Treatment of diseases of plants 27
3.5.4 Treatment of plant diseases caused due to internal factors 28
3.5.5 Treatment of plant diseases caused due to external factors 28
3.5.6 Treatment of some specifi c diseases 30
3.5.7 Prayer and mantra based treatment 32
3.5.8 Materials and practices in Vrikshyayurveda in medieval era 33

4 Plant pathology in premodern era 35
4.1 The development of the germ theory of disease in plants 37
4.1.1 Theory of spontaneous generation 37
4.1.2 Germ theory 37
4.2 Experimental proof of reproduction in fungi 37
4.3 Experimental proof on bunt of wheat is contagious 38
4.4 A period of classifi cation of plant diseases and speculation on their causes 39
4.5 Early development of mycology 41
4.6 Experimental proof that bunt of wheat is incited by a fungus and can be controlled by a fungicide 42

5 Plant pathology in modern era 45
5.1 In Europe 45
5.1.1 The Potato Disease and the Irish famine 45
5.1.2 The foundation of modern mycology and
acceptance of the concept that fungus can incite
disease in plants 46
5.1.3 The development of modern techniques 49
5.2 In America 50
5.3 In Australia 51
5.4 In Asia 55
5.4.1 Historical development of plant pathology in
Indian subcontinent 55
5.4.2 Fungal diseases 56
5.4.3 Bacterial diseases 56
5.4.4 Plant disease control 57
5.5 In Japan 57
5.5.1 Discovery of fl ower infection by loose smut of
barley 59
5.5.2 Discovery of insect transmission of rice
dwarf virus 60
5.5.3 Confi rmation of alternation of hosts in
Cronartium quercuum 60
5.5.4 Epiphytotic of false smut (Inakoji Byo) of rice
plant 61
5.5.5 Bakanae disease of rice plants 61
6 Plant pathology in present era 63
6.1 In Europe 63
6.1.1 Advancement in phytobacteriology 64
6.1.2 Bacteriophages 64
6.1.3 Advancement in plant virology 64
6.1.4 Classical discovery period
(1906 AD–1950 AD) 64
6.1.5 Early molecular era (1951 AD–1983 AD) 65
6.1.6 Recent period (1984 AD onwards) 66
6.2 In America 75
6.2.1 On fungal, viral and bacterial pathogen and
diseases 75
6.3 In South America 84
6.3.1 Genome sequencing in fungi 84
6.4 Devlopment of pathology in Australia 85
6.4.1 On wheat pathology 85
6.4.2 On fruit disease 87
6.4.3 On root disease 88
6.4.4 On virus diseases 89
6.4.5 On bacterial diseases 91
6.4.6 On nematode diseases 94
6.4.7 On plant quarantines 95
6.4.8 On phytoplasmal diseases 96
6.5 Development of plant pathology in Africa 96
6.5.1 On fungal diseases 97
6.5.2 On plant virus diseases 98
6.5.3 On genetics of host and pathogen in disease
resistance 100
6.5.4 On fungicides in plant disease control 102
6.6 In Asia: Development of plant pathology in India 103
6.6.1 Fungal pathology 103
6.6.2 On bacterial diseases 108
6.6.3 On viral diseases 113
6.6.4 On mycoplasma like organisms 115
6.6.5 On non-parasitic diseases 116
6.6.6 On plant disease control 117
6.6.7 On molecular and serological plant pathology 117
6.6.8 On marker assisted pyramiding of disease
resistance genes 118
6.6.9 On transgenics research 119
6.6.10 On plant quarantine 119
6.6.11 Extension of plant pathology in India 120
6.6.12 Contribution of well known
Indian pathologist 121
6.7 Development of plant pathology in Japan 126
6.7.1 Expansion stage (1913 AD–1926 AD) 126
6.7.2 Active stage (1927 AD onwards) 127
6.8 Development of plant pathology in the People’s
Republic of China (PRC) 128
6.8.1 Important fungal diseases dealt with 129
6.8.2 Important viral diseases dealt with 130
6.8.3 Fungi for food and medicinal puropse 130
6.8.4 Quarantines and planting material 130
6.9 Development of plant pathology in Sri Lanka 131
6.10 Important diseases and noteworthy work in Asia 132
6.10.1 Bacterial blight of rice 132
6.10.2 Rice blast fungus: genomics and beyond 133
6.10.3 Rice tungro 133
6.10.4 Citrus greening (huanglongbing) 134
6.10.5 Cotton leaf curl (CLCV) 134
7 Historical epidemics and important plant diseases
around the world and their impact on civilisation 137
7.1 Irish potato famine 137
7.1.1 Impact on society and government 139
7.2 Wheat rust epidemics 139
7.2.1 Impact on society and government 141
7.3 The great Bengal Famine (Brown Spot of Rice) 141
7.3.1 Politics of famine 141
7.3.2 Impact on society and government 143
7.4 Coffee rust 144
7.4.1 Impact on society and government 145
7.5 Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) 145
7.5.1 Impact on society and government 145
7.6 Chestnut blight 146
7.6.1 Impact on society and government 147
7.7 Dutch elm disease 147
7.7.1 Impact on society and government 148
7.8 Lethal yellowing of coconut palms 148
7.8.1 Impact on society and government 149
7.9 Oak wilts and sudden death 149
7.9.1 Impact on society and government 150
7.10 Karnal bunt of wheat and rye 150
7.10.1 Impact on society and government 152
7.11 Citrus canker 152
7.11.1 Impact on society and government 153
7.12 Butternut canker 153
7.12.1 Impact on society and government 154
7.13 Cypress canker 154
7.13.1 Impact on society and government 155
7.14 The xylella outbreak 155
7.14.1 Losses and impact 156
7.15 Panama wilt of banana 156
7.15.1 Geographical distribution 157
7.15.2 Impact on society and government 158
7.16 Southern corn leaf blight 158
7.16.1 Impact on society and government 159
7.17 Bacterial leaf blight of rice 159
7.17.1 Losses and economic impact 161
7.18 Downy mildew of grapes 161
7.18.1 Losses and economic impact 162
7.19 Apple scab 162
7.19.1 Impact on society and government 163
7.20 Soybean rust 163
7.20.1 Impact on society and government 164
7.21 Red rot of sugarcane 164
7.21.1 Impact on society and government 165
7.22 Rice tungro disease 165
7.22.1 Impact on society and government 166
7.23 Bacterial blight of tomato 166
7.23.1 Impact on society and government 167
7.24 Bacterial blight of pomegranate 167
7.24.1 Impact on society and government 168
7.25 Fire blight of apple and pear 168
7.25.1 Impact on society and government 169
8 Historical crop yield losses due to plant diseases 171
8.1. The major diseases which caused worldwide
yield loss (Tripathi, 2010 AD) 172
8.1.1 In the West (Europe and America) 172
8.1.2 In Georgia 173
8.1.3 Indian continent and far east 174
9 Plant pathological societies and their development 183
9.1 Pathological associations and related organizations 184
9.1.1 American Association of Pesticide Safety
Educators (AAPSE) 184
9.1.2 Association of American Pesticide Control
Offi cials (AAPCO) (USA) 185
9.1.3 Association Nationale de Protection des Plantes
(ANPP) 185
9.1.4 Biologische Bundesanstalt fur Land- und
Forstwirtschaft, (BBA) (Federal Biological Research
Centre for Agriculture and Forestry) (Berlin and
Braunschweig, Germany) 185
9.1.5 British Crop Protection Council (BCPC) 185
9.1.6 CAB International (CABI) 185
9.1.7 Consortium for International Crop Protection
(CICP) 186
9.1.8 European Foundation for Plant Pathology
(EFPP) 186
9.1.9 European and Mediterranean Plant Protection
Organisation (EPPO/OEPP) 186
9.1.10 Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) 186
9.1.11 International Association for the Plant Protection
Sciences (IAPPS) 187
9.1.12 International Organisation for Biological and
Integrated Control of noxious animals and plants
(IOBC) 187
9.1.13 West Palaeartic Regional Section 187
9.1.14 International Organisation for Mycoplasmology
(IOM) 187
9.1.15 The International Society for Molecular
Plant–Microbe Interactions (The ISMP-MI
(ISMPMInet)) 187
9.1.16 International Society for Plant Pathology
(ISPP) 188
9.1.17 International Society of Regulatory Toxicology
and Pharmacology (ISRTP)
(Belleview, Columbia, USA) 188
9.1.18 Mediterranean Phytopathological Union
(MPU) 188
9.1.19 New Jersey Pest Control Association
(NJPCA) 188
9.1.20 New Zealand Plant Protection Society
(Inc.) 188
9.1.21 North American Plant Protection Organisation
(NAPPO) 189
9.1.22 Plant Protection Society of Western Australia
(Victory Park, WA, Australia) 189
9.1.23 Welsh Pest Management Forum (WPMF) 189
9.1.24 American Crop Protection Association
(ACPA) 189
9.1.25 Arizona Crop Protection Association
(AZCPA) 189
9.1.26 Asia-Pacifi c Crop Protection Association
(APCPA) 190
9.1.27 Association of Natural Bio-Control Producers
(ANBP) 190
9.1.28 British Agrochemicals Association (BAA) 190
9.1.29 European Crop Protection Association (ECPA)
(Brussels, Belgium) 190
9.1.30 Global Crop Protection Federation
(GCPF) 190
9.1.31 Latin American Crop Protection Association
(LACPA) 191
9.1.32 Mid America Crop Protection Association
(MACPA) 191
9.1.33 National Pest Control Association (NPCA) 191
9.1.34 Southern Crop Production Association
(SCPA) 191
9.1.35 UIPP French Agrochemical Association 191
9.1.36 United Producers Formulators & Distributors
Association (UPF&DA)
(Duluth, Georgia, USA) 192
9.1.37 Western Crop Protection Association
(WCPA) 192
9.2 Phytopathological societies and their contributions 192
9.2.1 The American Phytopathological Society
(APS) 192
9.2.2 Indian phytopathological society 196
9.2.3 Indian society of mycology and plant
pathology 198
9.2.4 The Chinese Society for Plant Pathology
(CSPP) 198
9.2.5 The Bristish Society for Plant Pathology
(BSPP) 199
9.2.6 The Mediterranean Phytopathological Union
(MPU) 200
9.2.7 The Canadian Phytopathological Society
(CPS) 201
9.2.8 European Foundation for Plant Pathology
(EFPP) 201
9.2.9 Australasian Plant Pathology Society (APPS) 203
9.2.10 New Zealand Plant Protection Society (Inc.)
(NZPPS) 204
9.2.11 Phytopathological Society of Japan 205
Literature Referred 207

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