Industrial Energy Conservation, Volume I-II PDF by S C Bhatia, Puneet Mangla and Sarvesh Devraj

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Industrial Energy Conservation, Volume I-II
By S C Bhatia, Puneet Mangla and Sarvesh Devraj
Industrial Energy Conservation, Volume I-II

Contents

Volume I
Preface xv
Section I: General concepts and engineering considerations 1
1. Industrial energy conservation: A review 3
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Industrial sector energy efficiency 3
1.3 Energy consumption and energy related carbon dioxide emissions trends 5
1.4 Industrial energy efficiency 6
1.5 Causes of the energy crisis 10
1.6 Non-conventional renewable energy sources 12
1.7 Energy conservation 13
1.8 Need of energy conservation 15 

2. Energy efficiency technologies and benefits 21
2.1 Introduction 21
2.2 Benefits of increased energy efficiency 23
2.3 Importance of energy efficiency 25
2.4 Target sectors in energy efficiency 28
2.5 Energy efficiency actions 31
2.6 Barriers to implementation of energy efficiency measures 34
2.7 Combining renewables and energy efficiency to improve sustainability of energy development 38

3. Energy audit 41
3.1 Introduction 41
3.2 Types of energy audits 42
3.3 Steps for conducting energy audit 42
3.4 Data collection hints 46
3.5 Tips for energy audit 50
4. Efficient steam distribution system 53
4.1 Introduction 53
4.2 Energy conservation 54
4.3 Improving efficiency of steam systems 61
5. Energy efficiency in boilers 67
5.1 Introduction 67
5.2 Heating surfaces in a boiler 67
5.3 Classification of boilers 68
5.4 Performance evaluation of boilers 70
5.5 Boiler water treatment 71
5.6 Energy conservation opportunities in boilers 78
5.7 Improving boiler efficiency 83
5.8 Factors affecting boiler efficiency 88
5.9 Practical standard operating practices for
improving boiler efficiency 89
5.10 Case study Atul limited—Ankleshwar (Gujrat) 90
6. Industrial waste heat recovery 97
6.1 Introduction 97
6.2 Basic heat recovery 97
6.3 Process heating 99
6.4 Industrial process heat recovery 100
6.5 Heat recovery methods 102
6.6 Cost considerations 118
Section II: Energy conservation in electrical and
telecom industries 123
7. Energy conservation in electrical industries 125
7.1 Introduction 125
7.2 Energy conservation in electrical systems 125
7.3 Energy conservation techniques 126
7.4 Diesel generator (DG) 132
8. Energy efficiency technologies for thermal power plants 141
8.1 Introduction 141
8.2 Combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) 145
8.3 Mechanism of CCGT 146
8.4 Typical size and configuration of CCGT plants 149
8.5 Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) 151
8.6 Performance without CO2 capture 153
8.7 Major IGCC blocks and components 164
8.8 IGCC system issues 178
9. Energy efficient motors, compressors and
refrigeration systems 185
9.1 Introduction 185
9.2 Salient aspects of motor performance 185
9.3 Energy efficiency in fans 191
9.4 Energy efficiency in compressed air systems 197
9.5 Refrigeration systems 204
10. Energy conservation in telecom sector 213
10.1 Introduction 213
10.2 Importance of green and energy efficient
telecom equipments 213
10.3 Global initiatives in energy efficient technologies 214
10.4 Corporate social responsibility and community service 218
10.5 Telecom industry and green energy 218
10.6 Drivers for energy efficiency in telecommunications 220
10.7 Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks 226
Section III: Energy conservation in mechanical industries 229
11. Energy efficiency in machining and gears 231
11.1 Introduction 231
11.2 Optimised automation in machine operations 232
11.3 Cutting power analysis in machining operations 233
11.4 Concepts of energy efficiency in utilisation of
machine tools 234
11.5 Gear efficiency 236
11.6 Hydraulic presses 242
12. Energy conservation in forging industry 245
12.1 Introduction 245
12.2 Energy conservation in forging industry 245
12.3 Rational use of energy in induction heaters for
forging industry 250
Section IV: Energy conservation in cement, ceramic and
glass industries 259
13. Energy conservation in cement industry 261
13.1 Introduction 261
13.2 Major process equipments 261
13.3 Energy efficiency opportunities 263
13.4 Promotion of energy conservation techniques 266
13.5 Energy efficiency opportunities in individual
sections in a cement plant 269
13.6 Cogeneration of power utilising waste heat in
cement manufacture: technological perspectives 271
13.7 Technical consideration for cogeneration schemes 272
13.8 Availability of waste heat 274
13.9 Energy efficiency technologies and measures for the
U.S. cement industry 277
14. Energy conservation in ceramic industry 297
14.1 Introduction 297
14.2 Ceramic manufacturing process 297
14.3 Energy consumption in ceramic manufacturing 298
14.4 Energy conservation measures in ceramic cluster 302
14.5 Tips for energy saving in various operation of
ceramic industries 317
15. Energy conservation in glass industry 325
15.1 Introduction 325
15.2 Manufacture of glass 325
15.3 Energy consumption in glass industry 328
Section V: Energy conservation in metallurgical and
mining industries 343
16. Energy conservation in iron and steel industry 345
16.1 Introduction 345
16.2 Iron and steel making processes 345
16.3 Energy conservation technologies 350
17. Energy saving in aluminium, copper and nickel industries 365
17.1 Introduction 365
17.2 Energy efficiency improvement 365
17.3 Energy efficiency in copper - nickel mining process 370
17.4 Energy consumption of electric smelters 372
17.5 Case study: HINDALCO industries ltd. 374
18. Energy conservation in cupola furnaces 387
18.1 Introduction 387
18.2 Structure of cupola 388
18.3 Energy conservation of cupola 389
18.4 Improving the heat efficiency of a cupola 390
18.5 Waste heat recovery in the cupola foundry 392
18.6 Induction furnaces 396
18.7 Electric arc furnaces 398

Volume II
Section VI: Energy conservation in food and
agriculture industries 403
19. Energy conservation in agricultural sector 405
19.1 Introduction 405
19.2 Mitigation options 405
19.3 Inputs for agriculture sector analysis 407
19.4 Energy sources for irrigation: water pumping 408
19.5 Saving energy in irrigation 410
19.6 Energy conservation tips using irrigation pump sets 414
19.7 Rainwater harvesting 417
19.8 Rainwater harvesting in dry lands 418
20. Energy conservation in dairy industry 423
20.1 Introduction 423
20.2 Key products in dairy industry 427
20.3 Energy used in the dairy processing industry 436
20.4 Energy efficiency opportunities 436
20.5 Energy conservation measures in dairy industries 437
20.6 Steam systems 441
20.7 Combined heat and power (CHP) 448
20.8 Process specific efficiency measures (PSEM) 451
21. Energy conservation in bakery industry 457
21.1 Introduction 457
21.2 Energy efficiency improvement opportunities 458
21.3 Hot water and steam systems 458
21.4 Energy efficiency opportunities for bakeries 464
21.5 Basic water efficiency measures 476
Section VII: Energy conservation in chemical process industries 479
22. Energy conservation in chemical process
industries: A review 481
22.1 Introduction 481
22.2 Life cycle 482
22.3 Energy cost 483
22.4 Cogeneration system 483
22.5 Energy conservation in chemical industry–an analysis 485
23. Energy conservation in petroleum refineries 489
23.1 Introduction 489
23.2 Refinery energy requirements and CO2 emissions 491
23.3 Refinery energy efficiency opportunities 493
23.4 Short-medium term opportunities for energy efficiency
improvement in refineries 498
23.5 Drivers and barriers to energy efficiency improvement 520
24. Energy conservation in petrochemicals industry 525
24.1 Introduction 525
24.2 Process specific energy efficiency measures 526
24.3 Distillation 532
24.4 Evaporator energy efficiency 535
24.5 Energy conservation using membrane separation
technology 539
25. Energy conservation in fertiliser industry 549
25.1 Introduction 549
25.2 Energy conservation in corn nitrogen fertilisation 551
25.3 Energy analysis of evaporator system in fertiliser
production 552
25.4 Categories for energy efficiency improvement 561
25.5 Case study: IFFCO plant – Paradeep (Orissa) 566
26. Energy conservation in chlor-alkali industries 577
26.1 Introduction 577
26.2 Manufacturing process 577
26.3 Energy consumption in chlor-alkali 583
Section VIII: Energy conservation in other important industries 593
27. Energy conservation in pulp and paper industry 595
27.1 Introduction 595
27.2 Energy consumption and end uses 597
27.3 Major factors affecting energy consumption
in paper mills 598
27.4 Energy conservation in paper industry 603
27.5 Drying 606
27.6 Steam systems 607
27.7 Motor systems 608
27.8 Pumps 610
27.9 Fan systems 613
27.10 Compressed air systems 615
27.11 Energy management programmes and systems 618
27.12 Energy management guidelines in pulp and
paper production 619
28. Energy conservation in sugar industry 629
28.1 Introduction 629
28.2 Power saving 632
28.3 Bagasse as a source of furfural in the sugarcane industry 632
28.4 Steam drying of bagasse 634
28.5 Basic system for steam drying 635
28.6 Bioenergy role and potential of the sugar industry 649
28.7 Barriers to good energy management practices 652
28.8 Cogeneration of bagasse 655
29. Energy conservation in plastic industry 659
29.1 Introduction 659
29.2 Energy conservation in injection molding 660
29.3 Energy conservation in extrusion molding 663
29.4 Energy conservation in blow molding 665
29.5 Energy conservation in rotational molding 669
29.6 Energy conservation in thermoforming 672
29.7 Energy conservation in composites molding 674
29.8 Energy conservation in compression molding 675
29.9 Energy consumed in utilities and peripherals 677
30. Energy conservation in rubber industry 679
30.1 Introduction 679
30.2 Energy saving in rubber industry 680
30.3 Importance of steam in mixers and mills 682
30.4 High pressure hot water in tyre manufacturing 690
30.5 Cooling systems in mixing milling 690
30.6 Chilled water in rubber processing 693
30.7 Hydraulic systems in rubber processing 694
30.8 Compressed air in rubber processing 695
30.9 Ventilation systems in rubber processing 698
30.10 Role of insulation in rubber processing 700
30.11 Motors and drives in compounding and extrusion
equipments 700
30.12 Lighting in rubber processing industry 701
30.13 Heating in curing and mixing rubber 703
31. Energy conservation in leather and tannery industry 705
31.1 Introduction 705
31.2 Leather manufacturing process 705
31.3 Material handling in tanneries 708
31.4 Energy recovery from tanneries by biogas production 709
31.5 Energy generated by anaerobic digestion 714
31.6 Energy recovery from wastes 715
31.7 Energy efficiency 717
31.8 Solar thermal energy in tanneries 718
31.9 Case study: Punjab tanneries 719
32. Energy conservation in textile industry 725
32.1 Introduction 725
32.2 Types of textile sectors 725
32.3 Energy consumption in textile industry 726
32.4 Waste heat recovery in textile industries 727
32.5 Cost effectiveness in textile processing 735
32.6 Cogeneration process 743
33. Energy conservation in pharmaceutical industry 747
33.1 Introduction 747
33.2 Optimising the energy efficiency in manufacturing processes 747
33.3 Energy conservation in pharmaceutical manufacturing 749
33.4 Opportunities for energy efficiency 749
33.5 Water and energy conservation in the pharmaceutical industry 759
33.6 Clean steam in the pharmaceutical industry 762

34. Energy efficient cooling towers 769
34.1 Introduction 769
34.2 Design specifications of cooling towers 773
34.3 Types of cooling towers 774
34.4 System calculations of water in cooling tower 776
34.5 Controlling of cooling tower return temperature and energy saving 776
34.6 Best management practice: Cooling tower management 778
34.7 Energy conservation tips for cooling tower 782
34.8 Pump energy-efficiency for industrial cooling systems 783

35. Energy efficient industrial pumps and V-belts 787
35.1 Introduction 787
35.2 Methodology adopted for performance evaluation of pumping system 787
35.3 Parametric approach to energy conservation in pumping 792
35.4 Tips to save energy on pumping systems 793
35.5 Energy conservation in V-belts and pipe belt conveyors 795

36. Role of nanotechnology in energy conservation 803
36.1 Introduction 803
36.2 Energy sources 803
36.3 Energy conversion 804
36.4 Energy distribution 804
36.5 Energy storage 805
36.6 Energy usage 805
36.7 Nanotechnology helps solve the world’s
energy problems 806
36.8 Application of nanotechnology to energy production 810
References 817
Index 819

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